University of Kent
There are days that leave the best of us feeling worn out and stressed. But venting your frustrations is the worst thing you can do, according to scientists. Instead, it is better to ‘positively appraise' the cause of your stress with acceptance and humour as these are the most effective coping strategies for people dealing with failures. Researchers from the University of Kent had 149 students keep a diary for between three to 14 days. Each day, the students detailed their most bothersome failure, the strategies they used to cope with the failure and how they felt at the end of the day. Their coping strategies included using emotional or instrumental support; self-distraction; denial; religion; venting; substance use; self-blame; and behavioural disengagement. Of these, using social support; denial; venting; behavioural disengagement; and self-blame coping had negative effects on satisfaction at the end of the day. The more students used these coping strategies in dealing with the day's most bothersome failure, the less satisfied they felt. In contrast, positive reframing or trying to see things in a more positive light; acceptance and humour coping had positive effects on satisfaction. The more students used these coping strategies in dealing with failures, the more satisfied they felt at the end of the day.
生活中我们总会有感到筋疲力尽、压抑不堪的时候。但科学家研究发现,发泄你的怨气是最糟糕的方法。相反,你最好能“积极评估”压力产生的根源,以接受和幽默的态度来面对,因为这是应对挫败的最有效策略。 肯特大学的研究人员让149名参与调查的学生记日记,为期3天到14天不等。学生每天记录他们遭遇的最令人懊恼的失败、克服挫折的对策、以及一天结束时的感受。他们的应对策略包括情感或物质支持、分散注意力、拒不接受、寻求宗教信仰、宣泄、使用药物、自我批评、以及行为解脱。 这些策略中,寻求社会帮助、拒不接受、宣泄、行为解脱、及自我批评会削弱一天结束时的满足感。受访学生在应对一天中最令人烦恼的挫折时,这些策略使用得越多,他们越是感到不满足。 相比之下,积极地重新规划、尝试以更积极的眼光看待问题、容忍、幽默的处理态度会增加满足感。学生在应对挫折时,这些策略使用得越多,一天结束时满足感越高。