时态1)现在完成进行时态(have/has been + -ing 分词构成): 动作或状态从过去某时开始,继续到现在,可能继续下去,也可能刚刚结束。

一. 动词(时态,语态,用法,省略,一致性等)

时态

1)现在完成进行时态(have/has been + -ing 分词构成): 动作或状态从过去某时开始,继续到现在,可能继续下去,也可能刚刚结束.

I’ve been writing letters for an hour.

I’ve been sitting in the garden.

2)过去完成进行时(由had been + ing分词构成): 过去某个时刻以前一直在进行的动作

I’d been working for some time when he called.

We had been waiting for her for two hours by the time she came.

3)将来完成进行时: 将来某个时刻以前一直在进行的动作.

By next summer, he will have been working here for twenty years.

In another month’s time she’ll have been studying here for three years.

4)将来完成时(由shall/will have + 过去分词构成): 将来某时已发生的事.

I shall have finished this one before lunch.

They’ll have hit the year’s target by the end of October.

语态

可以有两种被动结构的类型,例如:

He was said to be jealous of her success.

It was said that he was jealous of her success.

能同时适用于上述两个句型的主动词通常都是表示“估计”,“相信”等意义的动词,常见的有assume,believe,expect,fear,feel,know,presume,report,say,suppose,understand等.

It is supposed that the ship has been sunk.

The ship is supposed to have been sunk.

担当be supposed to 与不定式的一般形式搭配时往往表示不同的意义.例如:

Why are you driving so fast in this area? You are supposed to know the speed to know the speed limit. (你应该晓得速度限制)

双宾语及宾补结构的被动语态

双宾语结构的被动语态: 双宾语结构变为被动语态时,可以把主动结构中的一个宾语变为主语,另一个宾语仍然保留在谓语后面,但多数是把间接宾语变为主语.

He was asked a number of questions at the press conference.

Two days were allowed them for making the necessary preparations.

宾补结构的被动语态:

She was called Big Sister by everybody.

Then he was made a squad leader.

He was considered quite qualified for the job.

The room was always kept clean and tidy.

短语动词

Vi + adv

The plane took off two hours late.

Vi + prep

They looked round the Cathedral.

Vi + prep (有被动语态)

二. 

在以as, than, when, if, unless等引导的从句中的省略: 在有些状语从句中,如果谓语包含有动词be,主语又和主句的主语一致a),或者主语是it b),就常常可以把从句中的主语和谓语的一部分(特别是动词be)省略掉.

Look out for cars when crossing the street.

When taken according to the directions, the drug has no side effects.

While there he joined in voluntary labour on a project.

Although not yet six months old, she was able to walk without support.

If not well managed, irrigation can be harmful.

Though reduced in numbers, they gained in fighting capacity.

This viewpoint, however understandable, is wrong.

Enemies, once discovered, were tightly encircled and completely wiped out.

She hurriedly left the room as though/if angry.

She worked extremely hard though still rather poor in health.

Fill in the application as instructed.

Whenever known, such facts should be reported.

The documents will be returned as soon as signed.

He said that no acrobat could ever perform those daring feats unless trained very young.

Once having made a promise, you should keep it.

If necessary I’ll have the letter duplicated.

Fill in the blanks with articles where(ver) necessary.

If possible, I should like to have two copies of it.

As scheduled, they met on January 20 at the Chinese Embassy.

在以than a) 或as b) 引起的从句中,常会有一些成分省略.

He told me not to use more material than (it is) necessary.

We should think more of the collective than of ourselves.

They worked with as much enthusiasm as young people (did).

He is now a vice-manager, but still often works in the kitchen as before.

Their training is free, as is all education.

We will, as always, stand on your side.

错误的省略

His life is as fully committed to books as anyone I know.

While standing there in her nightgown, two bullets struck the wall beside her.

