She said. "My brother wants to go with me. "→She said her brother wanted to go with her.
He said to Kate. "How is your sister now?"→He asked Kate how her sister was then。
Mr Smith said。 "Jack is a good worker。"→Mr Smith said Jack was a good worker。
1)She said. "I have lost a pen."→She said she had lost a pen
2)She said. "We hope so."→She said they hoped so.
3) She said. "He will go to see his friend。"→She said he would go to see his friend。
"The earth moves around the sun and the moon moves around the earth, the teacher told me. → The teacher told me the earth moves around the sun and the moon moves around the earth。
Jack said. "John, where were you going when I met you in the street?"→Jack asked John where he was going when he met him in the street。
Xiao Wang said. "I was born on April 2l, 1980。" →Xiao Wang said he was born on April 20, 1980。
He said, "I get up at six every morning。" →He said he gets up at six every morning。
⑤如果直接引语中的情态动词没有过去时的形式(例：ought to， had better, used to)和已经是过去时的形式时，(例：could, should, would, might)不再变。如：
Peter said. "You had better come have today。" →Peter said I had better go there that day。
直接引语变间接引语，状语变化有其内在规津，时间状语由"现在"改为"原来"(例：now变为then, yesterday。变为 the day before)地点状语，尤其表示方向性的，或用指示代词修饰的状语，由"此"改为"彼"(例：this 改为that),如：
He said, "These books are mine." →He said those books were his.
①直接引语如果是陈述句，间接引语应改为由that引导的宾语从句。如：She said, "Our bus will arrive in five minutes."→She said that their bus would arrive in five minutes.
②直接引语如果是反意疑问句，选择疑问句或一般疑问句，间接引语应改为由whether或if引导的宾语从句.如：He said, "Can you swim, John?" →He asked John if he could swim.
"You have finished the homework, haven't you?" my mother asked. →My mother asked me whether I had finished the homework.
"Do you go to school by bus or by bike?" →He asked me if I went to school by bus or by bike.
She asked me, "When do they have their dinner?"→ She asked me when they had their dinner.
④直接引语如果是祈使句，间接引语应改为"tell(ask, order, beg等) sb (not) to do sth."句型。如：
"Don't make any noise," she said to the children. →She told (ordered) the children not to make any noise. "Bring me a cup of tea, please," said she.→She asked him to bring her a cup of tea.
He said, "Let's go to the film." →He suggested going to the film.或He suggested that they should go to see the film.
John said, "I'm going to London with my father."
John said that he was going to London with his father.
间接引语为that引导的宾语从句(口语中that可以省略)，主句的引述动词主要有say ,tell, repeat, explain, think等。
He said , "You are younger than I."-'He said (that ) I was younger than him.
间接引语为陈述语序：主句的谓语动词say 改为ask,或改为wonder, do not know, want to know, be not sure, be puzzled等。
(1) 一般疑问句或反意疑问句变为if (whether)引导的宾语从句。
She said, "Do you often come here to read newspapers?"
→She asked me if (或whether)I often went there to read newspapers.
She asked me , "You have seen the film, haven't you?"
→She asked me whether(或if )I had seen the film.
(2) 选择疑问句变为whether....or 宾语从句。
I asked him, "Will you stay at home or go to a film tonight?"
→I asked him whether he would stay at home or go to a film that night.
He asked , "Where do you live?"
→He asked me where I lived.
间接引语为不定式，作ask , tell, beg, order, warn, advise等动词的宾语补足语(don't 变为not ).
The teacher said to the boy, "Open the window."→The teacher told the boy to open the window.
His father said to him , "Don't leave the door open."→His father told him not to leave the door open.[注意](1) 有些表示建议、提议、劝告或要求的祈使句，可以用suggest ,insist等动词 加以转述。例如：
He said, "Let's go to the theatre."
→He suggested (our )going to the theatre.或He suggested that we(should) go to the theatre.
(2) "Would you mind opening the window?" he asked.
→He asked me to open the window.
