本文选自吴应时的《应时新概念英语4》,是学习新概念英语第四册的辅助学习笔记,提供知识点精讲及解析,想知道具体都有哪些内容,那就一起来看看吧。

第一段语法符号详解:

1. William S. Hart was the greatest of all Western stars for he appeared…

复合句,主句为主系表结构,后有一个 for 引导的原因状语从句,主谓结构.

William Surrey Hart (1864-1946). (American stage and silent motion-picture) actor, (who was the leading hero (of the early westerns).)

[https://www.britannica.com/biography/William-S-Hart]

Gary Cooper (1901-1961),John Wayne (1907-1979)均为美国著名男演员.

2. he was supreme and unchallenged.

简单句,主系表结构.

3. Hart created the basic formula of the Western film and devised the protagonist…; the individual…

复合句,主句为强调句,对 Hart 进行了强调,然后是简单的主谓宾并列结构. he played 和 he made 均为主谓结构的定语从句.

后面一连串均为 protagonist 的同位语. 其中 the sheriff made suspect by vicious gossip 中,suspect 为形容词,该句可改写为 the sheriff who has been made suspect (suspicious) by vicious gossip.

分号后面是省略句,把系动词 is 省略了. 还原为 the individual is in conflict with himself and is also conflict with his frontier environment.

这里的 frontier environment 有特定时代背景,即 American frontier 美国边境线,主要指美国领土向西不断扩张的历史过程,美国的西进运动,The American frontier comprises the geography, history, folklore, and cultural expression (of life) [in the forward wave] (of American expansion) (that began with English colonial settlements) [in the early 17th century] and (ended with the admission) (of the last remaining western territories as states in 1959).[1] 是指美国领土扩张时期,美国西部的地理、历史、居民、文化等多元内涵,这段时间从十七世纪初的英国美洲殖民地到 1959 年建立最后一个美国本土的州为止.

 

第二段语法符号详解:

1. Hart knew something…

简单句,主谓宾结构. 其中 Old West 的“O”字母必须大写,旧西部,又称 Wild West,也同样每个单词第一个字母需要大写,书中印成 old,予以改正.

The period of the Wild West was from 1865-1895, a period of thirty years. The 'Old West' was famous for cowboys, native Indians, the lawmen, gunslingers, the pioneers, the

prospectors, the gamblers, the scouts, the outlaws, the gangs and the gunfighters. 哈特生于1864 年,孩提时代正好是旧西部(狂野西部)的发展时期.

2. He had lived…when…and his hero was rooted…

复合句,首句为主谓+时间状语结构. and 后面为第二句,该句为主谓结构,and 与in both 之间有所省略,可理解成 and rooted in.

3. although…myth and reality did join hands…

复合句,although 引导让步状语从句,为主谓结构.

主句为主谓宾结构.

 

第三段语法符号详解:

1. Men were bewildered by…and unhorsed…

并列句,and 连接 were bewildered 和 unhorsed 两个谓语. 主谓结构.

这句涉及时代背景,上文交代了美国当时西进的拓荒历程,这些拓荒者在这一路都是与荒蛮的西部自然环境作斗争,与土著印第安人作斗争,在他们习惯了这样的生活之后,时代不同了,他们最终被文明所打败. 文中的打败以 unhorsed 来表达,一语 双关,牛仔们不再骑马了,要受到政治、经济和法律的冲击,本来没有界限得以骑马驰骋的土地,也要被竖上藩篱予以划分.

 

2. Hart's good-bad man was… and if he found it…his early audiences found it…when…

复合句,and 连接 were bewildered 和 unhorsed 两个谓语. 主谓结构.

主句为主系表结构,第二个表语有所省略,an outsider, and always was one of the disinherited.

if 引导的条件状语从句中,为 find+形式宾语+宾补+真正宾语结构,主句也用了同样的结构.

最后是 when 引导的时间状语从句,为强调句,主谓宾结构.

 

第四段语法符号详解:

1. Audiences found it…when…

复合句,主句结构跟上句一致. when 引导的时间状语从句为主系表结构.

这里教材翻译成“20 世纪 20 年代”有误,文中为二十世纪第二个十年,也就是1910-1919,在中文中应为 10 年代,而非 20 年代. 哈特 1914 年开始出名,亦为 10 年代.

2. We do…we want a code…

复合句,由分号分成 2 句,第一句主谓结构,第二句主谓宾结构,只是前面有一个分词作状语,被定语从句所修饰. 该从句为主系表结构.