Section 1 & Section 2重点场景（生活类）：招聘面试，艺术装饰，选课须知，旅行住宿，艺术鉴赏，剧院环境介绍，公园导览。
Section 3 & Section 4重点场景（学术类）：选课咨询，流程介绍，作业反馈，论文讨论，动物讲座，金融与商业。
Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer.
Example James has not seen Annie lately due to spending long hours at work.
1 James enjoys the _____ of his work.
2 Annie does not enjoy all the _____ for her work.
3 Annie’s job involves _____, and offering advice to land managers or owners who wish to make changes.
4 Annie works in the council’s _____ division.
5 Annie outlines her clients’ legal obligations, and proposes the _____ of their land.
Choose TWO letters. A-E
Write NO MORE THAN ONE WORD for each answer.
What the business sells: 4 _____
Idea for business: 5 _____ society
Business customers: 6 _____
Choose ONE letter, A-E.
Which TWO of the following are likely to cause the farmer difficulties in her development application?
A New accommodation
B Anew road
C Olive trees
D A volcano
E A wetland
Answer the questions below.
Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS OR A NUMBER for each answer.
8 For whom does Annie think carefully controlled land use is valuable?
9 When did a tram service cease in James and Annie's town?
10 What did James study at university?
Choose the correct letter, A, B or C.
11 According to the speaker, why is it a good lime for D-l-Y painting?
A There are better products available now.
B Material cost less than they used to.
C People have more free time than before.
12 What happened in 2009 in the UK?
A A record volume of paint was sold.
B A large amount of paint was wasted
C There was a major project to repaint public buildings.
13 What does the speaker say about paint quantity?
A It’s not necessary to have exact room measurements.
B It's better to overestimate than to underestimate.
C An automatic calculator can be downloaded from the Internet
14 What does Community RePaint do?
A It paints people's houses without payment.
B It collects unwanted paint and gives it away.
C It sells unused paint and donates the money to charity.
Choose TWO letters, A-E.
What TWO pieces of advice does the speaker give about paint?
A Don't buy expensive paint.
B Test the colour before buying a lot
C Choose a light colour.
D Use water-based paint
E Buy enough paint for more than one application.
Choose TWO letters, A-E.
What TWO pieces of advice does the speaker give about preparation?
A Replace any loose plaster.
B Don't spend too long preparing surfaces.
C Use decorators' soap to remove grease from walls.
D Wash dirty walls with warm water.
E Paint over cracks and small holes.
Choose TWO letters, A-E.
Whet TWO pieces of advice does the speaker give about painting?
A Put a healer in the room.
B Wash brushes in cold water.
C Use a roller with a short pile.
D Apply paint directly from the tin.
E Open doors and windows.
Questions 21 to 30
Questions 21 to 23
Choose THREE letters,A-G.
Which THREE factors does Marco’s tutor advise him to consider when selecting a course?
possibility of specialisation
relevance to future career
organisation of course
range of topics
reputation of lecturer
Choose the correct letter A, B or C.
24 Why does Marco’s tutor advise him to avoid the Team Management course?
A It will repeat work that Marco has already done.
B It is intended for students at a lower level than Marco.
C It may take too much time to do well.
25 Why does Marco want to do a dissertation?
A He thinks it will help his future career.
B He would like to do a detailed study.
C He has already done some work for it.
26 What does Marco's tutor think about the dissertation outline?
A The topic is too narrow to be useful.
B The available data may be unsuitable
C The research plan is too complicated.
27 What does Marco decide to do about his dissertation?
A contact potential interviewees
B change to another topic
C discuss it with Professor Briggs
Complete the sentences below.
Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer.
28 A first draft of the dissertation should be completed by the end of _____
29 The dissertation should be registered with the _____ of the department.
30 Marco should get a copy of the statistic software form the _____
Complete the notes below.
Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.
People borrow money for several reasons:
31. to buy a house you need a _____
32. to buy a car you need to _____
33. to buy everyday items you need _____
Complete the sentences below.
Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.
34. People in developed countries have _____ to credit.
35. For poor people, they must use a private lender for a _____.
36. People have increasing debts when they cannot_____.
37. This might be because of something unplanned, for example, a failed business or _____.
Complete the flow chart below.
Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.
4. Ecological Assessment
5. best use
6-7. BE (in either order)
8. Future generations
15/16 B D
30. computer office
31. a mortgage/mortgages
33. a credit card/credit cards/extra money
35. (high(er)-interest) loan
37. losing a job
39. (is) never
32. get a loan
34. easy access
36. repay interest
38. full-time servant
READING PASSAGE 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.
The history of the poster
The appearance of the poster has changed continuously over the past two centuries.
The first posters were known as ‘broadsides’ and were used for public and commercial announcements. Printed on one side only using metal type, they were quickly and crudely produced in large quantities. As they were meant to be read at a distance, they required large lettering.
There were a number of negative aspects of large metal type. It was expensive, required a large amount of storage space and was extremely heavy. If a printer did have a collection of large metal type, it was likely that there were not enough letters. So printers did their best by mixing and matching styles.
Commercial pressure for large type was answered with the invention of a system for wood type production. In 1827, Darius Wells invented a special wood drill - the lateral router - capable of cutting letters on wood blocks. The router was used in combination with William Leavenworth’s pantograpn (1834) to create decorative wooden letters of all shapes and sizes. The first posters began to appear, but they had little colour and design; often wooden type was mixed with metal type in a conglomeration of styles.
A major development in poster design was the application of lithography, invented by Alois Senefelder in 1796, which allowed artists to hand-draw letters, opening the field of type design to endless styles. The method involved drawing with a greasy crayon onto finely surfaced Bavarian limestone and offsetting that image onto paper. This direct process captured the artist's true intention; however, the final printed image was in reverse. The images and lettering needed to be drawn backwards, often reflected in a mirror or traced on transfer paper.
As a result of this technical difficulty, the invention of the lithographic process had little impact on posters until the 1860s, when Jules Cheret came up with his ‘three-stone lithographic process’. This gave artists the opportunity to experiment with a wide spectrum of colours.
Although the process was difficult, the result was remarkable, with nuances of colour impossible in other media even to this day. The ability to mix words and images in such an attractive and economical format finally made the lithographic poster a powerful innovation.
Starting in the 1870s, posters became the main vehicle for advertising prior to the magazine era and the dominant means of mass communication in the rapidly growing cities of Europe and America. Yet in the streets of Paris, Milan and Berlin, these artistic prints were so popular that they were stolen off walls almost as soon as they were hung. Cheret, later known as ‘the father of the modern poster’, organised the first exhibition of posters in 1884 and two years later published the first book on poster art. He quickly took advantage of the public interest by arranging for artists to create posters, at a reduced size, that were suitable for in-home display.
Thanks to Cheret, the poster slowly took hold in other countries in the 1890s and came to celebrate each society’s unique cultural institutions: the cafe in France, the opera and fashion in Italy, festivals in Spain, literature in Holland and trade fairs in Germany. The first poster shows were held in Great
Britain and Italy in 1894, Germany in 1896 and Russia in 1897. The most important poster show ever, to many observers, was held in Reims, France, in 1896 and featured an unbelievable 1,690 posters arranged by country.
In the early 20th century, the poster continued to play a large communication role and to go through a range of styles. By the 1950s, however, it had begun to share the spotlight with other media, mainly radio and print. By this time, most posters were printed using the mass production technique of photo offset, which resulted in the familiar dot pattern seen in newspapers and magazines. In addition, the use of photography in posters, begun in Russia in the twenties, started to become as common as illustration.
In the late fifties, a new graphic style that had strong reliance on typographic elements in black and white appeared. The new style came to be known as the International Typographic Style. It made use of a mathematical grid, strict graphic rules and black-and-white photography to provide a clear and logical structure. It became the predominant style in the world in the 1970s and continues to exert its influence today.
It was perfectly suited to the increasingly international post-war marketplace, where there was a strong demand for clarity. This meant that the accessibility of words and symbols had to be taken into account. Corporations wanted international identification, and events such as the Olympics called for universal solutions, which the Typographic Style could provide.
However, the International Typographic Style began to lose its energy in the late 1970s. Many criticised it for being cold, formal and dogmatic.