"Why don't you take a walk after supper?" he asked .
→he advised me to take a walk after supper.
"Shall we listen to the music?" he asked.
→He suggested listening to the music.
间接引语为what 或how 引导，也可以用that 引导。
She said, "What a lovely day it is !"
→She said what a lovely day it was .或She said that it was a lovely day.
(6) 过去完成时不变，仍为过去完成时[注意](1) 如果直接引语是表示客观真理时，变为间接引语，一般现在时不改为一般过去时。如：
The teacher said "The earth goes round the sun."
→The teacher said that the earth goes round the sun.
He said to me, "I was born in 1973."
→He told me that he was born in 1973.
He said, "I'm a boy, not a girl."
→He said that he is a boy ,not a girl.
The girl said, "I get up at six every morning."
→The girl said that she gets up at six every morning.
(5)如果直接引语中含有since, when, while 引导的表示过去时间的状语从句，在变为间接引语时，只改变主句中的谓语动词，从句的一般过去时则不变。如：
He said to me, "I have taught English since he came here ."
→He told me that he had taught English since he came here.
(6)如果直接引语中含有情态动词 must, need, had better以及情态动词的过去式could, might, should, would,在变为间接引语时，这些情态动词没有时态的改变。例如：
The teacher said to me . "You must pay more attention to your pronunciation."
→The teacher told me that I must (have to ) pay more attention to my pronunciation.
He said , "I could swim when I was only six ."
→He said that he could swim when he was only six.
指示代词 this ---that
表示时间的词 now --- then
today--- that day
this week(month ,etc) ----that week (month ,etc)
yesterday ----the day before
last week(month) --- the week(month) before
three days(a year)ago---three days(a year)before
tomorrow ----the next (following ) day
next week(month)--the next(following)week(month)
表地点的词 here --there
动词 bring -- takecome -goUnit3。现在进行时表将来
当句子涉及确切的计划、明确的意图和为将来安排好的活动时, 现在进行时可用于表示将来。1) come, go, stay, arrive, leave 等词的现在进行时经常用于表示将来确切的计划。
2) 表示交通方式、行程安排的动词，例如 fly, walk, ride, drive, take (a bus, a taxi)等的现在进行时也经常用于表示将来(注意: 英语中一些表 "状态和感官"的动词通常不用于进行时【见下表】)
用法和单词例句表存在或位置: be, lie, stand
Japan lies to the east of China.
表所属: have, own, possess, belong to, fit, suit
Taiwan belongs to China.
Who owns this land?
表知觉: see, hear, smell, taste, sound, look, feel, seem, appear
I smell the dinner cooking.
He seems quite happy.
表认识、信仰、意见、怀疑、猜测、希望: know, think, understand, doubt, suppose, hope, wish
He doubts whether you will find your lost pen again.
表喜欢、反对、仇恨、厌恶: love, like, prefer, mind, hate, want, dislike, envy
We love our motherland deeply.
They envy her good fortune.注意：另外,表示将来的动作或状态,还可用以下几种形式:
① will / shall+动词原形 例： I shall be seventeen years old next month.
② be going to+动词原形:表示即将发生的或最近打算进行的事。例;We are going to have a meeting today.
③ be to+动词原形:表示按计划要发生的事或征求对方意见。例：Are we to go on with this work?
④ be about to+动词原形,表示即将发生的动作,不与表示将来的时间状语连用。
例;I was about to go swimming when my guide shouted at me and told me not to do so.
⑤ be +动词的ing形式：表示按计划或安排要发生的事, 含义是 "预定要......" 这一结构常用趋向动词 go, arrive, come, leave, start, stay , return 和 play, do, have, work, wear, spend, see, meet等 。
例：--- When are you going off for your holiday? 你什么时候动身去度假?
--- My plane is taking off at 9:20, so I must be at the airport by 8:30. 我乘坐的飞机将于9:20分起飞, 所以我必须在8:30之前赶到机场。
(1) 按规定预计要发生的未来动作,仅限于动词come, go, leave, move, start, return, arrive, begin, stay等动词.