一致

如果主语是单数,尽管后面跟有with, together with, as well as, as much as, no less than, more than等引导的短语,谓语动词仍旧用单数形式.

Terry, along with her friend, goes skating every Saturday.

An expert, together with some assistants, was sent to help in this work.

The captain, as well as the coaches, was disappointed in the team.

三. 

代词作主语时的一致

each, either, neither和由some, any, no, every构成的复合代词,都作单数看待.

Each of us has something to say.

Is everybody ready?

Somebody is using the phone.

Neither of us has gone through regular training.

Has either of them told you?

some, few, both, many 等作复数

some 可后接复数,也可接单数,表示某一.

none作复数看待时较多,但也有时作单数看待,主要看说话人脑中联系想到的是复数还是单数概念, 但none 在代表不可数的东西时总是看作单数:

None of the books are easy enough for us

None of us seem to have thought of it.

None (= not a single one) of us has got a camera.

None (= nobody) has felt it more keenly than she did.

None of this worries me.

all 和most 可后接复数,也可接不可数名词(all of the…, most of the …), 动词用单数.

由and 或both…and 连接名词词组时, 后用复数; 由not only…but (also), either…or, neither…nor或or 连接的并列主语, 谓语通常和最邻近的主语一致

Not only the switches but also the old writing has been changed.

My sister or my brother is likely to be at home.

Either you or Mr Yang is to do the work.

Neither my wife nor I myself am able to persuade my daughter to change her mind.

如果一个句子是由there 或here引导, 而主语又不止一个, 谓语通常也和最邻近的那个主语一致。

There was carved in the board a dragon and a phoenix.

Here is a pen, a few envelopes and some paper for you.

people, police, cattle, poultry (家禽), militia (民兵) 等通常都用作复数.

Cattle are grazing on the pasture.

The police are looking for him.

有些集体名词有时作单数看待, 有时作复数看待, 主要根据意思来决定.

His family isn’t very large.

His family are all music lovers.

The committee meets twice a month.

The committee are divided in opinion.

The audience was enormous.

The audience were greatly moved at the words.

有些名词单复数同形, 可根据意思决定谓语动词的数:

This new series is beginning next month.

These new series are beginning next month.

This species is now extinct.

These species are now extinct.

表示时间, 重量, 长度, 价值等的名词, 尽管仍是复数形式, 如果作整体看待, 动词也可用单数形式(当然用复数动词也是可以的):

Three weeks was allowed for making the necessary preparations.

One hundred li was covered in a single night.

书名, 国家名用单数:

Tales from Shakespeare is a book by Charles Lamb.

学科名, 如mathematics, economics用单数.

many a 或more than one 所修饰的词作主语时, 谓语动词多用单数形式:

Many a person has had that kind of experience.

More than one person has involved in the case.

a number of 后接复数, the number of后接单数:

A number of books have been published on the subject.

The number of books published on the subject is simply amazing.

one of those 后用单数. 在“one of + 复数名词+关系分句”结构中,关系分句中谓语动词的单复数形式在一般情况下有两形式,一是根据先行词采用复数形式:

Joan is one of those people who go out of their way to be helpful.

当one 之前友the only 等限定词和修饰语时,关系分句谓语动词根据one 而定,即采用单数形式:

He is the only one of those boys who is willing to take on another assignment.

Joan is one of those people who go out of their way to be helpful.

当one 之前友the only 等限定词和修饰语时,关系分句谓语动词根据one 而定,即采用单数形式:

He is the only one of those boys who is willing to take on another assignment.

四. 

Ⅱ 非谓语动词

不定式

形式

主动形式 被动形式

一般式to do to be done

完成式to have done to have been done

进行式to be doing

完成进行式to have been doing

完成式: 不定式的一般形式所表示的动作, 通常与主要谓语表示的动作(状态)同时(或几乎同时)发生, 或是在它之后发生. 假如不定式所表示的动作, 在谓语所表示的动作(状态)之前发生, 就要用不定式的完成式。

I am glad to have seen your mother (= I am glad I have seen your mother).