A young teacher in Basel. Wolfgang Weingart, experimented with the offset printing process to produce posters that appeared complex and chaotic, playful and spontaneous - all in stark contrast to what had gone before. Weingart's liberation of typography was an important foundation for several new styles. These ranged from Memphis and Retro to the advances now being made in computer graphics.
Complete the table below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Early Printing Methods
Complete the flow chart below.
Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Do the following statements agree with the information in the reading passage?
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
10 By the 1950s. photographs were more widely seen than artists' illustrations on posters.
11 Features of the Typographic Style can be seen in modern-day posters.
12 The Typographic Style met a global need at a particular time in history.
13 Weingart got many of his ideas from his students in Basel.
READING PASSAGE 2
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.
Internal and External Marketing
A Employees need to hear the same messages that you send out to the marketplace. At most companies, however, internal and external communications are often mismatched. This can be very confusing, and it threatens employees’ perceptions of the company’s integrity: They are told one thing by management but observe that a different message is being sent to the public. One health insurance company, for instance, advertised that the welfare of patients was the company’s number one priority, while employees were told that their main goal was to increase the value of their stock options through cost reductions. And one major financial services institution told customers that it was making a major shift in focus from being a financial retailer to a financial adviser, but, a year later, research showed that the customer experience with the company had not changed. It turned out that company leaders had not made an effort to sell the change internally, so employees were still churning out transactions and hadn't changed their behavior to match their new adviser role.
B Enabling employees to deliver on customer expectations is important, of course, but it's not the only reason a company needs to match internal and external messages. Another reason is to help push the company to achieve goals that might otherwise be out of reach. In 1997, when IBM launched its e-business campaign (which is widely credited for turning around the company’s image), it chose to ignore research that suggested consumers were unprepared to embrace IBM as a leader in e-business. Although to the outside world this looked like an external marketing effort, IBM was also using the campaign to align employees around the idea of the Internet as the future of technology. The internal campaign changed the way employees thought about everything they did, from how they named products to how they organized staff to how they approached selling. The campaign was successful largely because it gave employees a sense of direction and purpose, which in turn restored their confidence in IBM's ability to predict the future and lead the technology industry. Today, research shows that people are four times more likely to associate the term “e-business” with IBM than with its nearest competitor, Microsoft.
C The type of "two-way branding” that IBM did so successfully strengthens both sides of the equation. Internal marketing becomes stronger because it can draw on the same “big idea” as advertising. Consumer marketing becomes stronger because the messages are developed based on employees’ behavior and attitudes, as well as on the company’s strengths and capabilities-indeed, the themes are drawn from the company’s very soul. This process can result in a more distinct advertising idea because marketers are more likely to create a message that's unique to the company.
D Perhaps even more important, by taking employees into account, a company can avoid creating a message that doesn't resonate with staff or, worse, one that builds resentment. In 1996, United Airlines shelved its “Come Fly the Friendly Skies” slogan when presented with a survey that revealed the depth of customer resentment toward the airline industry. In an effort to own up to the industry’s shortcomings, United launched a new campaign, “Rising,” in which it sought to differentiate itself by acknowledging poor service and promising incremental improvements such as better meals. While this was a logical premise for the campaign given the tenor of the times, a campaign focusing on customers’ distaste for flying was deeply discouraging to the staff. Employee resentment ultimately made it impossible for United to deliver the improvements it was promising, which in turn undermined the “Rising” pledge. Three years later, United decided employee opposition was undermining its success and pulled the campaign. It has since moved to a more inclusive brand message with the line “United,” which both audiences can embrace. Here, a fundamental principle of advertising—find and address a customer concern—failed United because it did not consider the internal market.
E When it comes to execution, the most common and effective way to link internal and external marketing campaigns is to create external advertising that targets both audiences. IBM used this tactic very effectively when it launched its e-business campaign. It took out an eight-page ad in the Wall Street Journal declaring its new vision, a message directed at both customers and internal stakeholders. This is an expensive way to capture attention, but if used sparingly, it is the most powerful form of communication; in fact, you need do it only once for everyone in the company to read it. There’s a symbolic advantage as well. Such a tactic signals that the company is taking its pledge very seriously; it also signals transparency—the same message going out to both audiences.
