英语四级考试的过程中,定语从句在听力、阅读和翻译中经常出现,是需要重点把握的语法点之一。下面是小编给大家分享的相关内容,大家可以作为了解。

一、定语从句的种类

定语从句的种类有两种:一种是限定性定语从句(Restrictive Attributive Clause);另一种是非限制性定语从句(Non-Restrictive Attributive Clause)。

1)、限定性定语从句使修饰的词,代表一个、一些或一类特定的人或物。这种定语从句和被修饰的词构成了一个完整的意思,定语从句不能随便去掉,否则剩下的部分就会失去意义、意思不完整、不能说明问题、甚至会显得莫名其妙,不知所云而不能成立。主句和从句一般翻译成一句话。

例如:想去的人请在这里签名。

(如果去掉定语从句,该句的意思便不清楚了。) 你可以拿任何你喜欢的东西。

2)、非限制性定语从句是对所修饰的词作进一步说明,去掉之后,其他部分意思仍然清楚,非限制性定语从句需要用逗号与主句隔开。主句和从句一般翻译成两句话。例如: 那是很重要的(考试)。

在把握定语从句的时候大家要注意以下几点:

1. 定语从句的作用主要是用来修饰先行词;

2. 定语从句和主句之间需要有关系词来进行连接;

3. 关系词在从句中代替先行词,并且充当一定的成分。根据关系词在从句中成分的不同,关系词是有所不同的。

二、常见关系代词

关系副词why主要用于修饰表示原因的名词(主要是the reason),同时它在定语从句中用作原因状语。如:

We don’t know the reason why he didn’t show up. 我们不知道他为什么没有来。

关系副词when主要用于修饰表示时间的名词,同时它在定语从句中用作时间状语。如:

There comes a time when you have to make a choice. 你必须作出抉择的时候到了。

关系副词where主要用于修饰表示地点的名词,同时它在定语从句中用作地点状语。

如:This is the village where he was born. 这就是他出生的村子。

关系代词: whom”作宾语指人,"who"和“that”既可作主语又可作宾语(作主语不可以省略),可以指人也可以指物。在从句中所起作用如下: 定语从句

(1)Is he the man who/that wants to see you? 他是那个想见你的男人吗?(who/that在从句中作主语)

(2)He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday. 他就是我昨天见的那个人。(whom/that在从句中作宾语)

which that用来指物

非限制性定语从句

非限制性定语从句起补充说明作用,缺少也不会影响全句的理解。在非限制性定语从句的前面往往有逗号隔开,如The house,which I bought last year,has a lovely garden. 我去年买的的房子带着个漂亮的花园。

as, which 非限定性定语从句

as 和which在引导非限制性定语从句时,这两个关系代词都指主句所表达的整个意思,且在定语从句中都可以作主语和宾语。但不同之处主要有两点:

(1) as 引导的定语从句可置于句首,而which不可。

(2) as 代表前面的整个主句并在从句中作主语时,从句中的谓语必须是系动词;若为行为动词,则从句中的关系代词只能用which.。

在本题中,prevent由于是行为动词,所以正确选项应为B。

As 的用法

例1. the same… as;such…as 中的as 是一种固定结构, 和……一样……。

I have got into the same trouble as he (has).

例2. as可引导非限制性从句,常带有'正如'。

As we know, smoking is harmful to one's health.

As is know, smoking is harmful to one's health.

As是关系代词。例1中的as作know的宾语;例2中,它充当从句的主语,谓语动词know要用被动式。

三、难点分析

(一)限制性定语从句只能用that 的几种情况

1.当先行词是anything, everything, nothing (something 除外), few, all, none, little, some 等代词时,或者是由every, any, all, some, no, little, few, much 等修饰时

(1) Have you taken down everything that Mr. Li has said?

(2) There seems to be nothing that seems impossible for him in the world.

(3) All that can be done has been done.

(4) There is little that I can do for you.

注意:当先行词指人时,偶尔也可以用who

(4) Any man that/.who has a sense of duty won't do such a thing.

2. 当先行词被序数词修饰

(1) The first place that they visited in London was the Big Ben.

3. 当先行词被形容词高级修饰时

(1) This is the best film that I have seen.

4. 当形容词被the very, the only修饰时

(1) This is the very dictionary that I want to buy,

(2) After the fire in his house, the old car is the only thing that he owned.

(3) Wang Hua is the only person in our school who will attend the meeting

5. 当先行词前面有who, which等疑问代词时

(1) Who is the man that is standing there?

(2) Which is the T-shirt that fits me most?

6. 当先行词既有人,也有动物或者物体时

(1) Can you remember the scientist and his theory that we have learned?

四、定语从句练习:

1、It was in that house he used to live the secret meeting was held.

A.where;where B.that;that C.what;where D.where;that

2、The foreign guests, were scientists, were warmly welcomed at the airport.

A.most of them B.most of whom C.most of that D.most of those

3、That’s not the book you can find the exact answer.

A.which B.that C.when D.where

4、The building over there is a library, is a department store.

A.where B.west of which

C.to the west of it D.in the west of that

5、He was the very one of the students who praised at the class meeting.

A.was B.were C.is D.are

1、D 2、B 3、D 4、B 5、A

6、We should learn from those are ready to help others.

A.who B.whom C.whose D.they

7、I have two brothers, are doctors.

A.both of them B.both of who C.both of whom D.both of they

8、 everybody knows, China has the largest population in the world.

A.Which B.That C.As D.The thing

9、Everything can be done should be done.

A.which B.that C.all D.that

10、This is the house you saw the other day.

A.that B.where C.in which D.in that

6、A 7、C 8、C 9、B10、A

以上就是英语四级语法知识,希望可以给大家在备考的过程中带来帮助。