that: I think that you can pass the exam.
Whether/if: I don t know what the word means.
“Wh”: I don t know what the word means.
I don t know where he found the book.
1. 与or not连用
I don t know whether it s raining or not.
He doesn t know whether to accept the invitation.
It depends on whether he is coming.
She wants to know what he has done for the exam.
1)She said that she was a student.
2)She said that she would fly to Japan in a week.
3)She said that she had finished her homework already.
The teacher said that the earth goes round the sun.
先行词指人 who /that，先行词指物 which/ that
四、翻译方法 “…. 的”
Whom: 先行词指人，则代替先行词在定语从句中充当宾语(包括介词的宾语), 与who的区别是如果前面带介词则必须用whom
1. This is the teacher whomwho we like best.
2. I don t like the boy to whom you are talking.
Whose : 指人或物，作定语，表示 “…的”
eg: Harry is the boy whose mother is our math teacher.
关系代词只能 that 的特殊情况
This is the first gift that my parents bought me.
This is the most exciting film that I have ever seen.
3. 先行词是不定代词something, anything等时.
e.g. Is there anything that you want in this shop
4. 先行词是人和物时, 用that.
e.g. He talked about some writers and books that were unknown to us all.
5. 先行词被all , little , the only , the very(就是，正是), the last 等词修饰时,只能用that
e.g. This is the last place that I want to visit.
6. 特殊疑问句以who 或which 开头，只能用that引导。
Who is the girl that is making a speech on the platform?
物+介词+which ; 人+ 介词 + whom
1. This is the train by which we went to Beijing.
2. This is the teacher to whom my mother is talking.
When ---当……时候, 通常指某一特定的时间点，主句与从句的动作同时发生。
When I opened the window, I saw him come up.
When --- 正在……的时候，突然…。
通常主句是进行时或 be about to 时，在翻译的时候，when 可以译成没想到或突然。
I was walking along the street , when I met him.
Someone knocked at the door when I was having breakfast.
When the children had gone to bed, she began to prepare her lessons.
While we were inAmerica, we saw him twice.
We are cleaning the classroom while they are playing the football.
As --- 一边……一边, 随着
She was doing her homework as she was listening to the music.
As --- 当……时，指一个动作紧接着一个动作发生，从句通常用进行时。
As I was going out, it began to rain.
The moment --- 一……就…… =as soon as , immediately,
---Did you remember to give Mary the money you owed her?
---Yes, I gave her the moment I saw her.
Not… until --- 直到……才
He didn t leave the office until he finished the work.
Before --- 在……之前
The passengers should arrive at the airport an hour before the flight departs.
After --- 在…… 之后
The customer left the ticket counter after he had a quarrel with the ticket agent.
Since ---自从……, 通常主句用现在完成时
I have never been there again since I graduated from the university.
It is just a week since we arrived here.
As soon as --- 一……就……
Jack went to school as soon as he got well.
No sooner than --- 一……就……
no sooner… than… 用于句首要求倒装
No sooner had he arrived than he went away again.
Once --- 一但……就……
Once you see him, you will never forget him.
Every time, each time 每次whenever 每当
Each time he came to town, he would visit our school.
If如果, unless除非, as long as只要, As (so) far as --- 据……所知，in case万一, provided that假如, on condition that若是，以…为条件
If you don t hurry up, you will miss the plane.
Unless --- 如果不, 除非=if not
We can t get there on time unless we book the earliest flight
As long as --- 只要
We will succeed as long as we keep on trying.
As (so) far as --- 据……所知
As far as I know, he speaks English very well.
In case --- 假使, 如果
The plane cannot take off in case it rains.
Provided that 如果,有时省略 that
The plane will be in good condition provided that it is taken care of carefully.
On condition that --- 条件是…
He said that he would come to the meeting on condition that no one asked him to speak.
If he arrives tomorrow, I will be waiting for him at the airport.
地点状语从句只有两个连词: Where, wherever
Where --- 在……地方
Where there is a will, there is a way.
Wherever --- 无论哪里
Wherever you are, I will be right there waiting for you.
because, as, since, now that, 和considering that, seeing that 这六个连词都用于表示表示原因, 但在语气上一个比一个弱.
Because --- 因为,通常从句放在主句后.
Mr Smith was very upset because he couldn t find his luggage.
As --- 因为, 通常放在句首
As he is honest and modest, all his friends like him.
Since ---既然 因语气较弱, 常译为既然(众所周知的原因)
Since everybody has come, we can set off.
Now that --- 既然
Now that you are here, you can join us.
considering that --- 顾及到
Considering that they are just beginners, they are doing quite a good job.
seeing that --- 由于
Seeing (that) quite a few people were absent, we decided to put the meeting off.
引导结果状语从句的连词有：that, so that, so…that…
such…that So… that --- 太……以至于 so 后面应用形容词或副词, 有时省略so只用that
Boeing 747 is so large that people like to call it jet bomb喷气炸弹.
So that --- 因而，以便，为了 有时so 可以省去
Speak louder please so that the people at the back can hear you.
---太……以至于 用法与so…that相同，但such 后面应用名词。
The foreign visitor was such a fast speaker that nobody could understand him.
引导目的状语从句的主要连词有: that, so that, in
order that, for fear that, lest
(So) that --- 以便, 从句中常常使用一些情态动词，
can, could, may, might, should等
Let s take the front seats (so) that we may see more clearly.
in order that --- 为了, 与so that 相同从句中常常使用一些情态动词，
can, could, may, might, should等
School was closed early in order that the children might go home ahead of the storm.
for fear that --- 生怕; 为了防止(某事发生)
He took the name down for fear that he should forget it.
in case --- 万一
You should bring a dictionary in case you need it.
Lest --- 以防万一
The man decided to tell his boss the fact lest he
would be angry with him.
引导让步状语从句的连词有：Although, though, as, even if, even though, no matter, however, whatever, while, whether.
Although, though ---虽然 although 和though 可以互换，但although 常放在句首。Though可以用于倒装。
Although it was raining, the plane managed to take off.
Though he did his best, he didn t succeed.
As --- 尽管 as 引导让步状语从句时，句子通常倒装。可与though 互换。
Busy as he is, he never misses a football match.
Even if /even though ---即使
Even if you don t like your boss, you should do your work.
However --- 不论， however 引导让步状语从句时，句子通常倒装
He couldn t get there on time however fast he drove.
No matter (what, when, where, how) ---无论(什么，何时，何地，怎样)
He wouldn’t forgive me no matter how hard I begged him.
Whatever --- 不管
Whatever other people may say, she won t change her mind.
While I have sympathy for you, I can t help you.
Whether ---不管，常与or not 连用
Whether he is good or not, the company decided to send him abroad.
方式状语从句常由: as, as if, as though
as ---与…… 一样
Do in Rome as the Romans do.
as if, as though --- 仿佛, 由as if或 as though引导的从句中可用虚拟语气
She stood at the door as if (=as though) she were waiting for someone.