F Advertising isn’t the only way to link internal and external marketing. At Nike, a number of senior executives now hold the additional title of “Corporate Storyteller.” They deliberately avoid stories of financial successes and concentrate on parables of “just doing it,” reflecting and reinforcing the company’s ad campaigns. One tale, for example, recalls how legendary coach and Nike cofounder Bill Bowerman, in an effort to build a better shoe for his team, poured rubber into the family waffle iron, giving birth to the prototype of Nike’s famous Waffle Sole. By talking about such inventive moves, the company hopes to keep the spirit of innovation that characterizes its ad campaigns alive and well within the company.
Use the information in the passage to match the company (listed A-F) with correct category or deeds below.
Write the appropriate letters A-F in boxes 14-20 on your answer sheet
NB you may use any letter more than once
A. legendary anecdote inspire employee successfully
B. advertisement campaign inspire employees and ensure leading role in business
C. improper ads campaign brings negative effect
D. internal and external announcement are different
E. campaign brings positive and realistic expectation internally
F. a bad slogan that failed both to win support internally and raise standard to its poor service
14. One health insurance Company
15. British Rail
17. United Airline
18. A financial service company
19. A Shoemaking company (Nike)
20. The Company of (Ford)
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2?
In boxes 21-24 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement is true
FALSE if the statement is false
NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage
21. Employers in almost all companies successfully make their employees fully understand the outside campaign.
22. Currently IBM is more prominent in the area of E-business
23. United Airline finally gave up and ads slogan due to a survey in 1996.
24. Nike had improved company performance through telling employees legendary corporation stories.
Choose Two correct letters below
Write your answers in boxes 25-26 on your answer sheet.
Please choose TWO approaches in the passage mentioned that were employed as company strategy:
A. promoting the visual effect of their products’ advertisement
B. launching inspiring campaigns internally
C. introducing inner competition
D. learning how to tell stories among senior executives
E. applying an appropriate slogan
READING PASSAGE 3
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40, which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.
Green virtues of green sand
Revolution in gloss recycling could help keep water clean
A For the past 100 years special high grade white sand dug from the ground at Leighton Buzzard in the UK has been used to filter tap water to remove bacteria and impurities but this may no longer be necessary. A new factory that turns used wine bottles into green sand could revolutionise the recycling industry and help to filter Britain’s drinking water. Backed by $1.6m from the European Union and the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), a company based in Scotland is building the factory, which will turn beverage bottles back into the sand from which they were made in the first place. The green sand has already been successfully tested by water companies and is being used in 50 swimming pools in Scotland to keep the water clean.
B The idea is not only to avoid using up an increasingly scarce natural resource, sand but also to solve a crisis in the recycling industry. Britain uses 5.5m tonnes of glass a year, but recycles only 750,000 tonnes of it. The problem is that half the green bottle glass in Britain is originally from imported wine and beer bottles. Because there is so much of it, and it is used less in domestic production than other types, green glass is worth only $25 a tonne. Clear glass, which is melted down and used for whisky bottles, mainly for export, is worth double that amount.
C Howard Drvden, a scientist and managing director of the company. Drvden Aqua, of Bonnyrigg, near Edinburgh, has spent six years working on the product he calls Active Filtration Media, or AFM. He concedes that he has given what is basically recycled glass a ‘fancy name' to remove the stigma of what most people would regard as an inferior product. He says he needs bottles that have already contained drinkable liquids to be sure that drinking water filtered through the AFM would not be contaminated. Crushed down beverage glass has fewer impurities than real sand and it performed better in trials. *The fact is that tests show that AFM does the job better than sand, it is easier to clean and reuse and has all sorts of properties that make it ideal for other applications.' he claimed.
D The factory is designed to produce 100 tonnes of AFM a day, although Mr Dryden regards this as a large-scale pilot project rather than full production. Current estimates of the UK market for this glass for filtering drinking water, sewage, industrial water, swimming pools and fish farming are between 175.000 to 217.000 tonnes a year, which will use up most of the glass available near the factory. So he intends to build five or six factories in cities where there are large quantities of bottles, in order to cut down on transport costs.
