M: And now, for the latter side of the news, Europe is setting an example for the rest of the world when it comes to food waste.
W: That’s right, John. This week, the Italian government passed legislation that aims to dramatically reduce the amount of food waste in the country. New laws have been put into place that will make it easier for farms and supermarkets to donate and sell foods to those who are in need.
M: Yes, in an addition to this, businesses will now be rewarded for successful efforts to cut food waste.
W: Italy is not the only country to focus on reducing food waste. Just earlier this year, the European parliament voted in favor of legislation that would stop grocery giants from unfair trading practices that result in overproduction, thus creating waste.
M: In France, the government has banned supermarkets from throwing away edible foods and imposed harsh penalties on businesses that fail to comply with the regulations.
W: While there is still much progress to be made, other countries could learn a thing or two from the example set by France and Italy. In the United Sates, up to 40% of all food goes uneaten. Despite the fact that one in seven American households lacks regular access to good food, one major cause of this problem is the confusion over food expiration labels, which are currently not regulated by the government.
M: All this could change soon. This wave of new laws in Europe will definitely put more pressure on law makers to reduce food waste here. We turn now to a spokesperson from Harvard University’s Food Law and Policy Clinic for more on the story. And now, let’s welcome professor Edward Baker to speak to us.
1: What does the woman say about the new laws in Italy?
2: What did the European parliament do to reduce food waste?
3: What has the French government done recently?
4: What is the major cause of food waste in the United States?
M: Thank you for calling the South Avenue Department Store. How can I be assistant to you today?
W: Hello. I was in your store this past weekend and bought a few items. Yesterday, my friend told me that the annual anniversary sales had begun. It turned out she bought the same sweater as I did but for a much lower price.
M: Yes. Our annual anniversary sales started on Monday. We do offer price adjustments for seven days of purchase to ensure our customers’ satisfaction. You said you did the purchase here this past weekend?
W: Yes. I was shopping in your store last Sunday afternoon.
M: That would definitely fall within the price adjustment window. Do you have an account with us? We can credit your account directly with the difference if you wish. Otherwise, we can send a gift card by mail if you prefer.
W: Crediting my account will be wonderful. Thank you. Now, you’ve mentioned that there is a sale going on. I do remember a dress I quietly like when I was in the shop on Sunday. Is it on offer as well.
M: Yes, ma’am. All the new arrivals are 15-20% off. In addition to the sale, we are running a promotion for complementary tailoring if needed
W: That’s good news. The dress really caught my eye but I did have some concerns about the length. How long will your alteration take?
M: Our tailoring department guarantees alteration to be completed within five working days. If you like, I can send a size for you. If you are able to come this afternoon, you can give your name to the sales manager. And they will be able to assist you.
5: What do we learn about the Sax Department Store?
6: What did the man say about Sax Department Store’s offers?
7: What did the woman want the store to do to address the price difference?
8:What is the service Sax department store offers in addition to the promotion sale？
Barbie dolls have a particular look to them. They are thin, tall, long legged and virtually unlike any real human being. Although, over the years, barbies had more than 180 different careers, including football coach, sign language teacher, ambassador, president and astronaut. Her body shape hasn’t changed much. Last year, MATEL, the company that makes Barbie dolls, added some barbies to its line to have a different skin tones and hair textures. There are now barbies 17 skin tones, 22 eye colours and 24 hair styles that choose from. Last year, MATEL also gave barbie a flat foot rather than 4 fingers to be in heels all the time like original barbie is. Now, they are introducing new barbies with 3 slightly different body shapes. On the original, tall and thin barbies would continue to be sold. In the statement on its website, the company says, it wants barbies to look more like a real people and to give girls everywhere, infinitely more ways that spark their imagination and play out the stories. Although many people say the new barbies are stepping in the right direction. Some people say they don’t go far enough. They say the new Barbie shapes could be even more different from the original tall-thin barbies. Sales of Barbie dolls has been falling every years since 2005 according to CBC news. The toys aren’t in stores yet, but they will be sold online at the Barbie website starting this week for 9 dollars and 99 cents.
