Section 1 & Section 2重点场景（生活类）：旅行交通，旅行住宿，艺术鉴赏，剧院环境介绍，公园导览，图书馆场馆介绍。
Section 3 & Section 4重点场景（学术类）：流程介绍，工作机会，作业反馈，论文讨论，动物讲座，考古学。
Choose the correct letter, A, B or C.
The customer it leaving from
A Main Street.
B Centenary Square.
C Central Bus Station
1 The customer's coach departs at
A 1.00 p.m.
B 2.00 p.m.
C 3.00 p.m.
2 The customer wants
A a single ticket.
B a return ticket.
C an open return ticket.
3 The customer is going to London
A to attend a family party.
B to see his daughter.
C for a meeting.
Complete the notes below.
Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS or A NUMBER for each answer.
Name: Matthew (4) _____
Address: 34 (5) _____
Telephone: 01732 (6) _____
Email: matt (7) _____ @yahoo.co.uk
Choose the correct letter, A, B or C.
8 Apart from hand luggage, travelers
A must pay £10 for luggage.
B can only take two additional suitcases.
C are allowed up to 40 kilos of luggage free of charge.
9 Travel insurance
A is included.
B costs extra.
C is compulsory.
10 The customer decides to pay
A by debit card.
B in cash.
C by cheque
Choose THREE letters. A-F.
Which THREE changes have been made to the library over the summer?
A a new roof
B new computers
C new shelf units
D a self-service system
E meeting room decorated
F new furniture for the children
Choose TWO letters, A-E.
Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.
Which THREE events does the speaker say are taking place in September?
Choose the correct letter, A, B or C.
17 The library needs a teacher for the Computer Club because
A the current teacher is leaving.
B they are starting an additional group.
C they want to start a higher-level class.
18 Who does the library want older people to talk to about the past?
B young children
Choose TWO letters, A-E.
Choose TWO letters A-E.
In addition to books, which two services does the mobile library offer?
A computer lessons
B a reservation service
C a reference section
D newspapers and magazines
E community advice
Complete the sentences blow.
Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer
21 The best days for engineering students are ____________________
22 Students can get useful su99tstons about ____________________
23 Use the internet to look at ____________________ before the event.
24 Fergus says that
A there is one company he is particularly interested in.
B he has done some research already.
C he knows the boss at one of the companies.
25 The tutor thinks Fergus should
A prepare questions in advance.
B research the skills required for jobs before the event.
C find out what the starting salaries are.
24 Fergus plans
A to wear a suit and tie.
B to wear smart but casual clothes.
C to buy an outfit for the event.
27 The tutor suggests that Fergus
A should ask particular people certain questions.
B should avoid taking free gifts.
C should treat conversations like short interviews.
Choose THREE letters, A-E.
Why do the tutor end Fergus think it is useful to attend a jobs fair?
A to get a job
B to find out what employers want from you
C to give employers your contact details
D to discover which are the key companies to work for
E to practice your communication skills
F to make useful contacts
Choose the correct letter, A, B or C.
31 According to the speaker.
A people wore healthier m the past.
B ancient bones need to be handled with care.
C bones offer clues to a person's lifestyle.
32 The island of Vanuatu
A was not always inhabited
B had no food sources.
C was the only island m Remote Oceania.
33 Archaeologists wanted to discover
A what resources wore available on the island.
B if the settlers could rely entirely on local food sources.
C the extent to which the settlers ate food they had brought with them.
Complete the sentences blow.
Write NO MOR£ THAN THREE WORDS for each answer
34 Bones provide a dietary _____ of the things people ate.
35 Different ratios of carbon and sulphur are found m organisms depending on whether they come from the _____
36 Archaeologists analysed modem and _____ food sources for chemical elements.
37 The settlers ate wild creatures as well as _____
Choose TWO letters, A-D.
An analysis of the bones of men and women suggest that
A females ate more meat than males.
B diet could have been determined by the job the person did.
C some people held higher status than others.
D food was distributed equally amongst the settlers.
Choose the correct letter. A B or C.
The bones of pigs and chickens indicate that these animals
A only ate food provided by the settlers.
B were a main source of food for the settlers.
C probably did not consume the settlers’ limited food supplies.
