Sport is not only physically challenging, but it can also be mentally challenging. Criticismfrom coaches, parents, and other teammates, as well as pressure to win can create an excessiveamount of __1__ or stress for young athletes. Stress can be physical, emotional, or psychologicaland research has indicated that it can lead to burnout. Burnout has been described as __2__ orquitting of an activity that was at one time enjoyable.The early years of development are __3__ years for learning about oneself. The sport settingis one where valuable experiences can take place. Young athletes can, for example, learn how to__4__ with others, make friends, and gain other social skills that will be used throughout their lives.Coaches and parents should be aware, at all times, that their feedback to youngsters can __5__affect their children. Youngsters may take their parents’ and coaches’ criticisms to heart and find aflaw(缺陷) in themselves.Coaches and parents should also be __6__ that youth sport participation does not become workfor children. That outcome of the game should not be more important than the __7__ of learning thesport and other life lessons. In today’s youth sport setting, young athletes may be worrying moreabout who will win instead of __8__ themselves and the sport. Following a game many parents andcoaches __9__ on the outcome and find fault with youngsters’ performances. Positive reinforcementshould be provided regardless of the outcome. Research indicates that positive reinforcement motivatesand has a greater effect on learning that criticism. Again, criticism can create __10__ levels of stress, which can lead to burnout.
Here’s the Totally Amazing Wonder Material That Could Revolutionize Technology
A.In the technology industry,every new product or service seems to come with the promise that it is an innovation with the potential to change the world.Graphene(石墨烯)，a form of carbon，might actually do just that.
B.“Graphene is a wonderful material，”Jeanie Lau，a professor of physics at the University of California at Riverside，told Fortune.“It conducts heat 10 times better than copper and electricity 100 times better than silicon，is transparent like plastic，extremely lightweight,extremely strong,yet flexible and elastic.In the past decade，it has taken the scientific and technology communities by storm，and has become the most promising electronic material to supplement or replace silicon.”
C.Graphene has already found its way into a number of compelling applications，Lau said.For instance，“since it is both transparent and electrically conductive—two attributes rarely found in the same material in nature—it has tremendous potential as the transparent electrode in monitors.displays;solar cells，and touch screens，”she explained.“Companies such as Samsung that invest heavily in this area have already secured patents，produced prototypes，and are expected to bring products to market in a few years.”Wearable electronic devices，aviation components，broadband photodetectors(光电检测器)，radiation-resistant coatings，sensors，and energy storage are among numerous other areas of active research.Lau said.
D.For many researchers and investors，the ultimate application is graphene-based transistors，the building blocks of modem electronics.But getting there may take some time.
A child of graphite
E.First produced in a lab back in 2004，graphene is essentially a single layer of pure carbon atoms bonded together in a honeycomb lattice so thin it’s actually considered two-dimensional.“We generally regard anything less than 10 layers of graphene as graphene;otherwise，it’s graphite，”said Aravind Vijayaraghavan，a lecturer in nanomaterials at the University of Manchester.
F.Even“graphene”is a bit of an umbrella term.“To oversimplify,there are two major types of graphene，”Michael Patterson，CEO of Graphene Frontiers，said.The first：“Nanoplatelets，”which are powders or flakes made from graphite.These have been around for a while and are“not really super-sexy,”Patterson said.“You mix them into polymers(聚合物)or inks or rubbers to make them conductive.”In flake form，graphene is already on its way to becoming a commodity,Patterson added.The other type—in sheet or film form—is where graphene’s biggest promise lies.Graphene sheets have“incredible potential for electronics，”Patterson said.In the near term，that potential may manifest in situations where the quantity requirements are“not that great”and where quality or conductivity doesn’t have to be as high，such as in basic touch-screen applications，he said.Products that use graphene in this way could arrive to market in the next six to 1 2 months.
G.Looking a little further out，graphene can be employed in membranes used for water desalination.Lockheed-Martin already has a patented product known as Perforene.“It’s real and it works，but it won’t be economically viable until the product reaches an industrial scale where the cost is measured in pennies per square inch”rather than dollars or tens of dollars per square inch，Patterson explained.
“That’s where we’re working today.”
‘It’s expensive and low-capacity’
H. But use of graphene in semiconductors—the technology’s Holy Grail—is likely a decade away.“Many of the challenges presented by graphene are common to most new materials，”Paul Smith,a patent associate with the Intellectual Property Law Group at Fenwick & West，told Fortune.“The trick is figuring out how to synthesize graphene in a way that first is manufacturable beyond lab scale;second，preserves the desirable properties of the material;and third，can be integrated into a product or technology.”
