2017年6月六级备考全攻略:听力长对话篇
作者:星火英语|来源:星火英语官方微信|2017年06月08日 11:21

一、 题型透析

听力新题型改革以后,长对话为六级听力考试的第一部分。长对话在考试中仍然出现两篇,每篇字数在290~350词之间,但是总的题数由原来的7道增加为8道,即每段对话包含4道小题。长对话的选材一般是关于工作商务、校园生活、社会生活、旅行交通等方面的内容。同时,近年来,长对话中还出现了人物采访、座谈类的场景。此部分句子结构和内容不太复杂,而且用词也不难,但是十分口语化,这就要求考生必须结合语气、语调、习语等各种因素去理解对话的内容,在有限的时间内听懂题目并选准答案。

二、4大常考场景

1. 社会生活

社会生活类题材,一般是围绕某个社会话题展开,说话者双方谈论各自对该话题的理解与看法,从而触及某一社会现象或者揭示某一问题。一般涉及的情景包括时尚购物、休闲娱乐、家庭生活和社会热点等。

2. 校园生活

校园生活指在校园内的一些话题,这类题材与学生的学习和生活密切相关。它可能会涉及到专业的选择、课程与教学情况、宿舍的管理、作业或论文、假期安排、学生中普遍存在的现象、师生对话或者学习中出现的问题等。

3. 职场工作

职场工作类题材主要涉及求职、招聘、面试,以及工作安排或在工作中出现的问题等方面的内容。而一般在听力考试中,职场工作类题材的情景设置多以招聘、面试、工作安排、工作交流以及兼职为主。

4. 新闻采访

新闻采访类题材主要是指之声报道和电视报道,所涉及的报道内容较为广泛,其中尤以社会问题和政治事件为主,而且多为时事报道和人物采访

三、4大设题点

1. 开头处设题

如果将长对话比作一场战争,那么开头处历来是兵家必争之地,并且长对话开头部分一般会涉及全文主旨。

例1:What is the purpose of Doctor Jarvis Bastian’s experiment?

A) To test how responsive dolphins are to various signals.

B) To examine how long it takes dolphins to acquire a skill.

C) To find out if the female dolphin is cleverer than the male one.

D) To see if dolphins can learn to communicate with each other.

原文: W: One of the most interesting experiments with dolphins must be one done by Doctor Jarvis Bastian. What he tried to do was to teach a male dolphin called Bass and a female called Doris to communicate with each other across a solid barrier.

答案:D)。对话开头女士指出,Jarvis Bastian博士所做试验的目的就是训练雄海豚Bass和雌海豚Doris隔着固体障碍物进行交流,故D)为答案。

2. 信息集中处设题

谈话双方交谈最热烈的地方往往也是设题的热点所在,并且因为其信息较集中,往往会多次设题。因此要注意除了做好听音前的预览选项、听音时的适当笔记外,还需要对整个对话有较好的把握,在细节信息集中的地方认真聆听。

例2:What were the dolphins supposed to do when they saw the steady light?

A) Press the right-hand lever first.     C) Raise their heads above the water.

B) Produce the appropriate sound.    D) Swim straight into the same tank.

原文:W: Well, first of all, he kept the two dolphins together in the same tank and taught them to press levers whenever they saw a light. The levers were fitted to the side of the tank next to each other. If the light flashed on and off several times, the dolphins were supposed to press the left-hand lever followed by the right-hand one. If the light was kept steady, the dolphins were supposed to press the levers in reverse order. Whenever they responded correctly, they were rewarded with fish.

答案:A)。对话中女士指出,如果出现灯闪,海豚会先按左边的杠杆,然后按右边的杠杆;如果灯持续亮着,则是相反的顺序,即先右后左,故A)为答案。

3. 对整个对话的理解设题

主要考查对长对话的整体理解。通常提问谈话人主要交谈了什么内容,或某一方的观点、态度或行动。这类题的解题依据主要有四点:一是根据对话的开头判断该对话的主要内容;二是根据对话的结尾判断对话的主题;三是根据对话中多次出现的主要信息做合理的判断;四是通过预览选项进行合理的推理排除

例3:How did the second stage of the experiment differ from the first stage?

