British Columbia
British Columbia is the third largest Canadian province, both in area and population. It is nearly 1.5 times as large as Texas, and extends 800 miles (1,280km) north from the United States border. It includes Canada’s entire west coast and the islands just off the coast. Most of British Columbia is mountainous, with long rugged ranges running north and south. Even the coastal islands are the remains of a mountain range that existed thousands of years ago. During the last Ice Age, this range was scoured by glaciers until most of it was beneath the sea. Its peaks now show as islands scattered along the coast. The southwestern coastal region has a humid mild marine climate. Sea winds that blow inland from the west are warmed by a current of warm water that flows through the Pacific Ocean. As a result, winter temperatures average above freezing and summers are mild. These warm western winds also carry moisture from the ocean. Inland from the coast, the winds from the Pacific meet the mountain barriers of the coastal ranges and the Rocky Mountains. As they rise to cross the mountains, the winds are cooled, and their moisture begins to fall as rain. On some of the western slopes almost 200 inches (500cm) of rain fall each year. More than half of British Columbia is heavily forested. On mountain slopes that receive plentiful rainfall, huge Douglas firs rise in towering columns. These forest giants often grow to be as much as 300 feet (90m) tall, with diameters up to 10 feet (3m). More lumber is produced from these trees than from any other kind of tree in North America. Hemlock, red cedar, and balsam fir are among the other trees found in British Columbia.
英属哥伦比亚是加拿大的第三大省,无论是面积还是人口都是如此。 它几乎是德克萨斯的 1.5 倍,从美国边境一直向北延伸了 800 英里(1,280 公里)。 它包括了加拿大整个西海岸及附近岛屿。 大部分英属哥伦比亚多山峦。 绵长而粗犷的山脉贯通南北。 甚至那些沿海的岛屿都是那些存在于千万年前的山脉的遗迹。 在上一个冰河时期,这些山脉被冰河冲刷侵蚀,直到大部分山脉被淹没在海中。 它们的峰顶显现为沿着海岸散布的岛屿。 西南海岸地区有着潮湿温和的海洋性气候。 从太平洋来的温暖的洋流使得从西吹过内陆的海风变得温暖。 因此这儿冬天平均气温在零上而且夏天也不会酷热。这些温暖的西风同样也从海洋带来了湿气。 来自太平洋的、从海岸向内陆的风遇到海岸山脉和落基山脉这些山脉屏障。 当气流升高跨越这些山脉时,风的温度就降低了,风中的水分形成降雨。 在一些朝西山坡区域每年大约有200 英寸(500 厘米)的降水。 大部分英属哥伦比亚密布着森林。 在有充足降水的斜坡,巨大的道格拉斯枞树高耸入云。 这些森林巨人常常长到高达300 英尺(90米),直径粗达 10 英尺(3 米)。 这些树产出了比北美其他任何树都多的木材。 铁杉、红香椿、香脂冷杉枞都是发现于英属哥伦比亚的其它树种。