本文选自吴应时的《应时新概念英语4》,是学习新概念英语第四册的辅助学习笔记,提供知识点精讲及解析,想知道具体都有哪些内容,那就一起来看看吧。

第一段语法符号详解:

1. It is clear that the sleeping period must have some function and because…the function would seem to be important…

并列复合句,以 and 分为两句,第一句 it 为形式主语,that 引导的主语从句作真正主语,该主语从句为主谓宾结构.

and 后第二句的主句为主系表结构,前面有一个 because 引导的原因状语从句.

2. Speculations have been going on and finding is that it looks…

并列复合句,以 and 分为两句,第一句为主谓结构.

第二句中,that 引导定语从句修饰主句的主语 finding,该定语从句为主谓宾+宾补结构. 主句为主系表结构,故 finding is that it looks…rest 是系动词 is 后面接 that 引导的表语从句.

这个 that 引导的表语从句为 it looks as if…的主系表结构,其表语又由一个 as if 引导的表语从句担任,即主系+表语从句结构中,该表语从句仍为主系+表语从句结构. 这个嵌套的表语从句本身又是主系表结构 sleeping is [not] a matter.

3. Rest can be achieved…

简单句,主谓结构,by 引导方式状语,不过该状语是并列结构,or 后面有所省略,补充完整为 rest can be achieved even by sitting down.

4. The body's tissues are self-repairing and self-restoring and function…when…

并列句,前句主系表结构,后句省略了主语,主谓结构,后面的 when 引导的时间状语从句亦有省略,补充完整为 when the body’s tissues are [more or less] [continuously] active. 主系表结构.

5. movement occurs which is concerned with…

复合句,主谓结构,which 引导定语从句修饰 movement,主谓宾结构.

 

第二段语法符号详解:

1. If it is not a question…the brain needs resting…

复合句,主句为强调句,主谓宾结构.

if 引导的条件状语从句,主系表结构.

2. This might be hypothesis were it not for two factors…

复合句,主句为简单句,主系表结构,后面跟一个省略了 if 的条件状语从句,且采用了倒装结构,属于虚拟语气的用法,还原为:if it were not for two factors. (2.1.3)

3. the electroencephalograph shows that…while…there is no evidence…

复合句,主句为主谓+宾语从句结构.

该宾语从句包含一个 while 引导的时间状语从句(3-2 句)和 that 引导的同位语从句(3-3 句). 其中 3-2 句为 there be 句型,3-3 句为主系表结构简单句.

3-1 句原文是以括号形式作补充讲解脑电图记录仪为何物,该句本身是简单句,主系表结构.

4. The second factor is interesting and fundamental…

简单句,主系表并列结构.

5. an American psychiatrist published experiments…

简单句,主谓宾结构.

William Charles Dement (born July 29, 1928) is an American sleep researcher and founder of the Sleep Research Center at Stanford University.[1] 睡眠医学之父,还健在.

6. He showed that the sleep cycle is punctuated with peculiar bursts…

复合句,主句为主谓+宾语从句,而该从句为主谓宾结构.

some drifting and slow,以及 others jerky and rapid 两句为独立主格结构. 这两句所处的宾语从句中,主语为平均的睡眠周期,而此两句的主语应为 bursts of eye-movements,与句子的主语不一致. (12.1.2)

7. People reported that they had been dreaming…

复合句,主句为主谓+宾语从句,而该从句为主谓结构. 这里是处于快速眼动睡眠状态.

8. when…they reported no dreams…

复合句,主句主谓宾结构. when 引导的时间状语从句省略了主语,完整句为: [When they had woken [at other times],] …因为主句是一般过去时,这个苏醒在主句汇报没有梦之前发生,所以是过去的过去,采用过去完成时予以还原.

9. If…the first group began to show some disorders while…

复合句,主句为主谓宾结构,即 9-2 句.

9-1 句为 if 引导的条件状语从句,为并列句,由 and 连接,均为主谓结构,第二句里面含有 when 引导的时间状语从句,该时间状语从句为主谓宾结构.

9-3 句为 while 引导的时间状语从句,为主系表结构.

10. The implications were that…

复合句,主句为主系+表语从句.

that 引导的表语从句为强调句型,为并列句,均为主谓结构,其中 but 后这一句省略了谓语,还原为 but it was the disturbance of dreaming that mattered.