5 Allesley Road
11,12 & 13 IN ANY ORDER
14 (local) history society
15 book club
16 Ask the Author
19 & 20 IN ANY ORDER
21 Tuesday and
22 career paths
23 company websites
27 A Wednesday
28. 29 & 30 IN ANY ORDER
35 land or water
37 domestic (land) animals
38 & 39 IN ANY ORDER
READING PASSAGE 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.
Reading Passage 1 has eight paragraphs, A-H.
Choose the correct heading for each paragraph from the list of headings below.
Write the correct number, i-xi, in boxes 1-8 on your answer sheet.
List of Headings
i Not enough tea to meet demand
ii Religious objections
iii in – and sometimes out of – fashion
iv A connection between tea and religion
v A luxury item
vi News of tea reaches another continent
vii Is tea a good or bad thing?
viii A chance discovery
ix The benefits for health
x Tea-making as a ritual
xi Difficulties in importing tea
1 Paragraph A
2 Paragraph B
3 Paragraph C
4 Paragraph D
5 Paragraph E
6 Paragraph F
7 Paragraph G
8 Paragraph H
A Brief History of Tea
A The story of tea began in ancient China over 5,000 years ago. According to legend, the Emperor Shen Nung was a skilled ruler, creative scientist and patron of the arts. His far-sighted edicts required, among other things, that all drinking water be boiled as a hygienic precaution. One summer day while visiting a distant region of his realm, he and the court stopped to rest. In accordance with his ruling, the servants began to boil water for the court to drink. Dried leaves from a nearby bush fell into the boiling water, and as the leaves infused the water turned brown. As a scientist, the Emperor was intrigued by the new liquid, drank some, and found it very refreshing. And so, according to legend, tea was created.
B Tea consumption spread throughout Chinese culture, reaching into every aspect of the society. The first definitive book was written on tea - a book clearly reflecting Zen Buddhist philosophy - 1,200 years ago. The first tea seeds were brought to Japan by a returning Buddhist priest, who had seen the value of tea in enhancing meditation in China. As a result, he is known as the ‘Father of Tea’ in Japan. Because of this early association, tea in Japan has always been linked with Zen Buddhism. Tea received the Japanese Emperor’s support almost instantly and spread rapidly from the royal court and monasteries to other sections of society.
C Tea was elevated to an art form in the Japanese tea ceremony, in which supreme importance is given to making tea in the most perfect, most polite, most graceful, most charming manner possible. Such a purity of expression prompted the creation of a particular form of architecture for 'tea house’, duplicating the simplicity of a forest cottage. The cultural/artistic hostesses of Japan, the geishas, began to specialize in the presentation of the tea ceremony. However, as more and more people became involved in the excitement surrounding tea, the purity of the original concept was lost, and for a period the tea ceremony became corrupted, boisterous and highly embellished. Efforts were then made to return to the earlier simplicity, with the result that, in the 15th and 16th centuries, tea was viewed as the ultimate gift. Even warlords paused for tea before battles.
D While tea was at this high level of development in parts of Aisa, information concerning the then unknown beverage began to filter back to Europe. Earlier traders had mentioned it, but were unclear as to whether tea should be eaten or drunk. The first European to personally encounter tea and write about it was Portuguese - Portugal, with her technologically advanced navy, had been successful in gaining the first right of trade with China.
E Tea finally arrived in Europe in the 16th century, brought to Holland by the country’s navy, and becoming very fashionable in the Dutch capital, the Hague. This was due in part to tea being very expensive (over $100 per pound), which immediately made it the domain of the wealthy. Slowly, as the amount of tea imported increased, the price fell, and by 1675 it was available in common food shops throughout Holland.
F As the consumption of tea increased dramatically in Dutch society, doctors and university authorities in Holland argued as to its benefits or drawbacks. The public largely ignored the scholarly debate and continued to enjoy their new beverage, through the controversy lasted from 1635 to roughly 1657. Throughout this period, France and Holland led Europe in the use of tea.
G As the craze for all things oriental swept through Europe, tea became part of the way of life. Adding milk to the drink was first mentioned in 1680. Around that time, Dutch inns provided the first restaurant service of tea. Innkeepers would furnish guests with a portable tea set complete with a heating unit. The Dutchman would then prepare tea for himself and his friends outside in the inn garden. Tea remained popular in France for only about fifty years, being replaced by a preference for wine, chocolate, and exotic coffees. Tea was introduced into England in 1660 by King Charles II and his Portuguese queen, who were both confirmed tea drinkers. Tea mania swept across England as it had earlier spread throughout France and Holland. By 1708 tea importation had risen to thirteen times the 1699 level. Tea was drunk by all levels of society.