(比较: I am glad to see you.)

He is said to have written a new book about workers.

He pretended not to have seen me.

进行式: 如果主要谓语表示的动作(状态)发生时, 不定式表示的动作正在进行, 这时要用不定式的进行式。

You are not supposed to be working. You haven't quite recovered yet.

We didn't expect you to be waiting for us here.

He pretended to be listening attentively.

完成进行式: 在谓语所表示的时间之前一直进行的动作, 就要用不定式的完成进行式.

The struggle was known to have been going for twenty years.

We are happy to have been working with you.

五.

被动式: 当不定式的逻辑上的主语是不定式所表示的动作的承受者时, 不定式一般要用被动形式.

It is an honour for me to be asked to speak here.

She hated to be flattered.

He wanted the letter to be typed at once.

This is bound to be found out.

There are a lot of things to be done.

She was too young to be assigned such work.

功用: 不定式可以作主语(a), 宾语(b), 表语(c), 定语(d) 或是状语(e).

a. To scold her would not be just.

b. We are planning to build a reservoir here.

c. One of our main tasks now is to mechanize agriculture.

d. Do you have anything to declare?

e. We have come to learn from you.

不带to 的不定式:

在“动词+ 宾语+不定式”结构中, 如果动词是表示感觉意义的see, hear, watch, smell, feel, notice等, 或是表示“致使”意义的have, make, let等, 其后的不定式结构不带to.

John made her tell him everything.

这类结构转换为被动语态时, 后面的不带to 的不定式一般还原为带to 的不定式.

She was made to tell him everything.

在had better, had best, would rather, would sooner, would just as soon, might (just) as well, cannot but 等搭配之后, 动词不定式也不带to.

I'd rather not have eggs and bacon for breakfast.

They cannot but accept his term.

在make do, make believe, let drop, let fall, let fly, let slip, let drive, let go of, let there be, hear say, hear tell, leave go of等固定搭配中, 用不带to的动词不定式.

John let fly a torrent of abuse at me.

I've heard tell of him.

在动词help(或help +宾语)之后可用不带to的不定式, 也可用带to的不定式.

Can I help (to) lift this heavy box?

在介词except, but 之后, 如果其前有动词do的某种形式, 不定式一般不带to, 反之带to.

There is nothing to do except wait till it stops raining.

Smith will do anything but work on a farm.

There's no choice but to wait till it stops raining.

连词rather than, sooner than 置于句首时, 其后的不定式不带to.

Rather than push the book back as he wanted to do, he forced himself to pick it up.

出现在句中其他位置时, 其后的不定式有时带to, 有时不带to.

He decided to write rather than telephone.

The manager believes it is important to invest in new machinery rather than to increase wages.

用作补语的动词不定式, 如果主语是由“all + 关系分句”,“thing +关系分句”,“what分句”或“thing +不定式结构”等构成,并带有do的某种形式,这时,作为主语补语的不定式可以省to,也可以不省.

What he will do is (to) spoil the whole thing.

All you do now is complete the form

The only thing I can do now is go on by myself.The thing to do now is clear up this mess.

The least I can do is drive everybody else closer to the issue.

六.

主谓一致

【专项训练】

1、Nothing but cars in the shop.

A.is sold B.are sold C.were sold D.are going to sell

2、No one except Jack and Tom the answer.

A.know B.knows C.is knowing D.are known

3、Seventy percent of the students in our school from the countryside.

A.is B.are C.comes D.are coming

4、of the money used up.

A.Three-five, are B.Three-fifths, have been

C.Three-fifths, has been D.Third-fifths, is

5、The number of the people who cars increasing.

A.owns, are B.owns, is C.own, is D.own, are

6、One of Marx’s works written in English in the 1860s.

A.was B.were C.would be D.are

7、The sheets for your bed washing.

