课文详注 Further notes on the text

1.The tiny village of Frinley is said to possess a ‘cursed tree’.
据说弗林利这个小村里有一棵“该诅咒的树”。

(1)主语+ be said+…这种结构通常译为“据说……”,是对不太有把握的事发表看法时一种谨慎的说法。(cf.本课语法)

(2)of在这里表示同位关系,如 the city of London/New York(伦敦/纽约市);at the age of twenty(20岁时);a height of three feet(3英尺的高度)。

2.…the number of visitors to Frinley has now increased.
……现在来弗林利参观的人越来越多。

the number of表示“……的数量/总数”,它作主语时谓语动词要用单数,虽然visitors是复数。注意它与a number of(许多,若干)的区别:
The number of patients in this hospital has increased.
这家医院的病人越来越多。

A number of patients have asked to see you.
许多病人要求见您。(动词用复数形式)

3.…it is only in recent years that it has gained an evil reputation.
……只是近几年才得到了一个坏名声。

句中的 it is…that是个强调句型。如果我们想要强调某个词或某个短语,我们可以用 it is/was+被强调的成分+that/who(m)结构。这样组成的句子叫分裂句,因为it结构把一个简单句劈开,使其分裂成两个分句。被强调的成分可以是主语、宾语、状语等。课文中这句话强调的是时间状语。从简单句到强调句变化如下:

Frank phoned Jack last night.
弗兰克昨晚给杰克打了电话。(简单句,没有强调什么)

It was Frank who phoned Jack last night.
是弗兰克昨晚给杰克打了电话。(强调是弗兰克而不是别人打的电话)

It was Jack who(m) Frank phoned last night.
是杰克昨晚接到弗兰克打来的电话。(强调电话是打给杰克而不是打给别人)

It was last night that Frank phoned Jack.
是昨天晚上弗兰克给杰克打了电话。(强调是昨天晚上而不是其他时间)

4.It is said that if anyone touches the tree, he will have bad luck; if be picks a leaf, he will die.
据说,谁要是触摸了这棵树,谁就会交上恶运;如果谁摘了一片树叶,谁就会死去。

it是这个句子的先行主语,其真正主语是that引导的两个条件句(都是第1类条件句),这两个条件句在结构上一样。

5.…the tree has already claimed a number of victims.
……此树已经害了不少人。

claim可以表示疾病、意外等“夺去(生命)”:
The accident claimed a few lives.
那次事故夺走了几条人命。

6.The vicar has been asked to have the tree cut down, but so far he has refused.
人们曾请求教区的牧师叫人把树砍掉,但他直到现在也没有同意。

(1)在 to have the tree cut down这个短语中, have表示“使……”,即叫别人完成某动作,cut down为过去分词短语。(cf.第66课语法)

(2)so far为固定短语,其含义之一为“迄今为止”,常与现在完成时连用:
He hasn't returned my books so far.
迄今为止他还没有还我的书。

7.point out
指出

这个短语可分开用:
I realized that he had made a mistake, so I pointed it out to him immediately.
我意识到他犯了个错误,所以我立即就向他指了出来。

He pointed out that it was a mistake not to help them.
他指出不帮助他们是错误的。

8.in spite of
尽管,虽然;不顾,不管

He set off in spite of the heavy rain.
尽管下着大雨,他还是出发了。

In spite of what you have told me, I still believe (that) he has stolen the money.
虽然你对我说了这些,我还是认为他偷了那笔钱。

9.So far, not one of them has been struck down by sudden death!
然而到目前为止,还没有一个人暴死呢!

(1)not one of them表示“一个人也没有……”,其语气比none of them或 no one要强。

(2)strike down为固定短语,在这里表示“使……生重病”、“杀死”(通常用被动语态):
Many people were struck down in that war.
许多人在那场战争中死去了。

He was struck down by cancer last year.
他去年死于癌症。

语法 Grammar in use

被动语态(5 )

(1)在第34课的语法中,我们讲过如果说话人想避免用不明确的词(如someone, a person等)作主语,就常常使用被动语态:
Mary was told to meet us.
玛丽被告知来接我们。

The window has been mended.
窗子已被修好。

(2)如果我们需要把话说得谨慎些或“保险”些,也可以用被动语态。主动语态往往表示对事实确有把握:
Debbie Hart swam across the English Channel when she was a girl.
黛比·哈特还是个姑娘时曾经横渡过英吉利海峡。

如果这句话用 It is said that…结构表达,则说话者的把握就小了一些。用于这种被动语态的动词除了say之外,还有believe, know, find, fear, think等:
It is feared that many lives have been lost in the train crash.
在这次列车事故中,恐怕有不少人丧生。

It is said that there is a great deal of oil in Africa.
据说非洲有大量的石油。

It is said that Dan is the most intelligent student in his class.
据说丹是他们班上最聪明的学生。

除It is said that…这种结构外,上面的句子还可以变成另一种形式的被动句,其意义不变。它的结构为There/名词主语/代词主语+被动语态+带to的不定式:
There is said to be a great deal of oil in Africa.
据说非洲有大量石油。

Debbie Hart is said to have swum across the English Channel when she was a girl.
据说黛比·哈特还是个姑娘时曾经横渡过英吉利海峡。

Dan is said to be the most intelligent student in his class.
据说丹是他们班上最聪明的学生。

后一种结构在口语中更常用,因为它更简洁。

(3)在第34课的语法中我们讲过,动词+宾语+不定式结构中既可以动词用被动语态,也可以在不定式中用被动语态。

(4)在另一种句型即“动词+间接宾语+直接宾语”中,这两个宾语都可以成为被动句的主语。不过,由于间接宾语通常是人,所以间接宾语成为被动句主语的时候要多些:
Two apples have been given to Tom.
汤姆得到了两个苹果。