A) Both dolphins were put in the same tank.  C) Only one dolphin was able to see the light.

B) The male dolphin received more rewards.  D) The lever was beyond the dolphins’ reach.

原文:W: Well, that was the first stage. In the second stage, Doctor Bastian separated the dolphins into two tanks. They could still hear one another, but they couldn’t actually see each other. The levers and light were set up in exactly the same way except that this time it was only Doris who could see the light indicating which lever to press first. But in order to get their fish, both dolphins had to press the levers in the correct order. This meant of course that Doris had to tell Bass whether it was a flashing light or whether it was a steady light.

答案:C)。对话中女士提出,在试验的第二阶段,两只海豚被分别放在不同的水箱里,灯光和杠杆保持不变,但只有Doris能够看到灯光指示信号,故C)为答案。

4. 结尾处设题

同对话开头处一样,结尾处也是设题的关键点。结尾处经常出现某一方的观点、态度或将来的行动计划,因此结尾处也是经常出现的设题点。

四、3大高分技巧

1. 注意总结场景词汇

听力考试遵循真实的原则,即考试的材料是现实生活中真实发生的场景。因此我们在练习的时候,做完一篇对话的试题后,一定要总结一下场景词汇,做个记录,以后再遇到类似场景,就有了相关词汇基础和知识背景,听起来就会轻松得多。同时,如果发现同一场景下的新词汇,还可以添加进去。经过一定的练习,大家会发现,听力对话的场景不是毫无规律的,有一些场景是经常出现的。

2. 听前浏览选项,进行合理预测

培养听前利用播放答题指令的时间快速浏览选项的能力,这样做有两个作用:一是可以带着对问题的猜测去听录音,增强听音的目的性和对相关信息的敏感度;二是可以利用我们上面提到的场景词汇推测对话的内容

3. 利用一些常识和潜在规律来猜题

我们在应考时要想方设法多答对试题,对于那些在考场上无法完全听懂对话内容的考生,以下这些常识和潜在规律就比较有用。其实,所谓的潜在规律就是那些由应试高手总结的、未必科学却很实用的答题方法。

(1) 符合生活常识和积极向上的选项可能是答案。

例4:What did the woman threaten to do?

A) File a lawsuit against the man.  C) Have the man’s apple tree cut down.

B) Ask the man for compensation.  D) Throw garbage into the man’s yard.

本题问的是女士威胁要去做什么。我们可以做出如下分析:B)“要求男士赔偿”,从常理上来说应该是合理的,但还称不上是威胁;C)“把男士的苹果树砍倒”和D)“往男士的院子里扔垃圾”往往是失去理智时才做出的事情,可以排除;而A)“将男士诉诸法院”的做法则较为合适,既符合常理,又能从一定程度上对当事人造成威慑,故A)最有可能是答案。

(2) 对于涉及对话全文的试题,概括性强的选项可能是答案。

例5:What lesson could be drawn from the accident?

A) Accurate communication is of utmost importance.

B) Pilots should be able to speak several foreign languages.

C) Air controllers should keep a close watch on the weather.

D) Cooperation between pilots and air controllers is essential.

本题问的是从这个事故中可以吸取什么教训。这涉及对对话全文的理解,所以我们就应该找概括性较强的选项。B)首先不符合常理,其次也属于细节问题,可以排除;空中交通管制员要密切关注天气情况,这属于职责范围之内,说法过于具体,所以可以排除;C)飞行员和空中交通管制员相互配合的重要性也无可非议,因此也可排除D),故A)最有可能是答案。

相关热点: 六级答案四六级应试宝典六级主题六级听力技巧英语名人名言

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