H The Russian interest in tea began as early as 1618, when the Chinese embassy in Moscow presented several chests of tea to the Emperor, Czar Alexis. Later in the century, a trade treaty between Russia and China allowed caravans to cross back and forth freely between the two countries. Still, the journey was not easy. The average caravan consisted of 200 to 300 camels, and the 18,000-kilometre trip took over 16 months to complete. Eventually, however, tea became -as it still is - one of the most popular drinks in the country.
Look at the following statements (Question 9-13) and the list of countries below.
Match each statement with the correct country, A-G.
Write the correct letter, A-G, in boxes 9-13 on your answer sheet.
9 Claims that tea might be harmful failed to affect it popularity.
10 Tea lost favour to other drinks.
11 Special buildings were constructed in which to drink tea.
12 Animals were involved in importing tea.
13 A ruler’s specialist knowledge led to an interest in tea.
List of Countries
READING PASSAGE 2
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.
Next to Nature, but what is art?
Julian Bames explores the questions posed by Life-Casts, an exhibition of plaster moulds of living people and objects which were originally used for scientific purposes
A Art changes over time and our idea of what art is changes too. For example, objects originally intended for devotional, ritualistic or recreational purposes may be recategorised as art by members of other later civilisations, such as our own, which no longer respond to these purposes.
B What also happens is that techniques and crafts which would have been judged inartistic at the time they were used are reassessed. Life-casting is an interesting example of this. It involved making a plaster mould of a living person or thing. This was complex, technical work, as Benjamin Robert Haydon discovered when he poured 250 litres of plaster over his human model and nearly killed him. At the time, the casts were used for medical research and, consequently, in the nineteenth century life-casting was considered inferior to sculpture in the same way that, more recently, photography was thought to be a lesser art than painting. Both were viewed as unacceptable shortcuts by the ‘senior’ arts. Their virtues of speed and unwavering realism also implied their limitations; they left little or no room for the imagination.
C For many, life-casting was an insult to the sculptor’s creative genius. In an infamous lawsuit of 1834, a moulder whose mask of the dying French emperor Napoleon had been reproduced and sold without his permission was judged to have no rights to the image. In other words, he was specifically held not to be an artist. This judgement reflect the view of established members of the nineteenth-century art world such as Rodin, who commented that life-casting ‘happens fast but it doesn’t make Art’. Some even feared that ‘if too much nature was allowed in, it would lead Art away from its proper course of the Ideal’.
D The painter Gauguin, at the end of the nineteenth century, worried about future developments in photography, if ever the process went into colour, what painter would labour away at a likeness with a brush made from squirrel-tail? But painting has proved robust. Photography has changed it, of course, just as the novel had to reassess narrative after the arrival of the cinema. But the gap between the senior and junior arts was always narrower than the traditionalists implied. Painters have always used technical back-up such as studio assistants to do the boring bits, while apparently lesser crafts involve great skill, thought, preparation and, depending on how we define it, imagination.
E Time changes our view in another way, too. Each new movement implies a reassessment of what has gone before. What is done now alters what was done before. In some cases this is merely self-serving, with the new art using the old to justify itself. It seems to be saying, ‘look at how all of that points to this! Aren’t we clever to be the culmination of all that has gone before?’ But usually it is a matter of re-alerting the sensibility, reminding us not to take things for granted. Take, for example, the cast of the hand of a giant from a circus, made by an anonymous artist around 1889, an item that would now sit happily in any commercial or public gallery. The most significant impact of this piece is on the eye, in the contradiction between unexpected size and verisimilitude. Next, the human element kicks in. you note that the nails are dirt-encrusted, unless this is the caster’s decorative addition, and the fingertips extend far beyond them. Then you take in the element of choice, arrangement, art if you like, in the neat, pleated, buttoned sleeve-end that gives the item balance and variation of texture. This is just a moulded hand, yet the part stands utterly for the whole. It reminds us slyly, poignantly, of the full-size original.
