about, across, against, among, after, at, behind, besides, beyond, by, concerning, beneath, between, despite, except, during, down, for, from, past, than, under, until 等。
inside, outside, onto, out of, within 等。
according to, ahead of, along with, as for, because of, be means of, due to, in spite of, on behalf of, owing to, with regard to 等。
● 美国的冬天→ the winter in America
● 停车场的入口→ the entrance to the parking lot
● 穿过森林的小路→ the path through the forest
● 鲁迅的著作→ the works by Lu Xun
● 水中的月亮→ the moon reflected in water
● 历史的见证→ the witness to history
● 对爱的渴望→ a longing for love
● 对我们不利的证据→ the evidence against us
● 阳光下的漫步→ a walk in the sunlight
● 追求名誉的女人→ a lady after fame
● 两人之间的争论→ an argument between the two persons
He came from London.
He went to London.
We studied English from morning to afternoon.
He'll start from Beijing to Shanghai.
● 由于→ The girl is trembling from fear.
● 免除→ Tramps are always free from care. 流浪汉们总是无忧无虑。
● 分开→ The couple parted from each other at the airport.
● 由……制成→ The red wine is made from grapes. 红葡萄酒是由葡萄制成的。
from far 从远处
from now / then on 从现在/那时起
from bad to worse 每况愈下
from time to time(occasionally 时而)
She comes to visit me from time to time.
He will be out of town.
I stepped out of the dark room.
out of+ 名词 (= lack, to be without 用完，用光)
He went to the shop because he was out of paper.
out of date (= old-fashioned 过时的)
The book has been out of date.
out of work (= jobless 失业的)
He needs money because be is out of work.
out of the question (= impossible 不可能的)
Finishing the hard work is out of the question.
out of question (= doubtless 毫无疑问的)
That he can do it well is out of question.
out of order(= not functioning 失灵的)
Her radio is out of order, so she can't listen to it.
He passed by me without saying hello.
He lives by the sea.
● 通过→This is the nearest road by which they came.
● 在……时候→The young man works by day and steals money by night.
● 由……所生→He has two sons by her second wife.
● 抓住→She caught her child by his coat in the flood.
● 按……计算→The farmers sell their apples by the pound.
● 就(气质，特征)而言→He is an artist by temperament(气质).
The glass was broken by the boy.
by + 具体时间：
They usually have dinner by 8 o'clock.
by + 交通工具 (bus, train, plan...)：
He travelled to Paris by air/plane.
by the end of + 时间名词：到……末为止
By the end of last year, they had learnt 100 texts.
By the end of this term, they will have learnt 100 texts.
He will graduate in 1999, by then he will leave Beijing.
by way of (= via)：经由，取道
They are going to the United States by way of Hong Kong.
by the way：顺便问
By the way, do you know where Mr. Li has gone?
The book is by far the best on the subject.
by accident：不小心，与on purpose(故意地)语意相反
The wrong information was put into the computer by accident.