(2) 用在状语从句中用一般现在时代替将来时。 例：If you do that again, I'll hit you.
(3) 用在I bet 和I hope后面, 常用一般现在时表将来。 例 I bet you don't get up before ten tomorrow.
例： The plane takes off at 10:10. That is, it's leaving in ten minutes.
1. 定语从句的结构及理解2. 定语从句的关系词的使用3. 定语从句的简化表达
从句之间要有一个词连接，这个词指代先行词的内容叫做关系词(关系代词或关系副词：that, which, who,
whose, when, where, why)。先行词在定语从句中充当主语，宾语，时间，地点，原因状语。
1. Thereshesaw a wall of water that was quicklyadvancing towards her.
2. In Japan, someone who sees anotherperson making thegesture will thinkit means money.
3. A theme park is a collection of rides, exhibitions or other attractions that are based on a commontheme.4. The park has a conservation center that helps protect marine animals and their habitats in the
riversandcoastal waters ofAsia.
5. Visitors can go on exciting rides where they can feel what it is like to do thethings they have seen
theirheroes doin themovie.
6. OprahWinfrey is ablack woman whose rise tofame is an inspiring story.
1. Beforeshecould move, sheheard aloud noise,which grewtoa terrible roar.
2. Treeafter tree went down, cutdown bythe water, which must havebeen three meters deep.
3. Flora,whose beautifulhair anddress were all cold andwet, startedcrying.
4. Their talk includes rhythm and rhyming words as well as tongue twisters, which often make the
(三)关系词前面可以根据定语从句的内容加上一些介词，这些关系词在介词后面常用 which 或 whom.
1. There was a man with whom I would have to work together and finally the manager of thecompany.2. Many people who saw the film were afraid to swim in the sea when they remembered the scenes
in which people were eaten bythe shark.
(一)当先行词有最高级，序数词修饰，是不定代词，或是 all,no, only等形式时，关系代词一般用that，
1. The Titanic was the largest shipthat hadeverbeen built atthattime.
2. Thereis onething that keeps worrying me.
(二)当先行词是表示时间，地点，原因的词时，关系词用 when, where, why 还有which, that
1. I'mveryglad toreturn tomy hometown where I hadlived for10 years.
2. This is my hometown which Iused totalk about toyou.
3. Ithink Ican understand thereason why hedidn't tellthe truth tome.
4. No one believes thereason that he gaveus abouthis absence at themeeting.
1. The man who is sitting onthe platformis a professorfromWuhanUniversity.
2. The letter thatwas mailed lastnight will reach himtomorrow.
3. The questionthat is beingdiscussed is veryimportant.
4. Youarewelcome toa partytobe givenin ourclass at7:45.
1. The man sittingon theplatformis a professorfromWuhan University.
2. The letter mailed lastnight will reach himtomorrow.
3. The questionbeing discussedis veryimportant.
4. Youarewelcome toa partytobe givenin ourclass at7:45.
1. 被修饰名词+doing短语： 正在做....的人/正在发生的事。
2. 被修饰名词+ done短语： 被.....的人/事
4. 被修饰名词+ tobe done短语：将要被.....的人/事
(1)Do youknow theman talkingto my sister?
(2)The "crazy"gesture, moving the indexfinger in acircle in front of the ear,means "youhave a
phone call"in Brazil.
(3)Did yousee that carbeingrepaired ?
(4)In a camera,the lensmust befocused onthe objectto bephotographed.
(5)The students toattend themeeting will arrive heretomorrow.
(6)Goods importedfromabroad arenotalways betterthan thosemade inChina.
(7)The Yellow River,said tobe "themotherriver"runs across China like a huge dragon.
1. 这些短语作定语应放在被修饰名词的后面。如果单独一个V-ing或 V-ed形式作定语，则可以放在被
3. 不定式作定语表示将要发生的，tobe done表示将要被做的
[例1] Friendshipis needed byall, _____plays animportantrole inpeople'slives.