A.needs B.are needing C.want D.are wanting

8、On each side of the street a lot of trees.

A.stands B.grow C.is standing D.are grown

9、Some person calling for you at the gate.

A.are B.is C.is being D.will be

10、All that can be eaten up.

A.are being B.has been C.had been D.have been

参考答案:

1、A 因有连词but,所以谓语形式跟Nothing一致,用第三人称单数。

2、B 同上

3、B

4、C

5、C 定语从句看被修饰的先行词:the number of作主语用单数形式。

6、A

7、C

8、B 倒装句,要看后面的主语。

9、B some person指“某人”是第三人称单数。见讲解13。

10、B 主语“all”指的是“food”,所以代不可数名词,是第三人称单数。

七.

全部倒装和部分倒装: 如果谓语在主语前面, 就是倒装语序. 倒装语序又分为全部倒装和部分倒装. 在全部倒装的句子中, 整个谓语都放在主语的前面:

Here are some registered letters for you.

In came a man with a white beard.

在部分倒装的句子中只是谓语中的一部分(如助动词, 情态动词, 或系动词be等)放在主语前面, 其余部分仍在主语后面:

Under no circumstances must a soldier leave his post.

I couldn’t answer the question. Nor could anyone else in our class.

Only in this way is it possible to accomplish the above-mentioned glorious task.

以neither, nor, so等开始的句子: 由so引起的表示前面所说情况也适用于另一人(或东西)的句子(肯定句), 由neither, nor引起的表示前面所说情况也适用于另一人(或东西)的句子(否定句), 助动词或be置于主语前.

“We must start for the work-site now”. “So must we.”

I am quite willing to help and so are the others.

He didn’t drop any hint. Nor (Neither) did his secretary.

“I won’t do such a thing.” “Nor (Neither) will I.”

如果一个句子只是重复前面一句话的意思, 尽管是用so开头, 语序也不要颠倒.

“It was cold yesterday.” “So it was.”

“Tomorrow will be Monday.” “So it will.”

当句首状语为never, little, not only, not until, hardly, scarcely等否定词或有否定意义的词语时, 一般引起部分倒装.

No longer are they staying with us.

No sooner had he arrived there than he fell ill.

Under no circumstances could I agree to such a principle.

表示位置或方向的副词提前, 谓语动词为go, come等表示位置转移的动作动词而主语又较长时, 通常用全部倒装:

There was a sudden gust of wind and away went his hat.

The door burst open and I rushed the crowd.

There comes the bus!

Now comes your turn.

1.如果主语是代词, 仍用正常语序:

There comes your turn.

有here引起, 谓语为be的句子, 也要倒装:

Here is China’s largest tropical forest.

Here are some picture-books.

2.如果主语是代词, 仍用正常语序:

Here we are. This is the new railway station.

“Give me some paper.” “Here you are.”

3.表语和系动词提前:

介词短语: On the other side was northern Xinjiang.

Near the southern end of the village was a large pear orchard.

形容词: Very important in the farmer’s life is the radio weather report.

Worst of all were the humiliations he suffered.

副词: Below is a restaurant.

Southwest of the reservoir were 2,000 acres of sandy wasteland.

分词: Housed in the Cultural Palace are a library, an auditorium and recreation rooms.

Hidden underground is a wealth of gold, silver, copper, lead and zink.

Lying on the floor was a boy aged about 17.

Standing beside the table was an interpreter.

4 句首状语若由only + 副词, only + 介词词组, only + 状语从句构成, 引起局部倒装:

Only yesterday did he find out that his watch was missing.

Only through sheer luck did he manage to get some tickets.

Only because there were some cancelled bookings did he get some tickets in the end.

有not only开头的句子或分句, 往往引起局部倒装:

Not only did he complain about the food, he also refused to pay for it.

Not only did the garage overcharge me, but they hadn’t done a very good repair job either.

