第16题：讲座第一个选择题出题位置一般在第一段前三句内。出处在首句Today we’re going to talk about cross-cultural perceptions of time. 答案为B
第17题：答案D. 出处Haw’s theory is that monochromic time can be found primarily in North American and northern European cultures.
第18题：答案B. 出处polychromic cultures view time as being somewhat flexible, since life isn’t so predictable. Scheduling and been precisely simply is not that important.
第19题：答案D. The Brazilian would generally prefer to finish talking with colleagues first, and would not want to cut conversation short in order to make an appointment.
第20题：答案D。Edward Haw’s theory of monochromic and polychromic cultures has been challenged by some critics. Some people think it is overly general.
Today we’re going to talk about cross-cultural perceptions of time. Different cultures often have entirely different perceptions of time. The cultural anthropologist Edward T.Haw popularized the idea that cultures use time and view time in very different ways. The idea of the past, present, and future and the whole concept of scheduling or managing time can be so different that it leads to cross-cultural miscommunications. In his 1990’s book The Dance of Life, Haw writes “time is one of the fundamental bases on which all cultures rest and around which all activities revolve”. Understanding the difference between monochromic time and polychromic time is essential to success. Both notion of monochromism and polychromism can be understood as follows: monochromic time is linear. Events are scheduled one at a time one event following another. To a monochromic culture, this type of schedule is valued over interpersonal relationships. On the other hand, polychromic time is characterized by many things happening spontaneously. In addition, interpersonal relationships are highly valued in polychromic cultures. Haw’s theory is that monochromic time can be found primarily in North American and northern European cultures. These cultures emphasize schedules punctuality and preciseness. They also emphasize doing things. There’re cultures that value productivity, that value getting things done on time. Review time, that something can be lost, killed or wasted or conversely. Review time that some things can be or should be managed, planned and used efficiently. Polychromic time, on the other hand, can be found primarily in Latin American, African and Native American cultures. Their perception of time is more connected to natural rhythms. It is connected to the earth, to the seasons. This makes sense when they consider that natural events can occur spontaneously, sporadically, or concurrently, polychromic cultures view time as being somewhat flexible, since life isn’t so predictable. Scheduling and been precisely simply is not that important. In addition, relationships with people are valued more than making schedules. There’s more value placed on being than on doing. Different cultural perceptions of time can lead to conflict, especially in the business world. The idea of being late versus on time for a meeting, for example, might differ widely between an American business person and a Brazilian. The American business person might be far less tolerant of a Brazilian’s late arrival. However, a Brazilian business person might be offended by an American’s insistence on punctuality, or on getting right down to business. The Brazilian would generally prefer to finish talking with colleagues first, and would not want to cut conversation short in order to make an appointment. Some traditional time management programs used in the business world might not translate well in another culture. Traditional time management programs in the business world emphasize to do to-do lists and careful scheduling. They’re monochromic. However, a business in a polychromic culture might not adjust well to that system. Companies will impose those monochromic systems on places of business in polychromic cultures might be guilty of ethniccentralism, which means making their own ethnical or cultural values central and not valuing other values. Edward Haw’s theory of monochromic and polychromic cultures has been challenged by some critics. Some people think it is overly general. They argue that within any cultural group, we might find people who think of time differently. In other words, a primarily polychromic culture might have both monochromic and polychromic types of people. A same diversity among individuals might be found in a primarily monochromic culture. Critics of anthropologists like Edward Haw feel that it’s more useful to think of time differences among individuals, not just between cultural groups.
Question 16. Which of the following topics is the person talking about?
A) Cross-cultural miscommunications
B) Different perceptions of time across cultures
C) The idea of the past, present and future time
D) A fundamental basis for business conversations.
Question 17. What can be learned about monochromism from the cultural anthropologist Edward T. Haw?
A) Mono-chronic time is characterized by many things happening simultaneously.
B) Mono-chronic cultures value interpersonal relationships highly.
C) Mono-chronic cultures emphasize schedules, punctuality, and precisensess.
D) Mono-chronic time is found primarily in Latin American and African cultures.
Question 18. Which of following statements apply to polychromism according to Edward T. Haw?
A) Poly-chronic time is found primarily in North America and Northern Europe.
B) Poly-chronism views time as flexible, so preciseness is not that important.
C) Poly-chronic cultures emphasize schedules and puntuality.
D) Poly-chronic cultures value productivity and getting things done “on time”
Question 19. In the business world, who would prefer to finish talking with colleagues before keeping an appointment?
A) Those raised in the mono-chronic culture
B) People who are guilty of ethnocentrism
C) An American businessperson
D) A brazilian businessman
Question 20. Edward’s theory has been challenged by some critics, what do these critics think of his theory?
A) It over-emphasizes individual differences
B) It fails to make his own values central
C) It is ethnocentric
D) It is overly general.