A. which B. that C. who D. it
分析：_____plays animportant rolein people's lives为非限定性定语从句修饰先行词 Friendship用
which 连接定语从句。答案：A[例2] Uncle Li_____I worked three yearsagohas retirednow.
A. who B. whom C. with whom D. towhom
分析：_____I worked three years ago作为定语从句修饰先行词 Uncle Li，从句完整的表达是：I
worked with Uncle Lithree yearsago. 所以关系词前应加上介词 with。答案：C[例3] Is thisthe reason_____at themeeting forhis carelessnessin his work ?
A. he explained B. what he explained C. howhe explained D. why heexplained
分析：定语从句_____at themeeting forhis carelessnessin his work 修饰先行词 thereason指"他
在会上就他工作中的粗心解释的原因。先行词在从句中做宾语。答案：A[例4] Teachers, _____work is rather hard, arebeingbetter paidthan before.
A. who B. that C. which D. whose
分析：非限定性定语从句_____work is ratherhard修饰先行词teachers, 它与从句中的 work 是从属
关系，关系词用 whose答案：D[例5 ] The Olympic Games , _____in 776BC, didn't included women playersuntil1912.
A. first playing B. to befirstplayed
C. firstplayed D. tobe firstplaying
分析：公元前 776年被首次举行的奥运会，直到1912年才容纳女运动员。_____in776 BC 做定语修
饰 The Olympic Games，指过去的内容，表示被动。用 done做定语。答案：C[例6] The houses _____ fortheteachers andthe constructionwork will startsoon.
A. built B. to bebuilt C. tobuild D. beingbuilt
分析：根据句意房子即将开工。_____ forthe teachers andthe construction work 修饰 The houses
应为 The houses The houses将要为教师和施工修建的房子。答案：B[例7] How many of us_____,a meetingthat is notimportantto uswould beinterested in thediscussion?
A. attended B. attending C. toattend D. haveattended
趣呢?_____,say,a meeting that is notimportantto us修饰 How many ofus 做定语。与全句动作同步.答案：B[例8] She hasthree children, _____ is working in Australia.
A. who B. oneof whom C. oneof them D. none ofthem
分析：非限定性定语从句__is working inAustralia修饰先行词 three children，根据从句中的is 判断，
1. Susanis thevery girl_____the good deed.
A. whom I think did B. whom I think shedid
C. who I think did D. I thinkwho did
2. Luckily,thepoor boy hadenough money _____he couldbuy atrain ticket.
A. by which B. on which C. with which D. forwhich
3. The book _____ hedevoted much time is to come outnext month.
A. where B. which C. towhich D. onwhich
4. The daycame finally _____ Iwas given anopportunity to actin theplay.
A. when B. in that C. which D. in which
5. 1.Don't youthink thequestion _____ tomorrowis ofgreat importance.
A. beingdiscussed B. discussed
C. tobe discussed D. todiscuss
6. The food_____atthemoment is forthedinner party.
A. cooked B. to becooked C. is beingcooked D. beingcooked
7. Doyou knowthe teacher_____under thebig tree ?
A. read B. reads C. reading D. beingread
1. C Susan 正是我认为作了好事的那位女孩。先行词 theverygirl 在从句中做think 的宾语，同时又
是后面宾语从句 didthegood deed.的主语，所以关系词不能用whom
2. C 定语从句_____hecould buya train ticket.修饰先行词 money：用这笔钱买火车票。关系词前面
3. C 定语从句 _____ he devoted much time 意思是：他把大量的时间都投入在这本书上了。
4. A 定语从句_____ I was given an opportunity to act in the play修饰先行词 the day ：先行词 the
5. C 短语_____tomorrow做定语修饰the question，根据表达的内容：明天即将被讨论的问题。应当
6. D 短语_____at the moment 做 the food的定语,表示：正在做的食物。Being done 做定语表示：
7. C 现在分词短语 reading underthe bigtree做定语修饰 theteacher 表示：正在大树下看书的那位老师。