名词:

(一)名词变复数

1.规则名词复数形式:
在单数名词后加“s”  day → days        week → weeks

2.在以 o, s, x, ch, sh 结尾的名词后加“es”。
hero → heroes       box → boxes        class → classes
bush → bushes       watch → watches

3.黄金重点:
I.有些以o结尾的外来词或缩略词的复数形式只加“s”。
II.以元音字母加o结尾的单词只加“s”。(不认识的单词,请你查词典,懒惰是学英语的唯一大忌。)
piano,photo,zero,radio,bamboo,tobacco,solocuckoodynamocameosoprano教你一招  ☆  
如果以O结尾的名词有生命力,则该词汇一般加-es。
hero,tomato,potato,Negro(黑人)[ 简记:黑人英雄吃西红柿马铃薯]

4.以辅音加y结尾的名词变y为i再加“es”
family → families       city → cities

5.y前面是元音字母只加“s”
key → keys     boy → boys     play → plays     toy → toys

6.以f、fe结尾的名词,变 f / fe为 v加 es。
calf → calves        knife → knives

۩ 当心当心:
I.下列名词直接加“s”。(请大声朗读三遍,然后背下。注意读音!)
roof(房顶),reef(暗礁),chief(首领),cliff(悬崖),grief(悲痛),turf(草皮), belief(信仰),gulf(港湾),dwarf(侏儒),safe(保险箱),sheriff(长官),tariff(关税)
II.scarf(头巾),wharf(码头),staff(全体职员),handkerchief(手帕)和 hoof(蹄)既可直接加“s”,又可变 f为 v加 es.

(二)不规则名词复数形式

1. foot → feet  mouse → mice  goose → geese  child → children  ox → oxen  louse → lice  woman → women  man → men

2.单复数同形:
sheep,  deer,  fish,  means,  Chinese,  Japanese,  Swiss,  works,
barracks(兵营) bellows(风箱) kennels(狗窝)

3.一些英语外来词的复数形式:
crisis→crises 危机
analysis→analyses 分析
oasis→oases 绿洲
parenthesis→parentheses 括号
axis→axes 轴心
ellipsis→ellipses 日蚀
hypothesis→hypotheses 假定
synopsis→synopses 内容提要
erratum→errata 勘误误表
addendum→addenda 补遗、附录
medium→media 媒体
(以上单词熟悉即可)

(三)复合名词复数形式

1.中间没有连字符的合成名词在词尾变复数:
bookshelf→bookshelves    handful→handfuls

2.man和 woman构成的复合名词,二者均变为复数。
man servant → men servants
woman teache r→ women teachers

3.中间有连字符的合成次,在主体词(中心意义的词)末尾变复数:
sister-in-law → sisters-in-law
looker-on → lookers-on
editor-in-chief→editors-in-chief

4.下列合成名词在后一个词上变化:
sit-in→sit-ins,    grown-up→grown-ups
stand-by→stand-bys    touch-me-not→touch-me-nots
go-between→go-betweens

(四)名词所有格

1.在大多数名词末加“'s”
the boy's toy, men's work

2.以 s结尾的复数名词直接加“'”
the students' reading room

3.以 s结尾的单数名词加“'”
Dickens' novels    the actress' performance

4.合成名词在最后一个词上加“s”
her brother-in-law's piano.
Somebody else's books. (重要!)
【金牌重点除用于有生命的人外,“'s”格还可用于度量衡、地域、天体及一些习语中:
an hour's drive,    a mile's journey
ten pounds' weight,    Beijing's weather
the earth's surface
a stone's throw 投石之距离
at one's wits end 智穷计尽
to one's heart's content 尽情地
by a hair's breadth 千钧一发
at a snail's pace 缓慢地

5.双重所有格:
如果被修饰的名词前有不定冠词、不定代词、指示代词、疑问代词修饰。则要采用双重所有格。
a friend of mine  (名词性物主代词)
a child of hers
the love poems of your sister's
注意区别:
● a portrait of her mother 她母亲的画像(画中人)
● a portrait of her mother's 她母亲拥有的画像中的一幅(不一定是她母亲的画像)

测试精编

1. Julie went to the ________ to buy a pair of shoes.
A. shoes store     B. shoe's store     C. shoe store     D. shoes' store

2. As a safety precaution, all city cab drivers carry only enough money to make change for a ________ bill.
A. ten-dollar                        B. ten-dollars
C. tens-dollar                       D. ten-dollar's

3. Recently, he has lost all his ________ at cards.
A. wage and saving                  B. wages and saving
C. wage and savings                 D. wages and savings

4. I want ________ .
A. a dollar worth candy               B. candy a dollar's worth
C. a dollar's worth of candy            D. a dollar worth's candy

5.The surroundings a child grows up in usually ________ an effect on his development.
A. have       B. had       C. do       D. has

(后设答案,大家不要偷看哦~(*^__^*) 嘻嘻……)

KEYS

1. C    2.A     3.D     4. C    5.A