让步状语从句,是指状语从句中的一种。一般翻译为“尽管……”或“即使……”,就是我们日常生活中用的“退一步说…”的感觉。其引导词有as,although等等。

连词:

引导让步状语从句的连词主要有以下这些:though,although,while,as;even if,even though;whether...or...;no matter+疑问词,疑问词+ever,regardless of+名词/名词短语/名词从句,despite,in spite of。切记although,though 不可与but连用,但可以与still和yet连用。

用法:

⑴though, although

表示“虽然,纵然”之意

这两个连词意思大致相同,在一般情况下可以互换使用。在口语中,though较常使用,although比though正式,二者都可与yet,still或nevertheless连用,但不能与but连用。例如:

Though I believe it, yet I must consider.  尽管我相信这一点,但我还得考虑考虑。

Although/Though he was exhausted, he(still) kept on working.  虽然他已经精疲力竭了,但他仍然继续工作。

Although/Though he is very old, (yet) he is quite strong.  他虽然年纪大了,身体还很健壮。

值得注意的是,although引导的让步状语从句位于主句之前的情况较多,though引导的让步状语从句可位于主句之前或主句之后。例如:

She passed the examination though she had not studied very hard.  她虽然不用功学习,考试却及格了。

⑵as(though)

表示“虽然…但是”,“纵使…”之意

as引导的让步状语从句必须以部分倒装的形式出现,被倒装的部分可以是表语、状语或动词原形,though也可用于这样的结构中,但although不可以这样用。例如:

Object as/though you may, I’ll go.(=Though/Although you may object, I’ll go.)  纵使你反对,我也要去。

Hard as/ though he works, he makes little progress. (=Though he works hard, he makes little progress.)尽管他学习很努力,但几乎没取得什么进步。

Child as/though he was, he knew what was the right thing to do.(=Though he was a child, he knew what was the right thing to do.)虽然他是一个孩子,但他知道该做什么。

Fast as you read, you can’t finish the book so soon.纵然你读得快,你也不能这么快读完这本书。

Lover of towns as I am, I realize that I owe a debt to my early country life.  尽管我爱城市,但我知道,以往的乡村生活使我受益匪浅。

Small as atome are, they are made up of still smaller units.  尽管原子很小,但它们由更小的单位构成。

(3) whether

由这一个复合连词引导的让步状语从句旨在说明正反两方面的可能性都不会影响主句的意向或结果,所以它的语气是比较强烈的,从而也更加坚定了主句的内容。例如:

You'll have to attend the ceremony whether you're free or busy.不管你忙不忙,都要参加这个典礼。

Whether you believe it or not, it's true.无论你是否相信,这都是真的。

Whether or not they win this battle, they won't win the war.不管他们是否能赢得这次战役,他们绝不会赢得这场战争。

(4)“no matter+疑问词=疑问词+ever

含义为“……都……;不管……都……”

它们引导的让步状语从句可以互换。例如:

No matter what happened, he would not mind. (=Whatever happened, he would not mind.)无论发生了什么事情,他都不会介意的。

No matter who you are, you must keep the law.(=Whoever you are, you must keep the law.)不管你是谁,你都需要遵纪守法。

When anyone does something for you, no matter how small and no matter whether he's a superior or servant, it's proper to say“Thank you”.只要任何人替你做了一件事,不管事情多么微不足道,也不管他是你的上司还是你的仆人,你都应该说声“谢谢”。

但“no matter+疑问词”结构只能引导让步状语从句,而“疑问词-ever”还可以引导名词性从句。例如:

Whatever (=No matter what) you say,I won’t believe you. (Whatever 引导让步状语句)无论你说什么,我都不会相信你。

I'll eat whatever (≠no matter what) you give me. (whatever引导宾语从句)你给我吃什么,我就吃什么。

Whoever comes will be welcome. (Whoever 引导主语从句)不管谁来都受到欢迎。

此外,有时while也可以引导让步状语从句,但一般要位于句首。例如:

While I like the colour,I don't like the shape.我虽然喜欢那颜色,但不喜欢那形状。

综上所述,我们可以看出,学习让步状语从句的关键是关联词的选用;其次,要注意的是由as引导的让步状语从句要用倒装语序。

(5)whether...or...

表示“不论是否……”,“不管是……还是……”之意。

But whether it's a friendly rivalry or a fight to the death,the end result is the same.但不管是友好竞争还是生死决斗,结果总是相同。

总论与注意事项

让步状语从句表示:虽然,尽管,即使等概念,由although, though(尽管,即使),however(无论怎样),whatever(无论什么),whoever(无论谁),whomever(无论谁),whichever(无论哪个),whenever(无论何时),wherever(无论哪里),whether(是否),no matter (who,what,where,when,etc) (无论……),even if(即使),even though(即使)等词引导。

如:We won’t be discouraged even if (=even though) we fail ten times.我们就是失败十次也不泄气。

It was an exciting game, though/although no goals were scored.那是一场精彩的球赛,尽管一个球都没进。(though, although不能与but连用)

Whether you believe it or not,it’s true.不管你信不信,这是真的。

However (=No matter how) expensive it may be,I’ll take it.无论它有多贵,我也要买下它。

Don’t let them in, whoever(=no matter who) they are.不管他们是谁,别让他们进来。

No matter what I say or how I say it,he always thinks I’m wrong.无论我说什么或怎么说,他总认为是我错。

even if 与even though 的区别:

