冠词是一种虚词,放在名词的前面,帮助说明名词的含义。冠词分不定冠词(The Indefinite Article)和定冠词(The definite Article)两种。a (an) 是不定冠词,a用在辅音之前:如a book, a man; an用在元音之前,如:an old man, an hour, an interesting book等。the是定冠词。

一、不定冠词的用法

1、指人或事物的某一种类(泛指)。这是不定冠词a (an)的基本用法。如:She is a girl. I am a teacher. Please pass me an apple.

2、指某人或某物,但不具体说明何人或何物。如:He borrowed a story-book from the library.
A Wang is looking for you. 一位姓王的同志正在找你。

3、表示数量,有“一”的意思,但数的概念没有one强烈。如:
I have a mouth, a nose and two eyes.

4、用于某些固定词组中。如:a bit, a few, a little, a lot of, a piece of, a cup of, a glass of, a pile of, a pair of, have a good time, for a while, for a long time等。

5、用在抽象名词前,表具体的介绍——a + 抽象名词,起具体化的作用。如:
This little girl is a joy to her parents. 这女孩对她父母来说是一个乐趣。
It is a pleasure to talk with you. 跟您交谈真是一件愉快的事情。
It is an honour to me to attend the meeting. 参加这个会,对我来说是一种荣誉。

二、定冠词的用法:

1、特指某(些)人或某(些)事物。这是定冠词the的基本用法。如:
Beijing is the capital of China.
The pen on the desk is mine.

2、指谈话双方都知道的人或事物。如:
Where is the teacher?
Open the window, please.

3、指上文提过的人或事物(第二次出现)。如:
There was a chair by the window. On the chair sat a young woman with a baby in her arms.
The baby was thin.

4、用在世界上独一无二的事物前。如:the earth, the moon, the sun。

5、用在序数词和形容词最高级前。(副词最高级前的定冠词可省略)如:
He is always the first to come to school.
Bob is the tallest in his class.

6、用在某些专有名词前(由普通名词构成的专用名词)。如:the Great Wall, the Summer Palace, the Science Museum, the Children’s Palace, the Party等。

7、用在一些习惯用语中。如:on the day, in the morning (afternoon, evening), the day after tomorrow, the day before yesterday, the next year, by the way等。

8、用在江河湖海、山脉前。如:the Yellow River, the Pacific Ocean, the Alps, the Himalayas

9、用在报刊、杂志前。如:the People’s Daily, the Evening Paper, the Times 泰晤士报

10、表示某一家人要加定冠词。如:
The Browns are at home to receive visitors today. 布朗一家今天要接待客人。

11、用在形容词前,表某一类人。如:the poor, the wounded, the living, the dead, the rich, the sick等。

12、定冠词可以表示一事物内部的某处。如:
The driver always sits in the front of the bus(car).

三、零冠词(即不用冠词):

1、专用名词和不可数名词前。如:China, America, Grade One, Class Two, milk, oil, water, paper, science等。

2、名词前已有作定语用的this, that, my, your, some, any等代词。如:
Go down this street.

3、复数名词表示一类人或事物时。如:
We are students. I like reading stories.

4、节日、日期、月份、季节前。如:Teachers’ Day, Children’s Day, National Day, in summer, in July等。
Today is New Year’s Day. It is Sunday. March 8 is Women’s Day.

5、在称呼语或表示头衔的名词前,尤其作表语、宾补时。如:
What’s the matter, Granny? We elected him monitor.

6、在某些习惯用语中的名词前。如:at noon, at night, at first, at last, at most, at least, by bus(train, air, sea), in bed, in time, in front of, go to school, go to bed, go to college, on foot, at table, in ink, in pencil等。

7、在三餐饭和球类运动前。如:
She goes to school after breakfast every morning.
We are going to play football.
We usually have lunch at school.

8、科目前不加。如:
We learn Chinese, maths, English and some other subjects.