E The current factory will be completed this month and is expected to go into full production on January 14th next year. Once it is providing a ‘regular’ product, the government’s drinking water inspectorate will be asked to perform tests and approve it for widespread use by water companies. A Defra spokesman said it was hoped that AFM could meet approval within six months. The only problem that they could foresee was possible contamination if some glass came from sources other than beverage bottles.
F Among those who have tested the glass already is Caroline Fitzpatrick of the civil and environmental engineering department of University College London. ‘We have looked at a number of batches and it appears to do the job.' she said. ‘Basically, sand is made of glass and Mr Dryden is turning bottles back into sand. It seems a straightforward idea and there is no reason we can think of why it would not work. Since glass from wine bottles and other beverages has no impurities and clearly did not leach any substances into the contents of the bottles, there was no reason to believe there would be a problem,’ Dr Fitzpatrick added.
G Mr Dryden has set up a network of agents round the world to sell AFM. It is already in use in central America to filter water on banana plantations where the fruit has to be washed before being despatched to European markets. It is also in use in sewage works to filter water before it is returned to rivers, something which is becoming legally necessary across the European Union because of tighter regulations on sewage works. So there are a great number of applications involving cleaning up water. Currently, however, AFM costs $670 a tonne, about four times as much as good quality sand. ‘Hut that is because we haven't got large-scale production. Obviously, when we get going it will cost a lot less, and be competitive with sand in price as well.’ Mr Dryden said. ‘I believe it performs better and lasts longer than sand, so it is going to be better value too.'
H If AFM takes off as a product it will be a big boost for the government agency which is charged with finding a market for recycled products. Crushed glass is already being used in road surfacing and in making tiles and bricks. Similarly. AFM could prove to have a widespread use and give green glass a cash value.
Reading Passage 3 has 8 paragraphs labelled A-H.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter A-H in boxes 27-36 on your answer sheet.
NB You may use any letter more than once.
27 a description of plans to expand production of AFM
28 the identification of a potential danger in the raw material for AFM
29 an example of AFM use in the export market
30 a comparison of the value of green glass and other types of glass
31 a list of potential applications of AFM in the domestic market
32 the conclusions drawn from laboratory checks on the process of AFM production
33 identification of current funding for the production of green sand
34 an explanation of the chosen brand name for crushed green glass
35 a description of plans for exporting AFM
36 a description of what has to happen before AFM is accepted for general use
Complete the summary below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 11-14 on your answer sheet.
The use of crushed green glass (AFM) may have two significant impacts: it may help to save a diminishing 37 _____ while at the same time solving a major problem for the 38 _____ in the UK. However, according to Howard Dryden, only glass from bottles that have been used for 39 _____ can be used in the production process. AFM is more effective than 40 _____ as a water filter, and also has other uses.
1. storage space
3. colour and design
4. greasy crayon
5. transfer paper
6. words and images
7. mass communication
9. unique cultural institutions
13. NOT GIVEN
24. NOT GIVEN
37. natural resource
38. recycling industry
39. drinkable liquids/beverages
40. (real) sand
题目：The first chart below shows how energy is used in an average Australian household. The second chart shows the percentage of greenhouse gas emissions which result from this energy use.
The first chart illustrates the average energy usage in an Australian family while the second chart presents the percentage of greenhouse gas emissions caused by the energy consumption.
It can be clearly seen from the first pie chart that heating requires the most energy, at 42% of the total, followed by water heating which represents almost a third. The other appliances constitute 15 percent of the total consumption of energy while refrigeration, lighting and cooling account for smaller proportions of energy use at 7%, 4% and only 2% respectively.
While heating is the greatest use of energy, it only causes 15% of the total greenhouse gases, which is not regarded as the greatest producer of greenhouse gases. Instead, water heating systems emit the greatest quantity of greenhouse gases at a little over a third of all gases, which is proportional to its total use. The other appliances in a house are the second biggest producer, releasing 28%. Similar amounts are emitted by the combination of refrigeration (14%), lighting (8%) and cooling (3%) systems.
Overall, the heating produces low share of greenhouse gas compared with its energy use, so it is more eco-friendly than other sorts of energy use.