I.Synthesizing graphene in sheet form is considerably more expensive and time-consuming than producing graphene flakes.Whereas the latter typically involves a“quick and dirty”process by which bulk graphite is disassembled into millions of tiny pieces，Lau explained，large sheets of graphene are carefully“grown”on substrates(基板)such as copper，germanium，or silicon carbide.
J. Graphene sheets are also prone to defects and“very difficult to make in good quality,”Ron Mertens，owner and editor of Graphene-Info.tom，said.Production capacity is also very limited.“There are thousands of small companies that can make graphene，but it’s expensive and low-capacity,”Mertens said.alround wafer measuring one inch in diameter,for instance，costs about$1 00，he added.
K.An even thornier obstacle on the way to graphene transistors is the fact that the material has no“band gap，”an essential property that allows transistors to be turned on and off without leaking electronic charge in the“off”state，said Elias Towe，a professor of electrical and computer engineering at Carnegie Mellon University.
L.“Band-gap engineering has been and remains the biggest challenge in the development of graphene transistors and computer chips.”Lau said.It requires controlling the material almost down at the atomic level，and“that’s really pushing the edges of existing technology,”Patterson said.“In 10 years，we’11 start to see these problems solved.”
‘It is largely a matter of time’
M.If graphene is to succeed as a replacement for silicon，every unit of cost and performance will make a difference，Towe said.
N.“Silicon is hard to displace，with all the billions dollars of investments made in manufacturing infrastructure，”he said.“A replacement for silicon has to offer extraordinary performance at extremely rock-bottom cost to compel industry to change its way.”
O.Though graphene is just 10 years old—in contrast,use of silicon in transistors dates to the early 1950s—considerable progress has already been made.For example，the largest graphene sheet was produced by hand in a laboratory eight years ago;its width was less than that of a human hair.“Nowadays，roll-to-roll printing of graphene sheets up to 1 00 meters long has been achieved，”Lau said.“With the increasing interest，investment，and research in graphene-based technology,I think it is largely a matter of time before the economy of scale kicks in and truly low-cost，large-scale production ofhigh-quality graphene is accomplished，”she added.
46.Nanoplatelet is the powder-or flake-type of graphene that has been used for some time to make conductors and that is being launched on the market.
47.To encourage industry to replace silicon with graphene，it is necessary for graphene to provide high property at an extremely low expense.
48.While graphene flakes are roughly processed with bulk graphite，graphene sheets are carefully made on substrates like copper，germanium，or silicon carbide.
49.In the past ten years.graphene has become a hot topic among the scientific and technology groups.
50.Perforene won’t come into the market before it can be manufactured at a very low cost.
51.Despite of a much younger age than silicon，great progress has been made in graphene;and with ever increasing interest，investment and research in graphene technology,it’s probable to manufacture cost- effective graphene of high quality.
52.Graphene has been attempted to be used for plenty of noticeable applications.
53.Yet it still needs to take ten years for graphene to be used in semiconductors，which lies at the heart of the technology.
54.With today’s technology,it is still impossible to control material down at the atomic level.
55.Elias Towe pointed out that having no“band gap”，the dispensable feature of transistors，makes it more difficult to produce graphene transistors.