9. What do we know about the original Barbie dolls?
10. Why do some people feel unsatisfied with new Barbie dolls?
11. Where will the new Barbie dolls be sold first?
The earliest printed book we known today appeared in China in the year 868, and metal type was used in Korea at the beginning of the fifteen century, but it was in Germany around the year 1415, that the printing press used in movable metal type was invented. Capitalism turned printing from an invention into an industry , right from the start, book printing in publishing were organized on capitalist lines, the biggest sixteen century printer 一个人名 had 24 printing prices and employed more than a hundred workers, only a small faction of the population was literate, but production of books grow as an extraordinary speed. By 500 hundred some 20 million volumes had already been printed, the immediate factors printing was to increase the circulation of works that were already popular in the hand-written form, while less popular works went out of circulation. Publishers were interested only in books that were sold very quickly in sufficient numbers to cover the costs of production and make profit.
Thus, while printing enormously increased access to books by making cheap, high volume production possible, it also reduces choice. The great culture impact of printing was facilitated the growth of national languages, most early books were printed in Latin, but the mark for Latin was limited, and it is pursuit of large markets, the book trade soon produced translation into the national languages, and merging at that time.
Printing indeed played the key role in standardizing and stabilizing this languages by fixing them print and producing dictionaries and grammar books.
12. What happened in Germany around the 1415？
13. What does the speaker say about the printer 人名？
14. What is the immediate affect of the printing?
15. What was the great culture impact the printing?
You dream about being a movie star. You live in a big house in Hollywood, go to the Oscars every year, and win. You will be rich and famous. Wait a minute. You also hate having your photos taken and you are very shy. So how could you ever become a movie star? Choosing a right career can be hard. Many people graduate from school or college not knowing what they want to do with their lives and get a job without really thinking about it. For some, things work out fine. But others often find themselves stuck in a job they hate. Your working life lasts in average 40 years, so it’s important to find a job you like and feel enthusiastic about.
Luckily, there are many ways you can get help to do this. The Australian website WWW. Careers online. com, compares choosing a career with going to the movies. Before you see a movie, you find out what films are showing. The site suggests you should do the same with your career. Find out what jobs are available and what your options are. Next, decide which movie you like best. If you are not a romantic person, you won’t want to see a love story. In other words, with your career, you should decide which job will suit your personality. Finally, decide how to get movie tickets and find out where the theater is before you go. With your career, you need to find information about where you can work and how to get a job in that profession.
So, how do you start? Begin by asking yourself some questions, certain life experiences. Have you travelled overseas? Do you have any extra certificates at your degree? Such as the first aid license, for example. Your physical state and build can also affect which jobs you can do. A person, for example, who is allergic to cats will probably never become an animal doctor. Flight attendants, firefighters and police officers have to be over a certain height and be physically fit. Your personality matters too. Are you outgoing or shy? If you like working alone, a job that requires lots of team work might not suit you.
Choosing a career can take time and a lot of thought. However, when you know you can look forward to working in your dream job, you will be glad you thought it through.