F But is it art? And, if so, why? These are old tediously repeated questions to which artists have often responded, ‘It is art because I am an artist and therefore what I do is art’. However, what doesn’t work for literature works much better for art - works of art do float free of their creators’ intentions. Over time the ‘reader’ does become more powerful. Few of us can look at a medieval altarpiece as its painter intended. We believe too little and aesthetically know too much, so we recreate and find new fields of pleasure in the work. Equally, the lack of artistic intention of Paul Richer and other forgotten craftsmen who brushed oil onto flesh, who moulded, cast and decorated in the nineteenth century is now irrelevant. What counts is the surviving object and our response to it. The tests are simple: does it interest the eye, excite the brain, move the mind to reflection and involve the heart? Further, is an apparent level of skill involved? Much currently fashionable art bothers only the eye and briefly the brain but it fails to engage the mind or the heart. It may, to use the old dichotomy, be beautiful but it is rarely true to any significant depth. One of the constant pleasures of art is its ability to come at us from an unexpected angle and stop us short in wonder.
Reading Passage 2 has six paragraphs, A-F.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter, A-F, in boxes 14-18 on your answer sheet.
14 an example of a craftsman’s unsuccessful claim to ownership of his work
15 an example of how trends in art can change attitudes to an earlier work
16 the original function of a particular type of art
17 ways of assessing whether or not an object is art
18 how artists deal with the less interesting aspects of their work
Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 2?
In boxes 19-24 on your answer sheet, write
YES if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer
NO if the statement contradicts the claim of the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
19 Nineteenth-century sculptors admired the speed and realism of life-casting.
20 Rodin believed the quality of the life-casting would improve if a slower process were used.
21 The importance of painting has decreased with the development of colour photography.
22 Life-casting requires more skill than sculpture does.
23 New art encourages us to look at earlier work in a fresh way.
24 The intended meaning of a work of art can get lost over time.
Questions 25 and 26
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
Write the correct letter in boxes 25 and 26 on your answer sheet.
25 The most noticeable contrast in the cast of the giant’s hand is between the
A dirt and decoration
B size and realism
C choice and arrangement
D balance and texture
26 According to the writer, the importance of any artistic object lies in
A the artist’s intentions
B the artist’s beliefs
C the relevance it has to modern life
D the way we respond to it
READING PASSAGE 3
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40, which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.
Research explores when we can make a vital decision quickly and when we need to proceed more deliberately.
A widely recognised legend tells us that in Gordium (in what is now Turkey) in the fourth century BC an oxcart was roped to a pole with a complex knot. It was said that the first person to untie it would become the king of Asia. Unfortunately, the knot proved impossible to untie. The story continues that when confronted with this problem, rather than deliberating on how to untie the Gordian knot. Alexander, the famous ruler of the Greeks in the ancient world, simply took out his sword and cut it in two - then went on to conquer Asia. Ever since, the notion of a ‘Gordian solution’ has referred to the attractiveness of a simple answer to an otherwise intractable problem.
Among researchers in the psychology of decision making, however, such solutions have traditionally held little appeal. In particular, the ‘conflict model’ of decision making proposed by psychologists Irving Janis and Leon Mann in their 1977 book, Decision Making, argued that a complex decision making process is essential for guarding individuals and groups from the peril of ‘group-think’. Decisions made without thorough canvassing, surveying, weighing, examining and reexamining relevant information and options would be suboptimal and often disastrous. One foreign affairs decision made by a well-known US political leader in the 1960s is typically held us as an example of the perils of inadequate thought, whereas his successful handling of a later crisis is cited as an example of the advantages of careful deliberation. However, examination of these historical events by Peter Suedfield, a psychologist at the University of British Columbia, and Roderick Kramer, a psychologist at the Stanford Graduate School of Business, found little difference in the two decision-making processes; both crises required and received complex consideration by the political administration, but later only the second one was deemed to be the effective.
In general, however, organizational and political science offer little evidence that complex decisions fare better than simpler ones. In fact, a growing body of work suggests that in many situations simple ‘snap’ decisions will be routinely superior to more complex ones - an idea that gained widespread public appeal with Malcolm Gladwell’s best-selling book Blink (2005).
