本文选自吴应时的《应时新概念英语4》,是学习新概念英语第四册的辅助学习笔记,提供知识点精讲及解析,想知道具体都有哪些内容,那就一起来看看吧。

第一段语法符号详解:

1. Alfred the Great acted as spy, visiting…

简单句,主谓宾结构,后面有一个现在分词短语和一个过去分词短语,两个均作状语,visiting…camps 可以理解成作伴随状语,修饰 acted 这一动作;disguised…minstrel 则作方式状语,修饰 visiting.

Alfred the Great (849-899),建议搜索了解大帝的生平.

2. minstrels were welcome…

简单句,主谓结构.

3. They were not men, and their harp was their passport.

并列句,均为主系表结构.

4. Alfred had learned ballads, and could vary his programme…

并列句,均为主谓宾结构.

 

第二段语法符号详解:

1. While army began to gather, the king set out to penetrate the camp…

复合句,主句为主谓宾结构,while 引导的时间状语从句亦为主谓宾结构.

2. These had settled down: Alfred went…

并列句,前后两个句子,以冒号相隔. 前句为主谓结构,后句有倒装,还原为 Alfred went thither. 也是主谓结构.

3. He noticed that discipline was slack: the Danes had the self-confidence, and precautions were casual.

复合句,前后两个句子,以冒号相隔. 第一句为主谓+宾语从句结构,宾语从句为主系表结构. 冒号后面的句子为并列句,由两个句子组成,第一句为主谓宾结构,第二句为主系表结构.

4. They lived on the proceeds…

简单句,主谓宾结构,谓语由动词词组担任,live on 一起作谓语方能理解成以什么为生. 这里用逗号将 live on 分开,可以理解成强调 well. 有人认为 well 和 on the proceeds…regions 并列作状语,这样理解不是很恰当,因 on the proceeds 只能作地点状 语,相当于在某处生活.

5. they collected women, and a life had made them soft.

并列句,前句为主谓宾结构,后句为主谓宾+宾补结构

 

第三段语法符号详解:

1. Alfred stayed…before he returned…

复合句,主句为主谓结构,before 引导的时间状语从句亦为主谓结构.

这里网上有人认为句中 a week 不等于 for a week,因此不应理解为“在 camp 待了一周”,而是“在他回到阿塞尔纳的一周前,阿尔弗雷德一直待在敌营”. 这里似乎缺少了 for,但毕竟这里涉及史实,我查了别的书籍,全都写的是待了几 天. Alfred stayed [in the Danish camp] [for several days], [singing his songs and playing sweet music], and [all the time] [watching and listening].[1] 这里 all the time 后面的伴随状 语,你也可以看作 Alfred was watching and listening [all the time]. 从这可以看出,原句 的理解应为一个星期,而不是一周前. 应为实际上也不是 7 天,所以翻译中我加了“大约”二字.

其实作者不过是把地点状语提前了,调换一下就没有这种模棱两可的情况了:

Alfred stayed a week in the camp before…因为 stay 和 last 一样,本身带有持续性的意义,可以省略 for.

2. The force was trivial…

简单句,主系表结构.

3. Alfred had deduced that the Danes were fit and that their commissariat had no organization, but depended on raids…

复合句,以冒号分为两句,第一句为主谓+宾语从句结构,宾语从句为主系表结构. and 后面是省略了主语和谓语 Alfred had deduced 的宾语从句,这里的冒号可以理

解成分号. 该宾语从句为并列句,以 but 相连,均为主谓宾结构,只不过 but 后面这句省略了主语 their commissariat. 这句的 irregular 如果是描述军队,可以表达 irregular military 非正规军队,regular military 正规军队,所以这里的抢夺也是不正规的,也就 是瞎抢,并没有按照规划,从东边抢到西边,或者从富户抢起。

 

第四段语法详解:

1. Alfred did not risk battle but harried the enemy.

并列句,以 but 连接,两句均为主谓宾结构,第二句省略了主语 Alfred.

2. He was on the move.

简单句,主系表结构,后面跟一个现在分词作伴随状语.

3. His patrols halted parties: hunger assailed army.

简单句,主系表结构,后面跟一个现在分词作伴随状语.

4. Alfred began skirmishes and the Danes had surrendered.

并列句,首句主谓宾结构,and 后句为主谓结构.

5. The episode could serve as a(n) epic

简单句,主谓宾结构. 翻译的时候,将 episode 放在了最后.