来源:考研VIP|2017年09月13日 19:35
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In general,our society is becoming one of the giant enterprises directed by a bureaucratic management in which man becomes a small we1l-oiled cog in the machinery.The oiling is done with higher wages,well-ventilated factories and piped music,and by psychologists and“human relations”experts;yet all this oiling does not alter the fact that man has become powerless,that he is bored with it.In fact,the blue-collar and the white-collar workers have become economic puppets who dance to the tune of automated machines and bureaucratic management.

The worker and employee are anxious not only because they might find themselves out of a job,they are anxious also because they are unable to acquire any real satisfaction of interest in life.They live and die without ever having confronted the fundamental realities of human existence as emotionally and intellectually independent and productive human beings.

Those higher up on the social ladder are no less anxious.Their lives are no less empty than those of their subordinates.They are even more insecure in some respects.They are in a highly competitive race.To be promoted or to fall behind is not a matter of salary but even more a matter of self-respect.When they apply for their first job,they are tested for intelligence as well as for the right mixture of submissiveness and independence.From that moment on they are tested again and again by the psychologists,for whom testing is a big business,and by their superiors,who judge their behavior,sociability,capacity to get along,etc.This constant need to prove that one is as good as or better than one‘s fellow competitor creates constant anxiety and stress,the very causes of unhappiness and illness.

Am I suggesting that we should return to the pre-industrial mode of production or to nineteenth century“free enterprise”capitalism? Certainly not.Problems are never solved by returning to a stage which one has already outgrown.I suggest transforming our social system from a bureaucratically managed industrialism in which maximal production and consumption are ends in themselves into a humanist industrialism in which man and full development of his potentialities—those of all love and of reason—are the aims of social arrangements.Production and consumption should serve only as means to this end,and should be prevented from ruling man.


1.By“a well-oiled cog in the machinery”the author intends to render the idea that man is____.

[A] a necessary part of the society though each individual‘s function is negligible

[B] an unimportant part in comparison with the rest of the society,though functioning smoothly

[C] working in complete harmony with the rest of the society

[D] a humble component of the society,especially when working smoothly


2.The real cause of the anxiety of the workers and employees is that____.

[A] they are deprived of their individuality and independence

[B] they have no genuine satisfaction or interest in life

[C] they are faced with the fundamental realities of human existence

[D] they are likely to lose their jobs


3.From the passage we can infer that real happiness of life belongs to those____.

[A]who are at the bottom of the society

[B]who are higher up in their social status

[C]who could keep far away from this competitive world

[D]who prove better than their fellow competitors


4.To solve the present social problems the author suggests that we should____.

[A] resort to the production mode of our ancestors

[B] offer higher wages to the workers and employees

[C] enable man to fully develop his potentialities

[D] take the fundamental realities for granted


5.The author's attitude towards industrialism might best be summarized as one of____.







1.ventilate Vt使通风

2.bore v.使厌烦



5.acquire vt获得,学到

6.existence n.存在

7.mode n.方式,模式



1.In general,our society is becoming one of the giant enterprises directed bv a bureaucratic lmanagement in which man becomes a small well—oiled cog in the machinery.

[点津]句子的主干是Our societyisbecoming oneofthe giant enterprises,directedby之后的内容是修饰enterprises的定语,-g中which引导一个定语从句修饰enterprisesj

2.From that moment on they are tested again and again by the psychologists,for whom testing is a big business,and by their superiors,who judge their behavior,sociability,capacity to get along.etc. ‘

[点津]句子的主干是They are tested by the psychologists and by their superiors,其中psychologists 和superiors都带有自己的定语从句。



工人和雇员的焦虑不仅是由于他们可能会失业,还由于他们无法获得生活的真正乐趣。终其一生,他们从未作为情感和理智上独立的、富有创造性的人来面对生存的本质。那些处于社会高层的人同样焦虑,他们的生活和那些社会地位低于他们的人同样空洞,甚至在某些方面更缺乏安全感。他们处在异常激烈的竞争中。得到晋升还是落后于人,不是薪水的问题,更多的是自尊的问题。他们在申请第一份工作时,就接受了智商测试,以及对是否兼有适当的服从和独立的素质所进行的考查。从那以后,他们不断地被心理学家测试,对那些心理学家来说测试是一笔大生意;他们还不断接受上司的测试,以评判他们的行为、社交能力、与人相处的能力等。他们需要不断地证明自己和同事一样优秀,或比同事更优秀,这造成了持久的忧虑和压力,而忧虑和压力是苦恼和疾病的根源。 ‘




1.B 推断题。文章第一段指出,人成了社会大机器中微小的、润滑良好的齿轮,高工资和通风良好的厂房便是润滑油,但事实上人是无能为力的,蓝领工人和白领阶层都是毫无自主权的经济傀儡。由此推断,虽然工作生活条件不错,但人在社会中却是无足轻重的,故选B.

2.A 推断题。文章第二段点明了工人和雇员忧虑的原因,分析上下文可知,其真正原因是情感与理智上独立的、富有创造性的个人生存状态被忽视,故选A.选项B、D只是部分原因,不全面;C项与文章内容相悖。

3.C 推断题。由文章可知,社会底层者、社会上层者和竞争中的胜利者都无法脱离充满竞争的生存环境,因而都生活在各种各样的忧虑与压力之中,所以都无幸福可言,只有远离这个充满竞争的社会的人才可能获得幸福,故选C.

4.C 推断题。文章最后一段给出了解决现有社会问题的建议,即改革现有的工业制度,在新的工业制度中,人及其自身潜能的全面发展将是社会的目标,故选C.A项是作者在最后一段中表明不同意的观点,应排除;B项是维持工业制度正常运转的手段之一,而不是解决社会问题的建议,应排除;D项与原文不符,也应排除。

5.D 态度题。文章最后一段提到,作者建议将社会体系由官僚政治管理的工业制度过渡到人道主义的工业制度,由此可知,作者对现有工业制度的态度是不满的,故选D.A(赞同)、B(宽容)、C(怀疑)都与原文不符。








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