An article by Ap Dijksterhuis of the University of Amsterdam and his colleagues, ‘On Making the Right Choice: the Deliberation-without-attention Effect’, runs very much in the spirit of Gladwell’s influential text. Its core argument is that to be effective, conscious (deliberative) decision making requires cognitive resources. Because increasingly complex decisions place increasing strain on those resources, the quality of our decisions declines as their complexity increases. In short, complex decisions overrun our cognitive powers. On the other hand, unconscious decision making (what the author refer to as ‘deliberation without attention’) requires no cognitive resources, so task complexity does not degrade effectiveness. The seemingly counterintuitive conclusion is that although conscious thought enhances simple decisions, the opposite holds true for more complex decisions.
Dijksterhuis reports four simple but elegant studies supporting this argument. In one, participants assessed the quality of four hypothetical cars by considering either four attributes (a simple task) or 12 attributes (a complex task). Among participants who considered four attributes, those who were allowed to engage in undistracted deliberative thought did better at discriminating between the best and worst cars. Those who were distracted and thus unable to deliberate had to rely on their unconscious thinking and did less well. The opposite pattern emerged when people considered 12 criteria. In this case, conscious deliberation led to inferior discrimination and poor decisions.
In other study, Dijksterhuis surveyed people shopping for clothes (‘simple’ products) and furniture (‘complex’ products). Compared with those who said they had deliberated long and hard, shoppers who bought with little conscious deliberation felt less happy with their simple clothing purchase but happier with the complex furniture purchases. Deliberation without attention actually produced better results as the decisions became more complex.
From there, however, the researchers take a big leap. They write:
There is no reason to assume that the deliberation-without-attention effect does not generalize to other types of choices - political, managerial or otherwise. In such cases, it should benefit the individual to think consciously about simple matters and to delegate thinking about more complicated matters to the unconscious.
This radical inference contradicts standard political and managerial theory but doubtless comforts those in politics and management who always find the simple solution to the complex problem an attractive proposition. Indeed, one suspects many of our political leaders already embrace this wisdom.
Still it is there, in the realms of society and its governance, that the more problematic implications of deliberation without attention begin to surface. Variables that can be neatly circumscribed in decisions about shopping lose clarity in a world of group dynamics, social interaction, history and politics. Two pertinent questions arise. First, what counts as a complex decision? And second, what counts as a good outcome?
As social psychologist Kurt Lewin (1890 - 1947) noted, a ‘good’ decision that nobody respects is actually bad. His classic studies of decision making showed that participating in deliberative processes makes people more likely to abide by the results. The issue here is that when political decision makers make mistakes, it is their politics, or the relation between their politics and our own, rather than psychology which is at fault.
Gladwell’s book and Dijksterhuis’s paper are invaluable in pointing out the limitations of the conventional wisdom that decision quality rises with decision-making complexity. But this work still tempts us to believe that decision making is simply a matter of psychology, rather than also a question of politics, ideology and group membership. Avoiding social considerations in a search for general appeal can take us away from enlightenment rather than toward it.
Questions 27 - 31
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
Write the correct letter in boxes 27-31 on your answer sheet.
27 The legend of the Gordian knot is used to illustrate the idea that
A anyone can solve a difficult problem
B difficult problems can have easy solutions
C the solution to any problem requires a lot of thought
D people who can solve complex problems make good leaders
28 The ‘conflict model’ of decision making proposed by Janis and Mann requires that
A opposing political parties be involved
B all important facts be considered
C people be encouraged to have different ideas
D previous similar situations be thoroughly examined
29 According to recent thinking reinforced by Malcolm Gladwell, the best decisions
A involve consultation
B involve complex thought
C are made very quickly
D are the most attractive option
30 Dijksterhuis and his colleagues claim in their article that
A our cognitive resources improve as tasks become more complex
B conscious decision making is negative affected by task complexity
C unconscious decision making is a popular approach
D deliberation without attention defines the way we make decisions
31 Dijksterhuis’s car study found that, in simple tasks, participants
A were involved in lengthy discussions
B found it impossible to make decisions quickly
C were unable to differentiate between the options
D could make a better choice when allowed to concentrate
Question 32 - 35
Complete the summary using the list of words A-1 below.
Write the correct letter, A-I, in boxes 32 - 35 on your answer sheet.