16. What does the speaker say about many college graduates?
17. What does the Australia website suggest you do first to find a suitable job?
18. What should you think about when you look for the right job according to the Australian website?
Kwanzaa is a cultural festival, during which African-American celebrate and reflect upon their rich heritage as the products of the two worlds. It begins December 26th and last for seven days. Kwanzaa was founded in 1966 by Dr. Karenga, a college professor and African-American leader, who believed that a special holiday could help African Americans meet their goals of building strong families, learning about their history and creating a sense of unity. After conducting extensive research in which he studied the festivals of many African groups of people, he decided that the new holiday should be a harvest or first fruit’s celebration. In cooperating ideas from many different harvest traditions. Kwanzaa is a … word meaning the first fruits of the harvest. The east African language of … was chosen as an official language of Kwanzaa. Because it is a non-tribal language spoken by a large portion of the African population. Also its pronunciation is easy. Kwanzaa is based on seven principles which are unity, self-determination, collective work and responsibility, cooperative economics, purpose, creativity and faith. One principal is highlighted each day of the holiday. In preparation for the celebration, a astroy matters placed on the table. Along with the candle holder was seven candles. One black, three red and three green. The black candle represents the African-American people. The red is for their struggles, and the green represents their hopes for their future. Other items placed on our table are a variety of fruit is of comes gifts and communal unity cup for pouring and sharing drinks. Each day of Kwanzaa usually before the evening meal，family and friends gather around the table and someone lights the candle beginning with the black. After that，candles are lit alternatively from left to right. While the candles is being lit, a principal is recited then each person present takes turn to speak about the importance that the principle has to himself or herself. Next, the ceremony focuses on remembering those who've died. A selected person pours water or juice from the unity cup into a bowl. That person then drinks from the cup and raises it high saying “her thanmbi”，which means that let’s all pour together. All repeat “her thanmbi” seven times and each person drinks from the cup . Then they and names of African American leaders and heroes a cold out to and everyone reflects upon the great things these people did. The ceremony is followed by a meal, and then singing and perhaps listening to African music
19.What does the speaker say about Kwanzaa?
20. For what purpose did Doctor Karenga create the special holiday?
21. What does the word Kwanzaa mean?
22. What do people do while each candle is being let at the Kwanzaa celebration?
The Mediterranean diet is based upon the eating patterns of traditional cultures in the Mediterranean region. Several noted nutritionists in research projects have concluded that this diet is one of the most healthful in the world in terms of preventing such illnesses as heart disease and cancer and increasing life expectancy. The countries that have inspired Mediterranean diet all surround the Mediterranean Sea. These cultures have eating habits that developed over thousands of years. In Europe, parts of Italy, Greece, Portugal, Spain and southern France adhere to principles of the Mediterranean diet as to the morocco, Indonesia, and North Africa. Parts of the Balkan region and turkey follow the diet as well as middle eastern countries like Lebanon and Syria, the Mediterranean region is warm and sunny and produces large supplies of fresh fruits and vegetables almost a year round that the people eat many times a day. Wine, bread, all of oil and nuts are other staples of the region. In the Mediterranean sea has historically yielded abundant quantities of fish. International interest in therapeutic qualities of Mediterranean diet began back in the late nineteen fifties. When medical researchers started to link the currency of heart disease with diet, Doctor Ansol Keths performed the epidemiological analysis of diets around the world. In titled of the seven countries study, it is considered one of the greatest studies of its kind ever performed. In it, Keths gathered data on heart disease in its potential causes from nearly thirty thousand men in Greece, Italy, Croatia, Serbia, Japan, Finland, the Netherlands and the United States. The study was conducted over period of decades. It concluded that the Mediterranean people in the study enjoyed some significant health advantages. The Mediterranean groups have lower mortality rates in all age brackets in form of all causes particularly from heart disease. The study also showed that the Mediterranean diet is as high as or higher in fat than other diets, obtaining up to forty percent of all its calories from fat. It has however, different patterns of fat intake. Mediterranean cooking, in its smaller amounts of saturated fat and higher amount of unsaturated fat, mostly in form of all of oil. Saturated fats are fats are found principally in meat and dairy products, although some nuts in vegetable oils also contain them. Saturated fats are used by the body to make cholesterol in high levels of cholesterol has since been directly related to heart disease.
23. What has research concluded about the Mediterranean diet?
24. What do we learn about the seven countries study?
25. What do we learn about the Mediterranean people from the seven countries study?
1.C) They facilitate the donation of unsold foods to the needy.
2.B) It passed a law aiming to stop overproduction.
3.D) It has started a nationwide campaign against food waste.
4.A) The confusion over food expiration labels.
5.B) It has just launched its annual annivcrsary sales.
6.D) Price adjustments within seven days of purchase.
7.C) Credit it to her account.
8.D) Complimentary tailoring.
9.A) They are thin,tall,and unlike real human beings.
10.D) Their body shapes have not changed much.
11.C) On the Internet.
12.D) Movable metal type began to be used in printing.
13.C) It was the biggest printer in the 16th century.
