hypothesis [haɪ'pɒθɪsɪs] 

n. 假设

High in the Himalayas of India, amid the snow-capped peaks, nestles a mystery. 

Roopkund Lake is a shallow body of water filled with human bones - the skeletons of hundreds of individuals. 

It's these that give the lake its other name, Skeleton Lake, and no one knows how the remains came to be there.

One hypothesis is that some catastrophe, a single event such as a powerful storm, had befallen a large group of people. But DNA analysis of 38 of the skeletons has turned that idea on its head.

The remains appear to come from distinct groups of people from as far as the Mediterranean, and they arrived at the lake several times over a 1,000-year span.

"Through the use of biomolecular analyses, such as ancient DNA, stable isotope dietary reconstruction, and radiocarbon dating, we discovered that the history of Roopkund Lake is more complex than we ever anticipated," said geneticist David Reich of Harvard Medical School.

The story began to unfold a decade ago. Geneticist Kumarasamy Thangaraj of India's CSIR Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology sequenced the mitochondrial DNA of 72 of the skeletons.
十年前,这个故事开始展开。印度科学与工业研究委员会细胞与分子生物中心的基因学家Kumarasamy Thangaraj测定了72具骷髅的线粒体DNA。

As Thangaraj and his late colleague Lalji Singh had expected, some of the skeletons had DNA consistent with a local Indian origin. 
正如Thangaraj和他已故的同事Lalji Singh预料的那样,有些骷髅的DNA与当地印度裔一致。

But some did not. Several skeletons appeared to have originated around West Eurasia.

This analysis revealed three distinct groups. The largest consisted of 23 individuals with DNA similar to that of people from present-day India. Apart from this, they seemed genetically unrelated.

The second-largest group, comprising 14 individuals, was a huge surprise. Their DNA was most similar to people in present-day Crete and Greece.

Finally, the one remaining individual had DNA suggesting a Southeast Asian origin.

Even more surprising was the staggered arrival times of the groups. Radiocarbon dating placed the Indian-related bones between the 7th and 10th centuries CE. 
更让人惊讶的是这些群体到来的 时间。放射性碳定年法表明,印度血统的骨头年代在公元7世纪和10世纪之间。

It's possible they were divided into different groups at different times within this timespan.

But the other two groups, from the Mediterranean and from Southeast Asia, were dated to between the 17th and 20th centuries CE. 

That's just a few hundred years ago. And it's possible that the remains that haven't been tested could include other groups, from other times and other regions.



hypothesis [haɪ'pɒθɪsɪs] 

n. 假设

I have no patience with the hypothesis that babies are born pretty much alike.


We have no substantial evidence to support this hypothesis.