Dijksterhuis’s shopping study and its conclusions
Using clothing and furniture as examples of different types of purchases, Dijksterhuis questioned shoppers on their satisfaction with what they had bought. People who spent 32............time buying simple clothing items were more satisfied than those who had not. However, when buying furniture, shoppers made 33................purchasing decisions if they didn’t think too hard. From this, the researchers concluded that in other choices, perhaps more important than shopping. 34...............decisions are best made by the unconscious. The writer comments that Dijksterhuis’s finding is apparently 35...............but nonetheless true.
A more B counterintuitive C simple
D better E conscious F obvious
G complex H less I worse
Question 36 - 40
Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 3?
In boxes 36 - 40 on your answer sheet, write
YES if the statement agrees with the views of the writer
NO if the statement contradicts the views of the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
36 Dijksterhuis’s findings agree with existing political and management theories.
37 Some political leaders seem to use deliberation without attention when making complex decisions.
38 All political decisions are complex ones.
39 We judge political errors according to our own political beliefs.
40 Social considerations must be taken into account for any examination of decision making to prove useful.
22. NOT GIVEN
37. NOT GIVEN
38. NOT GIVEN
The line chart shows the production of main fuels in UK between 1986 and 2000.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. Write at least 150 words.
A glance at the line graph given reveals the trend of energy resources generated in UK from 1986 to 2000. It is evident that the petroleum yield remained the highest level during the whole period. While natural gas production experienced a burgeoning growth in the last five years of the 20th century, the output of coal decreased sharply.
In 1986, the production of petroleum and coal was almost the same at less than 120 million tons, but they witnessed two totally different trend in the following decade. Petrol output mounted to 140 million tons in 1990 before it fell to 110 in 1995, while coal plunged dramatically at first, then bounced back from 75 to nearly 100 million tons between 1990 and 1995. The production gap of these two fuels became wider since 1995, with petroleum yield rising to 130 in 2000 whereas the other reaching a low of 60 million tons.
Besides, it is interesting to note that when coal and petrol dominated the fuel production, natural gas production remained a low profile. Fluctuating at around 65 billion cubic metres for almost ten years, it rose exponentially since 1995. After gas production exceeded coal in 1996, it kept almost the same growth rate with petroleum and gained a yield of more than 100 billion cubic metres in 2000.
①a burgeoning growth: 快速增长
②production/output/yield: n. 产量
③mount: v. 上升
④plunge: v. 迅速下降
Some people believe that the best way to build a happier society is to ensure that there are only small differences between the richest and the poorest members. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Some people think that the government should offer financial support and care to old people, while others think that people should save money for their future life. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
Some people say that governments should spend money on measures to save languages that are used by few speakers, while others believe it's a waste of financial resources. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
The government has the duty to ensure that its citizens have a healthy diet, while others believe this is individuals' responsibility. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
The government should spend money in promoting sport and art in school, rather than sponsoring professional sports and art events in communities. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Some people said the government shouldn't spend money in building theaters and sports stadiums; they should spend more money on medical care and education. Do you agree or disagree?
Some people think that it is more important to plant more trees in open area in towns and cities than provides more housing. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Some people think it is more important for government to spend public money on promoting healthy lifestyle in order to prevent illness than to spend it on the treatment of people who are already ill. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Nowadays, most people learn academic study in university, but others think we should encourage to learn vocational skills more, do you agree or disagree?
The best way to teach children to cooperate is through team sports at school. What extent do you agree or disagree?
Some people say that playing computer games is bad for children in every aspect. Others say that playing computer games can have positive effects on the way children develop. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
Some people think that in order to continue improving the quality of high school education, students should be encouraged to evaluate and criticize their teachers, while others assume this could result in the loss of respect and dignity for teachers. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
Some working parents believe childcare centers can provide best care for children, while others think family members like grandparents can do it better. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
In countries (where there is high unemployment most pupils should be offered only primary education; there is no point in offering secondary education to those who will have no hope of finding a job. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
In recent years, young people in many countries choose to live by themselves. What are the reasons and is it positive or negative for the development of the society？
Nowadays, some people think the city is no longer a good place for children, they suggest that the country is a better choice. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Anyone can post information on the Internet. Some people say most of what we read on the Internet is inaccurate. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Some people think that robots are very important for humans' future development. Others, however, think that robots are a dangerous invention that could have negative effects on society. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
Some people claim that public museums and art galleries will not be needed because people can see historical objects and works of art by using a computer. Do you agree or disagree with this opinion?