八.

不要忽略小小的标点符号,有时候标点的改变,往往会影响整个语意的变化,现在就来看看四级语法之小标点大学问吧。

不知道你有没有看过这样一个小故事:在一个大雨天,客人来投宿,于是给主人写了个纸条,“下雨天留客天留我不留”。而主人不想让客人在此留宿,所以也提笔加了些标点符号,整个句子变成了“下雨,天留客,天留我不留”。客人看了之后,也偷偷加了标点呈回“下雨天,留客天,留我不?留!”主人看了便再也不好意思赶客人走了。

看了这个故事你是否知道标点符号的重要之处了呢?其实不仅是汉语中标点可以改变语意,在英语中也是一样的。

在9月24日,美国National Punctuation Day(国家标点日),活动的组织者号召读者以标点为题写haiku(俳句),其中一位读者写的俳句是这样的:

Are you Brit or Yank? Show me your quotation marks And I’ll tell you which.

你是英国佬还是美国佬?给我写个有引号的句子,我就告诉你答案。

据说英国人和美国人使用引号时的确有个往往被忽略的细微差别,请看维基百科上举的例子:

"Carefree," in general, means "free from care or anxiety." (American practice)

"Carefree", in general, means "free from care or anxiety". (British practice)

前面一句的逗号在引号内,是美国习惯用法;而后面一句的逗号在引号外面,是英国习惯用法。不管是在引号内还是在引号外,这个逗号还真不是逗你玩的,很有内涵。请看以下例句:

My older sister, Betty, bought me a gift.

我姐姐,贝蒂, 给我买了个礼物。

如果同样这几个词写成:My older sister Betty bought me a gift。按照芝加哥格式手册(The Chicago Manual of Style)的解释,上述这两个句子的含义有一个显著不同:前者说明说话人只有贝蒂这一个sister,而按照第二句,说话人应该还有其他姐妹。所以美国人说:The commas are not just commas, they are facts.

当然,对这类语法规矩不可走火入魔,如果有人写下这样的句子:

My husband Dave bought me a gift.

我丈夫戴维给我买了个礼物。

尽管在“戴维”这个名字前后没有逗号,但是说话人一般来说也不可能有两个以上的丈夫。

对比而言,中文里逗号用得比英文里用得多,因此英翻中的时候,会平白多出很多逗号。台湾学者

余光中先生举例说:根据英文的语法,例如下面这句话,里面的逗点实在是多余的,可是删去之后,读起来就太急促了:

“我很明白,他的意思无非是说,要他每个月回来看我一次,是不可能的”。

余光中先生还引用了台湾1973年1月号《幼狮文艺》上翻译的狄更斯《圣诞颂歌》( A Christmas Carol )中的一句话:

“而且,史克鲁治甚至没有因这桩悲惨的事件而伤心得使他在葬礼那天无法做一个卓越的办事人员以及用一种千真万确的便宜价钱把葬礼搞得庄严肃穆”

这一句话“而且”之后一共62个字不用标点,令人读的气短。用余光中先生的话说,从译文来看“无论如何不懂为什么狄更斯是文豪”。这一段文字的英语原文其实是这样的:

And even Scrooge was not so dreadfully cut up by the sad event, but that he was an excellent man of business on the very day of the funeral, and solemnised it with an undoubted bargain.

吴钧陶先生所翻译的《圣诞颂歌》,其中这一句,是这样的:

“可是即使这位私刻鲁挤,对于这桩伤心事,也并不那么难受的不得了,而就在举行葬礼那天,他还是一个出色的生意人,用道道地地的生意经举行了那次葬礼”。

吴先生一共用了五个逗号,而英文原文只有两个逗号。正如余光中先生所说:“英文用逗点是为了文法,中文用逗点是为了文气。”(《变通的艺术》)也许说“文气”太文了些,还可再通俗一点,其实中文加逗号就是为了“喘气”。