1.even if 与even though 的区别 两者均可用于引导让步状语从句,其细微区别是:

1. even if 引导的从句是往往是假设性的,相当于汉语的“即使”“纵然”“就算”“哪怕”。如:

They’ll stand by you even if you don’t succeed.即使你不成功,他们也会支持你。

Even if I have to walk all the way I’ll get there.即使我得一路走着去,我也要走到那里。

Even if it rains tomorrow,we won’t change our plan.即使明天下雨,我们也决不改变计划。

For my part, I plan to go to the party even if you decide not to go.至于我,即使你决定不去参加晚会我也会去的。

Even if you saw him pick up the money,you can’t be sure he stole it.就算你看见是他拾起的钱,你也不能肯定钱就是他偷的。

正因为even if从句的内容通常是假设性的,所以有时还可用于虚拟语气;这样用的even if 与单独使用的if比较接近。如:

Even if he had the money, he wouldn’t buy it.他即使有钱也不会买它。

I would have married her even if she had been penniless.即使她身无分文,我也会和她结婚。

2.even though 引导的从句内容往往是真实的,主要用于引出不利于主句情况的信息,相当于汉语的“尽管”“虽然”。如:

He went out even though it was raining.尽管在下雨,他还是出去了。

Even though it’s hard work, I enjoy it.虽然工作艰苦,我还是很喜欢。

He’s the best teacher even though he has the least experience.他尽管经验最少,但教得最好。

Even though I didn’t know anybody at the party,I had a nice time.尽管这次聚会上我谁也不认识,我也玩得挺痛快。

这样用的even though与though或although的意思比较接近,许多时候可以互换(注意:英语可以说though和even though,但不能说even although)。如:

Even though [Though, Although] I felt sorry for him,l was secretly pleased tha t he was having difficulties.虽然我为他感到惋惜,但对他的困难却暗自高兴。

Even though [Though, Although] we all tried our best,we lost the game.虽然我们已尽了最大的力量,但还是输了。

3.不过,在实际语言运用中,even if与even though有时也可不加区别地混用。如:

Even if [Even though] she laughs at him,he likes her.尽管她嘲笑他,他还是很喜欢她。

We thoroughly understand each other,even if [even though] we don’t always agree.我们彼此非常了解,虽然有时候也有一些分歧。

4.no matter

what(who,which,when,etc.)与whatever(whoever,whichever,whenever,etc.)的区别:

当引导引导让步状语从句时,两者相同,可以互换(what=the thing, whatever = anyting),但当引导名词性从句(主语从句,宾语从句,表语从句和同位语从句)时则只能用whatever(whoever,whichever,whenever,etc)。如上面最后两个例句可改为:

However pure the water looks,I do not want to drink it.

I want to marry the man I love,no matter who he may be.

下面句子不能用no matter结构(no matter不能引导名词性从句):

Whoever comes back first is supposed to win the prize.(主语从句)

I am ready to do whatever you want me to .(宾语从句)

例证:

Whatever you did,I will accept.为让步状语从句.

I will accept whatever you did.为宾语从句.

5.as 引导让步状语从句的用法

引导让步状语从句时,as意为“虽然,尽管”,通常从句要倒装,倒装的方法是将从句的表语或状语放在as之前,而用though引导让步状语从句时句字则不必倒装(口语中也可倒装)。

e.g. Heavily as it was raining outside,they started out very early.

Young as he is,he knows a lot = Though he is young 或 Young though he is,he….

他虽然年轻,但懂得很多。(though 也有这种用法,可以替换as,但although没有这种用法)

注意,名词提句首时,不加冠词:

e.g:Teacher as he is, he likes Chinese very much(teacher 前不加a或the)。

though还可以用作副词,放在句末。如:

It was a hard job, I enjoyed it, though = It was a hard job, but I enjoyed it.那工作很苦,但是我喜欢干。

6.用though/although, as 引导让步状语从句时,句中不能用but表示转折语气。

不能说:Though he looks weak, but he is healthy.

而要说:Though he looks weak, he is healthy.

或者说:He looks weak, but he is healthy.

我自己认为让步就是存在一定条件下的说法.

though和although引导让步状语从句时,不可以与but连用。汉语中用"虽然……但是……”,但英语中只用though,although或but即可。

Although/though he is very old, he still works very hard. =(He is very old, he still works very hard)虽然他老了,但他仍然很努力地工作。

不可说:Although/though he is very old, but he still works very hard。

though和although可以与yet连用。此处yet虽与but同义,但它不是连词,而是副词。

Though l knew the fact,yet l didnt say anything。  尽管我知道,但我什么都没说。

7.however 用作副词,不可连接句子。但可置于第二句的句首、句末或句中。要特别注意标点的使用。

eg: Alice is a good student.However, she has one shortcoming.爱丽丝是一个很好的学生,但她仍有缺点。

He has not arrived. He may, however, come later.

The composition is all right.There is room for improvement, however.

8.除以上提到的从句连词外,表示让步的介词短语有despite, in spite of,后接名词。

eg. Despite all these facts,we cannot ignore the advantages of learning through internet.