46.Nanoplatelet is the powder-or flake-type of graphene that has been used for some time to make conductors and that is being launched on the market.纳米片是粉末状或者薄片状的石墨烯，被用于制作导体已经有一段时间了，而且开始被推向市场。
47.To encourage industry to replace silicon with graphene.it is necessary for graphene to provide high property at an extremely low expense.为了让业界用石墨烯代替硅，就必须让石墨烯在造价极低的同时保持高性能。
48.While graphene flakes are roughly processed with bulk graphite，graphene sheets are carefully made on substrates like copper,germanium，or silicon carbide.石墨烯薄片是由块状石墨粗略加工而成的，而石墨烯薄膜则是在铜，锗或者碳化硅等基板上仔细加工而成的。
49.In the past ten years，graphene has become a hot topic among the scientific and technology groups.在过去的十年间，石墨烯已经成了科学技术界的热点话题。
50.Perforene won’t come into the market before it Can be manufactured at a very low cost.Perforene在能够以低成本大量生产之前是不会上市的。
51.Despite of a much younger age than silicon，great progress has been made in graphene;and with ever increasing interest，investment and research in graphene technology,it’s probable to manufacture cost-effective graphene ofhigh quA.ity.虽然出现得比硅要晚很多年，石墨烯仍取得了很大进展;而且随着石墨烯技术利益，投资及研究的日益增加，很有可能以低成本生产大量高质量的石墨烯。
52.Graphene has been attempted to be used for plenty of noticeable applications.石墨烯已经被尝试着用于许多引人注意的应用程序。
53.Yet it still needs to take ten years for graphene to be used in semiconductors，which lies at the heart of the technology.但是，将石墨烯用于半导体制造(技术的核心)仍需要十年的时间。
54.With today’s technology,it is still impossible to control material down at the atomic level.以今天的技术还无法将材料控制在原子层面。
55.Elias Towe pointed out that having no“band gap”，the dispensable feature of transistors，makes it more difficult to produce graphene transistors.艾利亚斯•陶威指出，由于缺少晶体管必备的“带隙”，使得制造石墨烯晶体管更加困难。
Where do pesticides fit into the picture of environmental disease? We have seen that they now pollute soil,water and food, that they have the power to make our streams fishless and our gardens and woodlands silent and birdless. Man, however much he may like to pretend the contrary, is part of nature. Can he escape a pollution that is now so thoroughly distributed throughout our world:
We know that even single exposures to these chemicals, if the amount is large enough, can cause extremely severe poisoning. But this is not the major problem. The sudden illness or death of farmers, farmworkers, and others exposed to sufficient quantities of pesticides is very sad and should not occur. For the population as a whole, we must be more concerned with the delayed effects of absorbing small amounts of the pesticides that invisibly pollute our world.
Responsible public health officials have pointed out that the biological effects of chemicals are cumulative over long periods of time, and that the danger to individual may depend on the sum of the exposures received throughout his lifetime. For these very reasons the danger is easily ignored. It is human nature to shake off what may seem to us a threat of future disaster. "Men are naturally most impressed by diseases which have obvious signs, " says a wise physician, Dr Rene Dubos, "yet some of their worst enemies slowly approach them unnoticed."
Choose correct answers to the question:
1.Which of the following is closest in meaning to the sentence "Man…is part of nature" (Para. 1, Lines 3-4)?
A. Man appears indifferent to what happens in nature.
B. Man acts as if he does not belong to nature.
C. Man can avoid the effects of environmental pollution.
D. Man can escape his responsibilities for environmental effects of pesticides?
2. What is the author"s attitude toward the environmental effects of pesticides?
3. In the author"s view, the sudden death caused by exposure to large amounts of pesticides _____.
A. is not the worst of the negative consequences resulting from the use of pesticides
B. now occurs most frequently among all accidental deaths
C. has sharply increased so as to become the center of public attention
D. is unavoidable because people can"t do without pesticides in farming
4. People tend to ignore the delayed effects of exposure to chemical because _____.
A. limited exposure to them does little harm to people"s health
B. the present is more important for them than the future
C. the danger does not become apparent immediately
D. humans are capable of withstanding small amounts of poisoning
5. It can be concluded from Dr. Dubos remarks that _____.
A. people find invisible diseases difficult to deal with
B. attacks by hidden enemies tend to be fatal
C. diseases with obvious signs are easy to cure
D. people tend to overlook hidden dangers caused by pesticides
1.[B] 题干的句子是文章第1段第3句，这是一个带有插入语的简单句，contrary在此表示跟part of nature相反，因此答案为B。
5.[D] Dubos博士话中“最可怕的敌人”指的是“杀虫剂引起的潜在危险”，博士话中的slowly approach them unnoticed直接表明D正确。
Long after the 1998 World Cup was won, disappointed fans were still cursing the disputed refereeing(裁判)decisions that denied victory to their team. A researcher was appointed to study the performance of some top referees.
The researcher organized an experimental tournament(锦标赛)involving four youth teams. Each match lasted an hour, divided into three periods of 20 minutes during which different referees were in charge.
Observers noted down the referees’errors, of which there were 61 over the tournament. Converted to a standard match of 90 minutes, each referee made almost 23 mistakes, a remarkably high number.
The researcher then studied the videotapes to analyze the matches in detail. Surprisingly, he found that errors were more likely when the referees were close to the incident. When the officials got it right, theywere, on average, 17 meters away from the action. The average distance in the case of errors was12 meters.The research shows the optimum(最佳的)distance is about 20 meters.
There also seemed to be an optimum speed. Correct decisions came when the referees were moving at a speed of about 2 meters per second. The average speed for errors was 4 meters per second.
If FIFA, football’s international ruling body, wants to improve the standard of refereeing at the next World Cup, it should encourage referees to keep their eyes on the action from a distance, rather than rushing to keep up with the ball, the researcher argues.