Some people argue that the technology such as mobile phone (cell phone) destroys social interaction. Do you agree or disagree?
Millions of dollars have been spent on space research. But somebody says space research wasted money; they suppose money should be used to improve human's life. Do you agree or disagree?
Some people think everyone should be a vegetarian, because we do not need to eat meat to have a healthy diet. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Interview is the basic form of selecting procedure for most large companies. Some people think it is unreliable and there are some other better methods. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
Today, some food travels thousands of miles from farms to consumers. Some people think that it would be better to our environment and economy if people only eat local produced food. To what extent do the disadvantages outweigh the advantages?
We can get knowledge from news, but some people think we cannot trust the journalist. What do you think? What qualities do you think a successful journalist should have?
There is a tendency that news reports in the media focus on problems and emergencies rather than positive developments. It is harmful to the individual and to the society. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Advertising discourages people from being different individuals by making us all want to do the same and look the same. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Research shows that overeating is as harmful as smoking. Therefore, advertising for certain food products should be banned, in the same way as cigarette advertising is banned in many countries. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Some people think it is necessary to use animals for testing medicines intended for human use. Others, however, think it's not right to do that. Discuss both views and give you own opinion.
An increasing number of museums tend to charge admission fees from tourists rather than providing service free of charge. Do you think the advantages outweigh the disadvantages?
Many developing countries are currently expanding their tourist industries. Why is this the case? Is it a positive development?
Some people think most crimes are the result of circumstances like poverty and other social problems. Others believe that they are caused by people who are bad in nature. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
Some people prefer to provide help and support directly to those who need it in their local community. Others, however, prefer to give money to national and international charitable organizations. Discuss both sides and give y our own opinion.
Some people believe famous people's support towards international aid organizations draws the attention to problems, while others think celebrities make the problems less important. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
题目：Many developing countries are currently expanding their tourist industries. Why is this the case? Is it a positive development?
解题思路：常见混合类题目主要是先描述一类现象，再要求考生分析出现的原因并进行利弊分析reason + positive/negative。回答这类问题时，主体段可分两部分，一部分写reason，另一部分做讨论。但由于时间限制，应优先确保作文完整，所以讨论部分不需要从正反两方面都全面覆盖，只要选取一类观点并合理论述即可。
Tourism in underdeveloped nations is gaining wide popularity these days due to governments’ great efforts to advocate and expand this kind of tertiary industry. However, despite the rising figures in the annual revenues, I do not regard it as a positive development in the long term, especially for the least developed countries.
Undeniably, tourism is an economic engine with great potential to drive financial growth in developing regions. Presenting jaw-dropping sceneries to the travelers, the natural landscapes also stand as one of the most low-cost sources of income for the less developed countries. Foreigners interested in exotic culture and customs are willing to spend much to experience a life far away from their familiar world. Therefore, expanding such industry is favoured by the government since the economic returns are quick and obvious.
A positive trend as it seems, emphasis on tourism in developing countries may bring more disadvantages in the long run. One of the most obvious challenge is that poor countries may lose their economic autonomy when becoming too reliant on this singular form of industry. Tourism in these areas are heavily dependent on external factors such as climate, consumers’ tastes and foreign policies toward them, all of which are unstable and hard to control. Once something goes wrong in the industry, there is no easy remedy to recover.
Moreover, expanding tourism poses a threat of “brain drain” in developing nations since job positions in such industry require less education and training. Children living in places with high demand for waiters and drivers certainly have less aspiration to attend university, which might seriously peril the future of the nation.
To sum up, focusing on developing tourism indeed brings deprived nations instant financial gains, therefore many countries are counting on it to get out of poverty. However, it does not mean we have found a panacea for the less developed countries, and it is unwise to heavily depend on tourism or even consider it the lifeblood of the nation.
①annual revenues: 年度收入
②jaw-dropping: adj. 令人惊讶的
③exotic: adj. 异国情调的
④easy remedy: 简单的补救方式
⑤brain drain: 人才流失
⑥panacea: n. 万能药，万能方案
⑦lifeblood: n. 命脉
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When would you feel bored?
Well, I would feel so bored when I cannot find anyone to hang out with as I am a very social person, and another time when I could feel bored is that I am doing something that I am not interested in. For instance, I am in a cinema for some reason watching a movie that is not my type.
