英语形容词的用法有多种,可以作定语,作表语,作宾语补足语,有时也可用作状语或补语,少数形容词只能作表语、不能作定语,少数形容词只能作定语,不能作表语。

一、形容词的定义
形容词的判断方法
判断一个词是不是形容词,可以从其结构特点和句法特点两方面来确定.
(1)结构特点
以-able,-al,-ful, -ic,-ish,-less,-ous,-y等后缀结尾的词,一般是形容词,如:changeable(多变的),medical(医学上的),careful(仔细的),atomic(原子的),foolish(愚蠢的),careless(粗心的),delicious(美味的),healthy(健康的),rainy(多雨的)等.
(2)句法特点
大多数形容词都可以作定语;在be,look,seem等词之后作表语;可用very来修饰,有比较级和最高级形式.其中,在句中作定语或作表语是形容词最主要的特点.如:
Mary is very nice.玛丽很可爱.(表语) Mary is a nice girl.玛丽是个可爱的女孩.(定语)
He was asleep.他睡着了.(表语) She is a perfect teacher.她是位十全十美的老师.(定语)
二、形容词的用法
1.用作定语
Li Mei is a beautiful city girl. The new student comes from Japan..
2.用作表语
My father's car is very expensive. The English story is very interesting.
常见的后跟形容词作表语的动词:
①become, come, fall, get, go, grow, make, turn(表示"变成某种状态")
②continue, hold, keep, lie, remain, stay(表示"保持某种状态")
③appear, feel, look, smell, sound, taste, know(表示"感觉")
例如:
He turned red when he heard the news.
It's going to stay cold for some time. The beer tastes very delicious.
3.用作宾语补足语
Don't keep the door open. His success made him happy.
4."the+形容词",表示一类人或事物,相当于名词,用作主语及宾语
The old often think of old things. The new always take the place of the old.
5.有时也可用作状语或补语
Please speak loud and clear. These soldiers spent three days in the cold weather, cold and hungry.
6.少数形容词只能作表语,不能作定语.
这些形容词包括 ill,asleep,awake,alone,alive,well,worth,glad,unable,afraid等.例如:
(正)Don't be afraid. (误) Mr Li is an afraid man.
(正)The old man was ill yesterday. (误)This is an ill person.
(正)This place is worth visiting. (误)That is a worth book.
7.少数形容词只能作定语,不能作表语.
这些形容词包括 little, live(活着的),elder, eldest 等.例如:
(正)My elder brother is a doctor. (误)My brother is elder than I.
(正)This is a little house. (误)The house is little.
(正)Do you want live fish or dead one (误)The old monkey is still live.
三、形容词的位置
1.形容词一般放在名词前作定语
单个形容词修饰名词时,一般要放在名词的前面.它们的前面常常带有冠词,形容词性物主代词,指示代词,数词等.例如:
a red flower一朵红花 this interesting story这个有趣的故事
six blind men 六个盲人 my own house我自己的房子
(1)当形容词所修饰的词是由some, any, every, no等构成的不定代词时,形容词必须置于所修饰的词之后.例如:
She has something new to tell me. I have nothing important to do today.
Do you know anybody else here? 这儿你还有认识的人吗
(2)形容词后面有介词短语或不定式短语时,形容词必须置于名词之后.例如:
It is a problem difficult to work out. Edison is a student difficult to teach.
This is a kind of flowers easy to grow. 这是一种易栽的花.
(3)在以下特殊用法中,形容词置于所修饰的名词之后.例如:
All people, young or old, should be strict with themselves.
We are building a new school, modern and super.
All countries, rich and poor, should help one another. 所有的国家,无论穷富,都应该互相帮助.
(4)有少数形容词,如enough和possible,既可置于所修饰的名词之前,也可置于所修饰的名词之后.例如:
Do you have enough time(time enough)to prepare 你有足够的时间做准备吗
Maybe it will be a possible chance(chance possible)for you.或许它将成为你的一次可能的机遇.
(5)有些形容词,置于名词之前与之后,含义不尽相同.例如:
the writer present 出席的作家
the present writer 当代的作家
2.两个以上的形容词修饰同一个名词时的排列顺序
限定词→一般描绘性形容词→表示大小,长短,高低的形容词→表示形状的形容词→表示年龄,新旧的形容词→表示色彩的形容词→表示国籍,地区,出处的形容词→表示物质,材料的形容词→表示用途,类别的形容词→名词中心词.例如:
an exciting international football match一场令人激动的国际足球赛
a new red sports shirt一件新的红色运动衫
a light black plastic umbrella一把轻的黑塑料伞
a small old brown wooden house 一座小的旧的棕色的木头房子
巧记形容词的排列顺序
不少学生对如何排列形容词的顺序颇感困惑.在此,我们向同学们介绍一个简单的记忆方法.即请你记住"限观形龄色国材"这几个字,这似乎有点不大好记,那就请你记住"县官行令谢国材"吧.其含义分别是:
"县"(限)代表限定词,包括冠词,指示代词,形容词性物主代词,名词所有格,数词等.
"官"(观)代表表示观点的描绘性形容词,如:fine,beautiful,interesting等.
"行"(形)代表表示大小,长短,高低及形状的形容词,如:small,tall,high,little,round等.
"令"(龄)代表表示年龄,新旧的形容词,如:old,young等.
"谢"("色"的近似音)代表表示颜色的形容词,如:white,black,yellow等.
"国"代表表示国籍,地区,出处的形容词(名词),如:English,American,mountain等.
"材"则代表形成中心名词的材料的形容词,如:stone,wooden,silk,plastic等.
多个形容词同时修饰一个名词时,就按上述顺序排列,然后加上中心名词.例如:
1.a fine old stone bridge一座古老漂亮的石桥
2.two big round new Chinese wooden tables 两张新的中国式的木制大圆桌
3.his large new black foreign car 他那辆新的大型黑色外国轿车