A Brief introduction to Translation
翻译原理入门

I. Definition
翻译的定义

Translation, speaking, implies rendering from one language into another of something written or spoken. It is, essentially the faithful representation, in one language of what is written or spoken in another. It is the replacement of textual material in one language (SL-the source language) by equivalent textual material in another language (TL-target language).
翻译,说起来其实是指把一种语言翻译成另一种口头或书面的文字。在这个语言转换的过程中,翻译的实质是对原来语言最忠诚的描绘。翻译是等价目标语言对其源语言的替换。

II. Qualifications of a translator
翻译者必备的素质

1) A translator must be well acquainted with the source language. We are inclined to feel too confident of our comprehension when we are reading foreign literary works. We think we know it from A to Z, yet, when we start translating it we find it difficult and there are many points misunderstood. We are playing the fool with ourselves because of careless reading. Therefore, translation serves as the best possible approach to the study of foreign languages.
一个译者必须很精通源语言。当我们阅读国外文学作品时,我们通常很自信于自己的理解能力。我们自以为完全读懂了文意,可是一旦开始翻译就会遇到障碍,才发现很多地方都理解错了。因为阅读不仔细,我们一味糊弄自己。为此,翻译充当着外语学习的最好方法。

2) A translator must be well acquainted with the target language. Let's take Yan Fu for instance: When Yan Fu, a famous translator in the Qing Dynasty, was translating "Evolution and Ethics and other Essays", the title turned out to be the crux that caused him to cudgel his brains day and night and look pale for it. His wife worried very much and thought about the representation of the title for quite time and eventually had it translated into《天演论》which has since deserved high praise up till now.
一个好的译者必须很熟悉目标语言。让我们看一下关于严复的小实例。我国清朝著名的翻译家严复在翻译《天演论》时,题目的翻译成为攻克整篇文章的难关,严复绞尽脑汁、夜以继日地思考,甚至都日渐消瘦了。严复的妻子很担心他,也帮着一起思考题目该怎么取。思考了很长一段时间,最终把题目定为《天演论》,一直到今天这个题目都为他们赢得了很高的评价。

3) A translator must be armed with necessary professional knowledge.
一个好的译者必须具备必要的专业知识。

4) A translator must be armed with the ability to live his part. As famous play writer Maryann pointed out: "a translator must enter into the spirit of character (regard himself as one that plays a role in a play). That is to say, he seems
1. present at the very spot.
2. involved in the very occurrence.
3. witnessing the very parties concerned.
4. interating the very utterances.
5. experiencing the very joy and annoy.
6. sharing the very weal and woe.
7. partaking of the glee and grief.
一个好的译者必须具备活出他的角色的能力。就像著名剧作家玛丽安说的:“一个好的译者必须能够进入到角色的精神层面(把自己当成话剧的一个角色)”。也就是说,他必须具备以下能力:
1. 亲临其境
2. 亲临其事
3. 亲睹其人
4. 亲道其法
5. 亲尝其甘,亲领其苦
6. 亲享其福,亲受其哀
7. 亲得其乐,亲感其悲

5) A translator must be armed with the excellent ability of expressiveness and vivid imagination. "Toiling yourself and endure hardship for obtaining a well-chosen word" just as the famous poet Du Fu did "Never give up until an amazing poetic masterpiece is gained".
一个好的译者必须具备出色的表达力和生动的想象力。“为求一字稳,耐得五更寒” ,好的译者还需要像诗圣杜甫那样具有“语不惊人死不休”的精神与毅力。