He also says that FIFA’s insistence that referees should retire at age 45 may be misguided. If keeping upwith the action is not so important, their physical condition is less critical.
Choose correct answers to the question:
1. The experiment conducted by the researcher was meant to_______.
A. review the decisions of referees at the 1998 World Cup
B. analyze the causes of errors made by football referees
C. set a standard for football refereeing
D. reexamine the rules for football refereeing
2. The number of refereeing errors in the experimental matches was _______.
A. slightly above average
B. higher than in the 1998 World Cup
C. quite unexpected
D. as high as in a standard match
3. The findings of the experiment show that _______.
A. errors are more likely when a referee keeps close to the ball
B. the farther the referee is from the incident, the fewer the errors
C. the more slowly the referee runs, the more likely will errors occur
D. errors are less likely when a referee stays in one spot
4. The word “officials” (Line 2, Para.4) most probably refers to _______.
A. the researchers involved in the experiment
B. the inspectors of the football tournament
C. the referees of the football tournament
D. the observers at the site of the experiment
5. What is one of the possible conclusions of the experiment?
A. The ideal retirement age for an experienced football referee is 45.
B. Age should not be the chief consideration in choosing a football referee.
C. A football referee should be as young and energetic as possible.
D. An experienced football referee can do well even when in poor physical condition.
1.[B] 根据第1段可知，球迷对裁判的裁决不满意，因此“A researcher was appointed to study the performance of some top referees. 一名研究员被指定对一些高级裁判的场上执法情况进行研究”,再加上文中error一词頻频使用，可见，目的是分析裁判误判的原因，即B。
2.[C] 第3段说“在90分钟的标准赛中，每个裁判几乎犯23个错误，这是一个remarkably high number”, C与之一致。
5.[B] 最后一段提到，如果紧跟着球员跑来跑去显得不那么重要的话，栽判的身体状况也就不那么关键了。所以它的含义应为B “在选择足球裁判时，年龄并不是首要考虑的因素"
Some pessimistic experts feel that the automobile is bound to fall into disuse. They see a day in the not-too-distant future when all autos will be abandoned and allowed to rust. Other authorities, however, thinkthe auto is here to stay. They hold that the car will remain a leading means of urban travel in the foreseeable future.
The motorcar will undoubtedly change significantly over the next 30 years. It should become smaller, safer,and more economical, and should not be powered by the gasoline engine. The car of the future should be far more pollution-free than present types.
Regardless of its power source, the auto in the future will still be the main problem in urban traffic congestion (拥挤). One proposed solution to this problem is the automated highway system.
When the auto enters the highway system, a retractable (可伸缩的) arm will drop from the auto and make contact with a rail, which is similar to those powering subway trains electrically. Once attached to the rail,the car will become electrically powered from the system, and control of the vehicle will pass to a central computer. The computer will then monitor all of the car’s movements.
The driver will use a telephone to dial instructions about his destination into the system. The computer will calculate the best route, and reserve space for the car all the way to the correct exit from the highway. The driver will then be free to relax and wait for the buzzer (蜂鸣器) that will warn him of his coming exit. It is estimated that an automated highway will be able to handle 10,000 vehicles per hour, compared with the 1,500 to 2,000 vehicles that can be carried by a present-day highway.
Choose correct answers to the question:
1. One significant improvement in the future car will probably be ________.
A. its power source
B. its driving system
C. its monitoring system
D. its seating capacity
2. What is the author’s main concern?
A. How to render automobiles pollution-free.
B. How to make smaller and safer automobiles.
C. How to solve the problem of traffic jams.
D. How to develop an automated subway system.
3. What provides autos with electric power in an automated highway system?
A. A rail.
B. An engine.
C. A retractable arm.
D. A computer controller.
4. In an automated highway system, all the driver needs to do is ________.
A. keep in the right lane
B. wait to arrive at his destination
C. keep in constant touch with the computer center
D. inform the system of his destination by phone
5. What is the author’s attitude toward the future of autos?
1.[A] 推断题。从第2段首句可以看出第2段主要讲未来汽车的变化方向。该段第2 、3句说它将变得更小巧、安全、节能，给它提供动力的将不再是汽油发动机。而第3段也着重展望了未来汽车动力系统的新模式，故未来汽车一个最重要的改进就在于它的能量来源，故答案为A。
2.[C] 事实细节题。第3段首句提到，未来的汽车仍将是令城市交通拥挤的主要问题而这也是作者最为关心的问题，C之相符。其他各项在文章中都提到过，但并非the main problem，故排除。