何为宾语从句?它是名词性从句的一种。在主从复合句中充当宾语,位于及物动词、介词或复合谓语之后的从句。其实这是英语学习中一个不可或缺的语法知识点,它有哪些核心需要我们了解和学习的?来看看新概念英语第二册是怎么为我们解答的。

  1. that引导宾语从句时无含义,不充当成分,常省略。

  that不引导介词的宾语从句,至于except that, in that, save that, but that等是复合从属连词。

  I know (that) you have met him.

  Let's suppose that one day this happens to you.

  在及物动词和宾语从句之间常有间接宾语(指人)。例如:

  I told him (that) he was wrong.

  在少数动词如:think, believe, suppose, expect, imagine, calculate, fancy, reckon, be supposed , seem, appear, feel as if, look as if, look like等后面的从句中的否定词经常转移到主句谓语动词上,这叫否定前置/否定转移。(hope“希望”, guess“认为”后的宾语从句否定不前置。I hope not.“我希望不是那样的”,是I hope so.的否定式。I don't hope so.是对hope的否定:“我不希望如此”。)如:

  I don't think it will be very cold today.

  I don't think you are right.

  I don't believe he has finished his work.

  注意:

  ①非必须否定转移。若需要强调从句的否定时就不作转移。

  ②不可把所有可否定转移动词的否定句都理解为否定宾语从句,要根据句意或语境而定。

  I don't think diplomacy is a field for private enterprise.

  We didn't think we'd be this late.

  ③当think用在疑问句中,或主句中的谓语动词与状语连用,或主句中的谓语动词被do强调时,不能否定转移。

  Why do you think we can't change your note?

  I do believe Tom never tells a lie.

  They still didn't believe that the food would come.

  I can't believe that they are married.

  ④否定转移多用在主句动词为一般现在时的情况。

  主句动词为一般过去时、过去完成时、过去进行时、现在完成时、现在完成进行时,或主句动词与情态动词连用,就不能否定转移。此时若主句动词为否定,应考虑是否是对主句动词的否定。

  I had thought that he would not come.

  我已经想到了他不能来了。

  ⑤当宾语从句中有no, never, hardly, not at all, not a bit, not...enough, can't help doing等时不能否定转移。

  I think I can't help laughing if I see it.

  I believe he never tells a lie.

  许多带宾语补足语的句子要用it作形式宾语,而把宾语从句置于句尾。

  We think it wrong that he told a lie to everyone.

  We thought it a pity that she should have missed the chance.

  2. whether, if引导宾语从句:表示“是否”可互换,口语中常用if。

  He asked if she would come.

  注意下列情况下whether不可用if换:

  1)引导主语从句置于句首时。

  2)whether后没有单词间隔而直接跟or not时。

  I don't know whether or not he will come.

  3) whether从句作介词宾语时。

  They are talking about whether he will win the game.

  Everything depends on whether you agree with us.

  4)whether后接不定式时。

  I don't know whether to attend the meeting.

  5)动词discuss, decide的宾语从句时。

  3. 连接代词what, who, whose等引导的宾语从句。

  Tell me what you want.

  Do you know who will come at the meeting?

  注意:who, whom按照传统语法,从句中who所取代的名词如果是宾语应用宾格whom,但在口语中常用who,如:

  Do you know whom (who) he will invite?

  ①whose, which, what三个词都带有形容词性质。whose表示所有,意为“谁的”;which意为“哪一个”,what意为“什么”。如:

  Whose book it is not important.

  Please tell me which school you want to go.

  He didn't know what time it was.

  ②一般说来,which指的是在一个具体的、较明确的、有限的、较小范围;而what则指较广的或不明确的范围。如:which food,说话人一般指眼前的或明确范围的几种food;what food则指许多food,而且说话人心中没有数。

  I don't know which / what food you want.

  如果范围较大或者没有什么范围,最好用what food。

  4. 连接副词when, where, why, how引导的宾语从句。

  I don't know when the meeting will be held.

  Please tell me where I can find Tom.

  He explained to me why he was absent from the meeting.

  Can you tell me how I can get to the post office?

  5. 可用whatever, whoever, whomever, whenever, wherever等引导宾语从句。

  Please write down whatever he is saying.

  I don't know whoever will come.

  I'll do whatever you ask me to.

  6. 表示爱憎情感的动词,如:enjoy, hate, love, like, dislike, don't mind, resent, appreciate(感激)等以及某些介词结尾的短语动词如:count on, depend on, rely on, see to, look forward to, be fond of, feel like, see to等后,即使没有宾补也要先接形式宾语it,再接宾语从句。

  I like it when she smiles at me.

  I love it when you sing.

  I hate it if I am spoken to loudly in public.

  除了but, besides, except, in, save, beyond六个介词后跟that引导的宾语从句外,其他介词都不能。in that是“因为”的意思,其余五个与that搭配都是“除了……”。

  宾语从句的内容就介绍这么多,如果你想系统学习新概念英语这套教材,欢迎来沪江网校,选择新概念相关课程,相信老师们的精彩讲授会帮助到大家的英语学习。希望大家都能明白,学习是一场持久的战役,只有坚持不懈的人才能到达胜利的彼岸。