Henry Ford
Although Henry Ford’s name is closely associated with the concept of mass production, he should receive equal credit for introducing labor practices as early as 1913 that would be considered advanced even by today’s standards. Safety measures were improved, and the work day was reduced to eight hours, compared with the ten-or twelve-hour day common at the time. In order to accommodate the shorter work day, the entire factory was converted from two to three shifts. In addition, sick leaves as well as improved medical care for those injured on the job were instituted. The Ford Motor Company was one of the first factories to develop a technical school to train specialized skilled laborers and an English language school for immigrants. Some efforts were even made to hire the handicapped and provide jobs for former convicts. The most widely acclaimed innovation was the five-dollar-a-day minimum wage that was offered in order to recruit and retain the best mechanics and to discourage the growth of labor unions. Ford explained the new wage policy in terms of efficiency and profit sharing. He also mentioned the fact that his employees would be able to purchase the automobiles that they produced -- in effect creating a market for the product. In order to qualify for the minimum wage, an employee had to establish a decent home and demonstrate good personal habits, including sobriety, thriftiness, industriousness, and dependability. Although some criticism was directed at Ford for involving himself too much in the personal lives of his employees, there can be no doubt that, at a time when immigrants were being taken advantage of in frightful ways, Henry Ford was helping many people to establish themselves in America.
尽管亨利 ·福特的名字和大生产的概念相连,但他在劳工保护上得到同样的赞誉,因为他早在 1913 年便实行了用今天的标准来衡量依然是先进的标准。 安全措施得到改进,日工作时间从当时普遍的 10 或 12 小时减少到8 小时。 为了适应更短的日工作时间,整个工厂从双班变成了三班。而且,病假和改善了的工伤医疗得以制度化。 福特汽车公司是最早建立技术学校来培训专门技工和为移民开设英语学校的工厂之一。 公司甚至为雇佣残疾人和有前科的人而作出了一些努力。最受广泛称赞的革新是实行五美元一天的最低工资。 其目的是招收和留住那些最好的技工并阻碍工会的发展。 福特从效率和利润分享的角度来解释这项新的工资政策。 他也提到这样一个事实,他的员工可以买他们生产的汽车--这实际上是为其产品另开辟了一个市场。 为了够资格得到最低工资,员工必须建立一个得体的家庭并显示出良好的个人习惯,包括节制、俭省、勤勉和可靠。 虽然有人批评福特过多地干涉了员工的私人生活,但毫无疑问,在移民们被用恶劣的方式剥削的时代,亨利 ·福特却帮助了许多人在美国扎下根来。