①represent: v. 等于，相当于
②constitute: v. 构成
③emit: v. 放，释放
④be proportional to: 与......成比例的
⑤share: n. 份额
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Nowadays，full-time university students tend to focus on their studying. Some people think it is essential for university students to be involved in other activities. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Computers are widely used in education, and some people think teachers do not play an important role in the classroom. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
As scientists contribute more to the development of our society than other people do, science students should get more financial support from the government than other students. Do you agree or disagree?
Children find it difficult to concentrate on or pay attention to school. What are the reasons? How can we solve this problem?
Some people think that in order to continue improving the quality of high school education, students should be encouraged to evaluate and criticize their teachers, while others assume this could result in the loss of respect and dignity for teachers. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
Some people think that all young people should be required to have full-time education until they are at least 18 years old. To what extent do you agree or disagree？
Old generations often hold some traditional ideas on the correct way of life, thinking and behavior. However, some people think that it is not helpful for the young generations to prepare for modern life in the future. What's your opinion?
With the development of many countries, people start to live individually and live in very small family units. What are the causes? What effects does it have on society?
Many people believe that scientific research should be carried out and controlled by the government rather than private companies. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
The government has the duty to ensure that its citizens have a healthy diet, while others believe this is individuals' responsibility. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
With the increasing demand for energy sources of oil and gas, people should look for sources of oil and gas in remote and untouched places. Do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages of damaging such areas?
Some people think that instead of preventing climate change, we need to find a way to live with it. Do you agree or disagree?
Some people say the best way to solve the environmental problem is to raise the price of fuel, to what extent do you agree or disagree？
Environmental problems are too big for individual countries and individual people to address. We have reached the stage where the only way to protect the environment is to address it at an international level. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?
Nuclear energy is a better sources of energy to meet the increasing demand of energy. Do you agree or disagree?
Today prison is the most common solution for crime. But some people think that it would be a more effective way to provide them with better education to prevent them from becoming criminals. Do you agree or disagree?
Some people believe that young people who commit serious crimes should be punished in the same way as adults. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Many people are afraid to leave their homes because of their fear of crime. Some believe that more action should be taken to prevent crime, but others feel that little can be done. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
The increase in food production owes much to fertilizers and better machinery, but some people think that it has a negative impact on human health and community. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Some people think it’s necessary to use animals for testing medicines intended for human use. Others, however, think it’s not right to do that. Discuss both views and give you own opinion.
Some people think that robots are very important for humans' future development. Others, however, think that robots are a dangerous invention that could have negative effects on society. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
Some people think that the increasing use of computers and mobile phones for communication has had a negative effect on young people's reading and writing skills. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
In some countries it is illegal for companies to reject job applicants for their age. Is this positive or negative to the development?
Countries with a long average working time are more economically successful than those countries which do not have a long working time. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
In many countries television shows many foreign-made programmers. The dominance of imported entertainment is harmful to the cultures of these countries. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Research shows that overeating can be just as harmful as smoking. Thus, the advertising of certain food products should be banned, as cigarette is banned in many countries. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Tourism is a multibillion-dollar industry that supports economic development. However some people think that it causes too much damage to the local environment and culture. Do you agree or disagree?
Foreign tourists abroad should be charged more than local people when visiting the local historical and cultural tourist attractions. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Some people believe famous people's support towards international aid organizations draws the attention to problems, while others think celebrities make the problems less important. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
Some people prefer to provide help and support directly to those who need it in their local community. Others, however, prefer to give money to national and international charitable organizations. Discuss both sides and give your own opinion.
题目：Some people think that instead of preventing climate change, we need to find a way to live with it. Do you agree or disagree?
As most parts of the world are getting warmer and warmer in the recent decades, climate change has become an issue known to the masses. Nevertheless, opinions on how to deal with the problem diverge. From my perspective, it is ridiculous to adjust our life to the on-going environment worsening without resorting to any active countermeasures.
Some innocent people might think there is no problem to live with a higher temperature, but unfortunately, the risks of global warming are far more than a few scorching days in summer or the gradually rising sea levels. Actually they are merely the first few blocks in a domino effect, followed by a series of disasters such as extreme weather conditions, animal extinctions and shrunk continents on land, all of which can barely be solved by simply setting an air-conditioner in the room. Therefore, only with a long-term view can we see the urge to treat climate change seriously and take actions to prevent the exacerbation.