14. A) It boosted the circulation of popular works.
15. B) It promoted the growth of national laguages.
16.D) They choose a job without thinking it through.
17.B) Find out what job choices are available.
18.A) The qualifications you have.
19. B) It is a cultural festival founded for African-Americans.
20. C) To help African-Americans to realize their goals.
21. B) The fruits of the harvest.
22. A) They recite a principle.
23. D) It is one of the world’s most healthy diets.
24. A) It is regarded as one of the greatest researches of its kind.
25. B) They have lower mortality rates.
1.A) Say a few words to thank the speaker.
2.D) He joined the local history societ when young.
3.B) She had a good knowledge of the town's history.
4.C) He made an embarrassing remark.
5. B) What their rivals are doing.
6. D) Their potentials has been underestimated.
7. C) She had not seen it yet.
8. D) Exporting their motorbikes to Indonesia.
9. B) It makes claims in conflict with the exising research.
10. C) They run a higher risk of gaining weight.
11. D) Go to bed earlier.
12. A) All the acting nominees are white.
13. D) Only 3.4 percent of film directors are female.
14. C) Females color over 40.
15. B) They are most underrepresented across TV and film.
16.C) One that covers their debts and burial expenses.
17. D) Add more insurance on the breadwinner.
18. A) When their children grow up and leave home.
19.D）They may not always be negative.
20.A) Biased sources of information.
21.B) They may have a negative impact on people they apply to.
22.C) A positive stereotype may help one achieve better results.
23. B) Quit taking the medicine immediately.
24. D) It may increase the effect of certain drugs.
25. A) Tell their children to treat medicine with respect.
26-35 C D K I G F L N A J
名词：C 紧急情况 G 少数，一把 H 众多；群众；人群 J 减少 L 安全 M 恐怖
动词： B 从事，着手 D 喂养 E 放牧；擦伤 F 停止 I 起源，发起 K复制，再生
形容词：A 依靠的，从属的 N 未经核对的 O 未受影响的；未触动过的
36. E 37.B 38. I 39. C 40.D
41. J 42.F 43. A 44. L 45. G
46. What do we learn about chemist John Pemberton?
D)—He risked breaking local law to make a drink with coca leaves.
47. What does the passage say about kola nuts?
D)—They were strange to the Europeans when first imported from West Africa.
48. How come kola-extract colas became popular?
B)—Alcoholic drinks were prohibited.
49. What is known about the taste of Cola-Cola?
B)—It still relies on traditional kola nut extract.
50. What is the passage mainly about?
A)—The evolution of Cola-Cola.
51. What do we learn about American cities twenty years ago?
C) There was a clear divide between large and small cities.
52. What can be inferred from the passage about 18-hour cities?
B) They have seen a rise in property prices.
53. Years ago, many downtown cores in small to mid-sized cities_____.
D) looked deserted in the evenings
54. What characterizes the new downtown areas in 18-hour cities?
C) Modernized housing and improved infrastructure.
55. What have 18-hour cities brought to the local residents?
D) Better job opportunities.
26. O) sparking
27. L) powered
28. H) implemented
29. D) eliminate
30. G) hopeful
31. A) acceptance
32. J) installed
33. B) currently
34. K) noticeable
35. F) futile
36. G 37.M 38. D 39. E 40.P
41. L 42.J 43. O 44. I 45．B
51. What does the example of iPhone 6s serve to show?
D) The rapid technological progress in a very short period of time.
52. What can we expect to see by the year 2020?
B) The popularization of smart homes.
53. What will business owners do when they become aware of the benefits of the Internet of Things?
D) Embrace whatever new technology there is.
54. What is the most exciting challenge when we possess more and more data?
A) How to turn it to profitable use.
55. What does the author think about working from anywhere and at anytime?
A) It is feasible with a connection to the internet.
