托福写作中,绝不是词汇就可以一统天下的,语法问题也是高分必需要攻克的一道难关,想要写出逻辑清晰,遣词造句正确丰满的高质量托福作文,托福写作语法不可忽视。我们就从小小的冠词开始吧。你,用对了吗?

一 基本规律 (Basic rules)

1. Indefinite article (不定冠词)

我们用 "a , an " 当我们不知道他是诸多人或事中的哪一个:

* is one of many. ( 是许多个中的一个)

He is an artist.(=there are many artists)

* is not unique. (不是唯一的)

I have just bought a book

* has not been mentioned before. (之前没有提到过)

There was a new student in class today.

2. Definite article (定冠词)

我们用 " the " 当我们知道他是诸多人或事中的哪一个:

* is unique (or unique in that context) (是唯一的)

The Australian Prime Minister. (=there is only one)

I looked inside, the engine was in a terrible state. (=there is only one engine, in this case)

* has been mentioned before. (之前提到过)

The man gave me a ticket. I looked at it, and saw that the ticket was a single.

* is defined by the phrase which follows it. (要被接下来的短语详细说明)

What is the new student's name?

3. No articles (无冠词)

我们不用冠词当我们普遍地提及事物的时候:

* using plural or uncountable nouns (在使用复数或不可数名词时)

Do you like sport?

* with the names of people or places, but there are many exceptions (人名和地名的时候不用冠词,但是地名有许多例外,下文一一介绍)

He is Professor Jones

4. Fixed phrases ( 固定短语)

有许多固定搭配需要用或者不用冠词,我们应该来单独学习,他们包括:

a few at home at work at the beginning atthe end go to bed

go to the cinemas, shops, station in the world once a week

sixty kilometres an hour the next the other the other day

the same

二 经常发生问题的区域 (Areas that often cause problems)

1. Jobs (工作)

如果有许多人做这个工作我们用 a 或 an.:

My husband is an architect. (=there are many architects)

但是如果一个工作特别对应一个人,我们就要用“the”了:

He is having talks with the French foreign minister(外交部长). (=there is only one)

2. Superlative (最高级)

我们使用“the”在形容词最高级前面:

She is the best person for the job.

3. Last and next

有一些形容词如 “last” 和 “next ”同时可以用也可以不用定冠词“the”但是句意会发生变化

I saw James last night. (=the one before this one)

It is the last night of our holiday. (=the fanal one)

I will see you next week.(=the one after this one)

4. Institutions: school, prison, university, church, home, hospital

和以上机构连用时我们不用定冠词“the”

My sister had to stay in hospital overnight.

然而,如果我们指的是这个建筑,我们就要用“the”

Our flat is opposite the hospital.

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