1. As far as the third factor is concerned, the history of science shows many instances in which the force of authority has operated in such a manner as to build up an exceedingly powerful resistance to further investigation; in some cases centuries elapsed before this resistance was eventually broken down, as happened in cosmology, for example.
第一层： As far as the third factor is concerned , 状语从句1 the history 主 of science 定 shows 谓 many 定 instances 宾 in which the force of authority has operated in such a manner as to build up an exceedingly power- 定语从句 ful resistance to further investigation ; in some cases 状 centuries 主 elapsed 谓 before this resistance was eventually broken down, as 状语从句2 happened in cosmology, for example.
第二层： (状语从句1) As far as 引 the third factor 主语 is 系 concerned 表语
(定语从句) in which 引 the force 主 of authority 定 has operated 谓 in such a manner as to build up an exceedingly powerful re- 状 sistance to further investigation
(状语从句2) before 引 this resistance 主 was 系 eventually 状 broken down, 表 as happened in cosmology,for example 定语从句
第三层： (定语从句) as 引 happened 谓 in cosmology, 状 for example. 插入语
要点 本句由两个分句构成,以分号连接。第一个分句的主干为"the history of science shows many instances","in which"引导的定语从句修饰"instances","such ...as ..."表结果,后接不定式;在第二个分句中,before 引出时间状语从句："before this resistance was eventually broken down";代词"as"在此是关系代词,引出定语从句："as happened in cosmology"。resistance:抵抗(力);阻力。cosmology:宇宙论,宇宙哲学。
2. Behaviorists suggest that the child who is raised in an environment where there are many stimuli which develop his or her capacity for appropriate responses will experience greater intellectual development.
第一层： Behaviorists 主 suggest 谓 that the child who is raised in an environment where there are many stimuli which develop his 宾语从句 or her capacity for appropriate responses will experience greater intellectual development.
第二层： (宾语从句) that 引 the child 主 who is raised in an environment where there are many stimuli which develop his or her capacity 定语从句
for appropriate responses will experience 谓 greater intellectual 定 development. 宾
第三层： (定语从句) who 引 is raised 谓 in an environment 状 where there are many stimuli which develop his or her capacity for ap- 定语从句
第四层： (定语从句) where 引 there 引 are 系 many 定 stimuli 主 which develop his or her capacity for appropriate responses 定语从句
第五层： (定语从句) which 引 develop 谓 his or her 定 capacity 宾 for appropriate 定 responses
要点 根据上下文的逻辑关系可以看出,本句中suggest的词义不是propose,而是bring an idea into the mind, 所以翻译为"…的看法是"。who引导的定语从句修饰child,根据上下文的语义关系,翻译成条件句;where引导的定语从句修饰environment,用合译法译出;which引导的从句修饰stimuli,用分译法进行翻译。appropriate:适合的,相称的。 译文 行为主义者的看法是,如果一个儿童在有许多刺激因素的环境里长大,而这些刺激因素能够开发其相应的反映能力,那么这个儿童将会有更好的智力发展。
3. I suggest transforming our social system from a bureaucratically managed industrialism in which maximal production and consumption are ends in themselves into a humanist industrialism in which man and full development of his potentialities - those of love and of reason - are the aims of all social arrangements.
要点 本句为含有两个定语从句的主从复合句。主句的谓语动词suggest可接动名词作宾语。而宾语中的transform一词常用在"transform sth. from ... into..."结构中,译为"把…从…转变为…"。句中两个in which分别修饰其先行词industrialism,翻译时宜采用前置法。两个破折号之间的those of love and of reason为potentialities一词的同位语。
4. President Kennedy wanted people who raised questions, who criticized, on whose judgment he could rely, who presented an intelligent point of view, regardless of their rank or viewpoint.
要点 本句中"who...","who...","on whose...","who..."四个定语从句并列,共同修饰中心词"people"。
5. In the "soap war" between Proctor and Gamble and Unilever, tremendous use is made of statistics to measure the dynamic difference in market resulting from the proportional allocation to advertising, which constitutes such a large part of their production costs before selling, so that they regard their production costs as production plus advertising costs.
要点 此句结构比较复杂,但主句很简单,主语为use,谓语为is made。主句正常语序为tremendous use of statistics is made to..., to measure...作目的状语,resulting from...为现在分词短语作difference的后置定语。which引导一个非限制性定语从句,修饰allocation to advertising。so that引导一个结果状语从句。plus为介词,意为"加上"。soap war 为"肥皂广告大战"。