What would you do to kill time when you feel bored?
Well, to be honest, I seldom feel bored as I am quite social and like to spend time with friends. However, I would probably go for some nice food if I cannot find anyone to hang out with.
What activities do people in your country do to kill time?
Well, people do a variety of things to kill time depending on their preferences. For example, elder people might do some morning exercise or keep pets to kill time, while young people are more likely to go to movies or go to sing with their friends to kill time.
Do you like parties?
Well, I wouldn’t say I am a party animal. I mean I do not hold or go to parties a lot but I would also attend some parties held by my close friends to celebrate some special events such as their birthdays or promotions. Besides, I would also invite some friends over for parties from time to time just for fun.
Did you find anything that people do is a waste of time rather than killing time?
Well, I think some young people nowadays are kind of addicted to computer games, which I think is absolutely a waste of time, although they seem to claim that they are killing time. However, I believe they should something more meaningful such as reading or jogging to kill time.
Part 2 & 3
Describe an interesting animal.
You should say:
What it is
What it looks like
Where it lives
And explain why you think it is interesting
I’d like to talk about the Red-crowned Crane. It inhabits mainly in the northern part of China but it will fly to the southern areas to spend the harsh winter, so I actually saw it in Yancheng Natural Reserve in Jiangsu Province. It is a snow white bird with a black neck and black wings, and it has got a red spot on top of its head. It stands almost as tall as a little child and it has a long pointy beak. So I didn’t dare to get close to it.
The reason I found Cranes interesting is the contrast they have, or I should say the contrast people impose on them. On one hand, cranes are regarded as a bird of good luck and longevity in a lot of legends and stories in China. But what’s hilarious is that on the other hand, a crane is also “dangerous” as the red spot on its head, what we called He Ding Hong, is considered to be the most deadly poison in Chinese legends, especially in Kong Fu stories. So the contrast aroused my interest, I had always wanted to see the Red crowned cranes with my own eyes. However nowadays it is not common to see cranes in wildlife due to pollution and human activities, so I ended up seeing them in a natural reserve. I think we need to take actions to protect such a beautiful and precious wild animal before it becomes really “dangerous”.
Eg：Nine years seems rather a harsh penalty for a crime that did not itself harm anyone.
Eg：His face is lively and expressive, with prominent cheekbones, arched eyebrows, and pointy ears.
Eg：When faced with mounting opposition, Cyprus abandoned its plan to impose large taxes on bank deposits.
④ longevity: 名词；长寿，寿命
Eg：Longevity is at its highest, and effective health care has made old age more active and enjoyable.
1. Have you seen any TV programs about animals?
Yes. I’m actually quite into these programs. I often watch Animal World of CCTV1, and some documentaries presented by BBC, such as Planet Earth and Penguins: Spy in the Huddle.
Eg: The ships in the bay present a beautiful sight.
Eg：The lights were out, so we were just told to huddle there until we heard further.
2. Do you support doing experiments on animals?
No. I understand that with restrictions of current technology, sometimes we still have to do experiments on animals like mice and rabbits, for example developing new medicine, but I hope that we can do it in a less torturous way and reduce the numbers of animals used in experiments if it is not very necessary, such as making cosmetics.
Eg：An additional restriction is that vessels must have less than a 190-foot air draft.
Eg：Thirteen torturous days later, after being airlifted to Singapore for medical help, she died.
3. Why do some people refuse to eat animals?
I think on one hand they want to lose weight and keep healthy, so they tend to eat more fruit and vegetables, to intake more vitamins. On the other hand, some people treat animals as their friends, and they may reckon eating animals is inhuman, so they become vegetarians.
Eg：But he admits that people should stick to reduced-fat hamburger, and limit their egg intake.
Eg：After gang control, the second systemic failing of Latin American jails is overcrowding and thus inhuman conditions.
4. How should we protect endangered animals?
In terms of individuals, we should refuse to wear clothes that are made of animals’ skin and fur, and do not eat endangered animals like sharks or whales. In addition, the government should take actions as well, for example to increase penalties and criminal punishments for the violation of the law.
Eg：The death penalty, said Breyer, has changed since the decision that made it legal again.
Eg：Any violation of this agreement may trigger the repayment of 50% of the bonuses previously paid.