Some of this can be easily explained. New ways of organizing the workplace -- all that re-engineering and downsizing -- are only one contribution to the overall productivity of an economy, which is driven by many other factors such as joint investment in equipment and machinery, new technology, and investment in education and training. Moreover, most of the changes that companies make are intended to keep them profitable, and this need not always mean increasing productivity: switching to new markets or improving quality can matter just as much. Two other explanations are more speculative. First, some of the business restructuring of recent years may have been ineptly done. Second, even if it was well done, it may have spread much less widely than people suppose.
这其中的一些原因很容易解释。企业重组的新方法--所有那些重新规划和缩小规模的做法--只能对一个经济的整体生产力做出一方面的贡献,而生产力的发展还受到许多其它因素的驱动,如设备机械上的联合投资、新技术、以及教育和培训上的投资。另外,公司大部分的改革是为了赢利,而达到赢利的目的不一定非要提高生产力:转入新的市场或改善产品质量也会有同样的功效。 其他两种解释带有很大的猜测性。一种解释认为,近年来的一些企业重组也许进行得并不恰当。另一种解释则认为,即使有成效,效果也没能像人们所设想的那样广泛。