26 I permit
27 O territory
28 F exclusive
29 C commercial
30 D communities
31 E essential
32 G independent
33 M sponsor
34 J secure
35 N stocks
36. E 37.M 38. C 39. H 40.B
41. J 42. G 43. P 44. I 45.D
46. A) It is simply uninhabitable for most animals.
47. C) stay away from predators.
48. B) they can survive well in salty water
49. A) They can take refuges in the less salty waters.
50. D) The disruption of Lake Natron’s ecosystem.
51. B) Keep on working.
52. C) They would look upon it with contempt.
53. A) The busier one appears, the more respect one earns.
54. D) The role of knowledge in modern economy.
55.C) Find time to relax however busy we are.
3,205 meters above (the) sea level, Qinghai Lake is located about 100 kilometers west of Xining, capital of Qinghai province in western China. Qinghai Lake, the largest saline lake in the country, has a surface area of 4,317 square kilometers with a maximum depth of 25.5 meters. Most of the 23 rivers and streams that empty into Qinghai Lake are seasonal. Five major streams provide 80% of the lake’s total influx. Located at the crossroads of several bird migration routes across Asia, Qinghai Lake offers many species an intermediate stop during their migration. On the western side of the lake are the well-known “Bird Islands", which attract birdwatchers from across the globe. Every summer sees numerous visitors come here to watch the Qinghai Lake International Cycling Race.
海拔：be ... meters above （the） sea level
占地面积：cover an area of
最深处：the deepest point
注入湖中：empty into the lake
位于……交叉处：lie at/be situated/located at/ the intersection of/meeting point of/the crossroads of
暂息地：temporary/makeshift habitat; intermediate stop
湖的西侧是：to the west of the lake is...
国际自行车比赛：international cycling race/event
2. “其中大部分……”：看到“其中”通常首选of which的句式；
3. “百分之八十的……”：中文数字收尾，英文数字先行，不需要调整句式，翻译为：80% of ... are ...
4. “许多鸟类把……作为……”：名词原则皆可主，可以用鸟类作主语，也可以用青海湖作主语，句式为：The lake serves as ...
5. “湖的西侧是……，吸引着……”：主语确定很重要，此处主语是“鸟岛”，可以有两种处理方式，即，1）To the west of the lake is ..., which ...; 2) The “bird island” which lies to the west of the lake, attracts ...
Dongting Lake is a large, shallow lake in northeastern Hunan province, China. It is a flood basin of the Yangtze River. Hence, the lake's size depends on the season. The provinces of Hubei and Hunan are named after their location relative to the lake. Hubei means "North of the Lake" and Hunan, "South of the Lake". Dongting Lake is famous in Chinese culture as the birthplace of dragon boat racing, which is said to have begun on the eastern shores of Dongting Lake as a search for the body of Qu Yuan, the Chu poet (340–278 BC). Together with the lake and its surrounding beauty, the racing appeals to thousands of tourists from others parts of China and beyond each year.
面积很大：cover a large area
湖水很浅：the lake is shallow/not deep
长江：the Yangtze River
蓄洪池：flood storage area/reservoir
湖的大小：the size of the lake
很大程度上取决于：depend largely on
季节变化：the change of seasons
因……而得名：take one’s name from...
发源地：the place of origin; originate from...; birthplace/cradle
龙舟赛：dragon boat race
享有盛名：be well known; be highly reputed; be preeminent
据说：it is said that...
始于……：start in...; originate from...
楚国：the State of Chu
搜寻遗体：search for/seek to recover sb’s body
周边的美景：the beautiful landscape in its neighborhood/surrounding the lake
吸引……的游客：attract/allure/draw tourists from ...
全国和世界各地的游客：tourists from across China and the rest of the world/and beyond
1. “位于……，但湖水很浅”：注意“位于”的常用句式为：Situated in/Located in..., the lake is...
2. “是蓄洪池，湖的大小……”：前者属于事实背景，后面属于判断、表态、总结，句式为：As ..., the lake changes its size as seasons change或者 The lake is ..., with its size changing with seasons.
3. “湖北和湖南两省因其……，湖南则为……”：注意确定主句，前面属于判断表态总结，后面属于补充说明，句式确定为：主句，with ...;
5. “龙舟赛与洞庭湖……，每年都……”：按照名词原则皆可主的思路，有两种处理方式，可以按照中文结构顺句翻译，也可以带有生命力的名词作主语并遵循数字先行的原则，处理为：Tens of thousands of tourists from ... come to Dongting Lake for the dragon boat race and its beautiful lake view each year.
