any和some应该怎么用?
作者:梦树|来源:about|2017年05月31日 10:29

'Any' and 'some' are used in positive and negative statements as well as in questions. Generally speaking, 'any' is used in questions and for negative statements while 'some' is used in positive statements.
any和some用于肯定句、否定句及疑问句中。一般来说,any用于疑问句和否定句中,而some则用于肯定句中。

Is there any milk in the fridge?
冰箱里有牛奶吗?

There aren't any people in the park today.
今天公园里一个人都没有。

I have some friends in Chicago.
我在芝加哥有一些朋友。

There are exceptions, however, to this rule. Here's an explanation of how to use 'any' and 'some' correctly.
但是这条规则也存在例外。下面是对any和some的正确用法的说明。

Read the conversation below:
阅读下面的对话:

Barbara: Is there any milk left?
牛奶还有剩的吗?

Katherine: Yes, there is some in the bottle on the table.
是的,桌上的瓶子里还有一些。

Barbara: Would you like some milk?
你想喝点牛奶吗?

Katherine: No, thank you. I don't think I'll drink any tonight. Could I have some water, please?
不用了,谢谢。今晚我不想喝牛奶。请问我能喝点水吗?

Barbara: Sure. There is some in the fridge.
当然,冰箱里还有一些。

In this example, Barbara asks 'Is there any milk left?' using 'any' because she doesn't know if there is milk or not. Katherine responds with 'some milk' because there is milk in the house. In other words, 'some' indicates that there is milk. The questions 'would you like some' and 'could I have some' refers to something that exists that is offered or requested.
在这个例子中,芭芭拉问道Is there any milk left?(牛奶还有剩的吗?),这句话中使用了any,因为她并不知道到底有没有牛奶。凯瑟琳回答some milk(有一些牛奶),因为家里有牛奶。也就是说,some表明牛奶是有的。疑问句would you like some和could I have some表示需要提供或要求的某物时存在的。

Barbara: Do you know anybody who comes from China?
你认识的人中有来自中国的吗?

Katherine: Yes, I think there is someone who is Chinese in my English class.
是的,我的英语课上就有个从中国来的人。

Barbara: Great, could you ask him some questions for me?
棒极了,你能帮我问他几个问题吗?

Katherine: No problem. Is there anything special you want me to ask?
没问题。你有什么特别的问题吗?

Barbara: No, I don't have anything in particular in mind. Maybe you could ask him some questions about life in China. Is that OK?
不,没什么特别的问题。你可以问问他关于在中国的生活,行吗?

Katherine: Sure.
当然可以。

The same rules apply in this conversation, but are used for words made using 'some' or 'any'. The question 'Do you know anybody' is used because Barbara doesn't know if Katherine knows a person from China. Katherine then uses 'someone' to refer to a person she knows. The negative form of 'anything' is used in the sentence 'I don't have anything' because it is in the negative.
同样的规则也被应用在这个对话中,但都用上了含有some或any的词语。因为芭芭拉不知道凯瑟琳是否认识来自中国的人,所以使用了问句Do you know anybody?凯瑟琳使用someone来指代她认识的某个人。句子I don't have anything中使用了anything的否定形式,因为该句为否定句。

Some / Any Rules
some和any的使用规则

Here are the rules for the use of 'some' and 'any' in positive and negative sentences, as well as in questions. Notice that 'some' and 'any' are used for both countable and uncountable (non count) nouns. Once you have studied the rules, take the follow up quiz to check your understanding.
下面是关于some和any在肯定句、否定句和否定句中的使用规则。注意,some和any后面既可以接可数名词,也可以接不可数名词。在学习这些规则后,完成后面的测试来检测自己的掌握水平。

1.Some

Use 'some' in positive sentences. We use 'some' with both countable and uncountable nouns.
Some一般在肯定句中使用。Some后面既可以接可数名词,也可以接不可数名词。

I have some friends.
我有一些朋友。

She wants some ice cream.
她想吃点冰淇淋。

2.Any

Use 'any' in negative sentences or questions. We use any for both countable and uncountable nouns.
any一般用于否定句或疑问句。any后面既可以接可数名词,也可以接不可数名词

Do you have any cheese?
你有奶酪吗?

Did you eat any grapes after dinner?
晚饭后你吃葡萄了吗?

He doesn't have any friends in Chicago.
他在芝加哥一个朋友都没有。

I don't wont any trouble.
我不想惹上任何麻烦。

We use 'some' in questions when offering or requesting something that is there.
党提出建议或要求时,我们会在疑问句中使用some。

Would you like some bread? (offer)
你想吃点面包吗?(建议)

Could I have some water? (request)
我能喝点水吗?(要求)

Words with Some
含有some的词语

Words such as 'somebody', 'something', 'somewhere' which include 'some' follow the same rules. Use 'some' words - somebody, someone, somewhere and something - in positive sentences.
类似于somebody 、something 、somewhere等含有some的词语也遵循相同的规则。含有some的词语——somebody、someone、somewhere和something一般用于肯定句。

He lives somewhere near here.
他住在离这不远的地方。

He needs something to eat.
他需要吃点东西。

Peter wants to speak to someone at the store.
皮特想和商店里的一个人聊天。

Words with Any
含有any的词语

Words with 'any' such as: 'anybody', 'anyone', 'anywhere' and 'anything' follow the same rule and are used in negative sentences or questions.
含有any的词语,例如anybody、anyone和anything也遵循相同的规则,用于否定句或疑问句中。

Do you know anything about that boy?
你知道关于那个男孩的事吗?

Have you spoken to anyone about the problem?
你跟别人说起过这个问题吗?

She doesn't have anywhere to go.
她没有地方可以去。

They didn't say anything to me.
他们什么都没有跟我说。

Quiz
测试

请用some或any,或者包含some,any的词语(somewhere,anybody等)将下面句子补充完整。

1. Would you like _______ to eat?

2. I have _______ money in my wallet.

3. Is there _______ juice in the fridge?

4. He can't think of _______ to do.

5. I'd like to go _______ hot for my vacation.

6. Is there _______ who plays tennis in your class?

7. I'm afraid I don't have  ______ answers to life's problems.

8. Could I have _______ Coke?

Answers
答案

1. something (offer)

2. some

3. any

4. anything

5. somewhere

6. anyone / anybody

7. any

8. some (request)

声明:本双语文章的中文翻译系沪江英语原创内容,转载请注明出处。中文翻译仅代表译者个人观点,仅供参考。如有不妥之处,欢迎指正。

相关热点: 英语资料英语语法入门词汇主题一般将来时

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