With an area of 2,250 square kilometers, Lake Tai or Lake Taihu is the third largest freshwater lake after Poyang Lake and Dongting Lake. The lake in eastern China houses about 90 islands, ranging in size from a few square meters to several square kilometers. The lake is renowned for its unique limestone formations or "Taihu stones”, which are often prized as a decorating material for traditional Chinese gardens/are employed to decorate traditional Chinese gardens. The lake is also known for its productive fishing industry. Since the late 1970s, harvesting fish and crabs has been invaluable to people living along the lake and has contributed significantly to the economy of the surrounding area. The lake is home to an extensive ceramics industry, including the Yixing pottery factory, which produces the world-renowned Yixing clay teapots.
占地面积：cover an area of
第三大……，仅次于……：the third-largest ..., following/after ...
大小从……到……不等：the size ranges from ... to ...
以……而闻名：be known/famed/famous for ...
中国传统园林：traditional Chinese garden
自上世纪70年代后期以来：since the late 1970s
捕捞鱼蟹：catch/harvest fish and crabs
沿湖居民：residents around the lake; people residing around the lake
对……极其重要：be of vital importance/significance for ...; be vitally important for ...
是基地之一：be one of the leading production bases/producers
2. “约有90个岛屿，大小……”：前后都有数字，选择前者作为主句，后面加with作为从属部分，there are ..., with sizes ranging from ... to ...
3. “以太湖石而闻名，太湖石……”：对于名词重复部分，通常采用从句进行省略，be known for Taihu stones, which are used ...
5. “是……基地之一，其中……”：看到“其中”首选句式是：of which ...
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write an essay on the saying “Help others and you will be helped when you are in need.” You can cite examples to illustrate your views. You should write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.
Be Ready to Help Others
There goes a saying that “Help others and you will be helped when you are in need”, which indicates a profound significance and value not only in our job but also in our study. Hence, my views are illustrated as follows.
First and foremost, take finishing a job as an instance, one can't do all the jobs and complete all the things by himself, and cooperation and a help are needed. What’s more, to help others means to help ourselves. We can't live in the world alone. When we help others in trouble someday, they will do us a favor in return. On the contrary, if we don't offer a help for someone in need, we won't get a help. Last but not least, helping others is not only a good quality, but also a happy thing. We can get much happiness by helping others.
To sum up, just as a proverb goes, the rose's in her hand, the flavor in mine. We should believe that the more we help others, the more benefits we will get in our daily life.
The Importance of Mutual Understanding
As the saying goes, “Seek to understand other, and you will be understood.” The simple saying tells us the importance of mutual understanding. As a matter of fact, mutual understanding is not just a matter of importance, but also of necessity.
On the one hand, mutual understanding lays the foundation for all kinds of interpersonal relationships. The world is full of diversity and people hold different values and faith. Only when we understand each other can we put aside the differences, get along well with each other and keep a long-term relationship. On the other hand, mutual understanding can clear up misapprehensions. Everyone has his own principle when dealing with things. It’s unwise and unfair to judge a person’s behavior according to our own experience. To avoid misunderstanding, we need to put ourselves in others’ shoes.
In conclusion, mutual understanding undoubtedly fosters all relationships. Therefore, we should come to realize the importance of mutual understanding and try hard to create a harmonious world.
When it comes to the issue of respects, a majority of people believe that they will respect others in the condition that others show respect to them, and others maintain that they only respect the stronger and richer persons. From my own perspective, all men need to respect others and be respected.
To begin with, everyone is born to be equal. Regardless of one's appearance, social status, health conditions and financial conditions, he has the right to be respected as a member of the society. Moreover, respects, in other word, esteems are crucial to an individual. In terms of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, when we have solved the problems of surviving and safety, we are eager to achieve the other three needs.
All in all, a healthy society contains respects of each other. A Chinese saying goes, treat other people as you hope they will treat you. Therefore, please show respects to other people and you will be respected.