To be more explicit, learning to live with climate change will never be the best option. On the contrary, drastically reducing greenhouse gas emissions from now on is the wiser one compared with fixing the runaway destabilization later. Once being ignored, the issue of climate change will ultimately leads to the thawing of ice in the poles, and then the unavoidable flood, famine and large-scale malignant epidemic disease come by. At that point, the environmental problem evolves into a much more costly and complicated social and political one. So it is advisable to address the climate change issue at the earlier stage before it is too late.
All in all, climate issues can be a major problem if not tackled properly, both environmentally and politically. Therefore it is necessary for those short-sighted to realise the significance of climate change, as well as the benefit of adopting proper approaches to stop the loss.
①diverge: v. 分歧，不一致
②ridiculous: adj. 荒谬的
③scorching: adj. 炎热的
④domino effect: 连锁效应
⑤explicit: adj. 清晰的
⑥runaway: adj. 失控的
⑦large-scale malignant epidemic disease: 大规模恶性传染病
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Travel (space travel)
Do you want to travel in the outer space?
Yeah that would be fantastic! I always want to experience the gravity-free condition, and it would be amazing to overlook the whole universe from the spaceship.
What would you do if you had this opportunity?
I would first attend some special trainings regularly. I’m not a very fit person, or I have to say subhealthy, so I need to work out to get ready for the possible weightlessness or other harsh conditions I might encounter in the space.
Do you like to travel by air?
Yes and no. Travelling by air is indeed very fast, and the service on the airline can be good as well, but it takes a lot of time to get to the airport and go through the security check. So if it’s not too far, maybe it’s better to take the train.
When was the last time you went travelling?
I went to a coastal city in the northern part of China last weekend with my friends. We went there by train and had a lot of delicious seafood. It was a nice trip.
Part 2 & 3
Describe the time when you had your first cellphone.
You should say:
When it was
What it was like
How you had this cellphone
And explain how you felt about it
I remember I got my first cellphone when I was in middle school. It was a domestic brand called Xiaxin, I’m not sure if they are still in operation now but back then this brand was quite popular. My father bought this phone for me. It was a small cellphone just half the size of my palm. And cellphones at that time were normally very simple and not that rich in colour, but mine was very pink and cute. So it was quite popular among girls. However unlike smartphones nowadays, it had no touch screen but a physical numeric keypad. Although it was not as multifunctional as the cellphone I have today, I still liked it a lot not only because of its cute appearance but also because of the memory I had with the cellphone. Since it had a physical numeric keypad, I could touch type the message without looking at the cellphone, so I often secretly sent messages to my friends in class. I can no longer do the same on smartphones now because 100% I will have typos if I don’t keep staring at the screen. That’s a shame, I really miss the feeling that fingers type on the keypad while eyes look at elsewhere.
Eg：A bird settled on his palm.
Eg：To gain entry and traverse interior doors, you must flash a smartcard and punch in a numeric code.
Eg：The PC model also adds a Tab key at the top of the numeric keypad to aid number crunchers.
④ typo: 名词；打字错误，错别字
Eg：Please see below for a correction (marked with an asterisk) to a typo in the transcript.
1. What age do you think children could start using cellphones?
I think it’s better for them to start using cellphones after they enter the middle school. It’s not a good idea for children to use cellphones too early as they lack control and can easily get addicted to these electronic devices. In addition, spending too much time staring at the screen will do harm to their eyes. I guess that’s one of the reasons that many children in China have a bad eyesight.
①stare at： 词组：盯着
Eg: Otherwise, she says, the kids would stare at their phones and not interact with one another.
Eg：A person with good eyesight can distinguish distant object.
2. Is it popular for children to use cellphones in China?
Very popular. Far more popular than we can imagine. I remember several years ago I went back to my primary school, to my surprise, almost every single pupil got an iPhone and they were so obsessed with their phones during the break. And recently, I even found out that babies who can barely talk start playing iPad. I’m really worry about this situation.
①be obsessed with： 词组；痴迷于
Eg：We do not think that you should be obsessed with your portfolio.
Eg：He was barely listening until the salary was mentioned. Then he pricked up his ears.
3. What do teenagers use cellphones for?
I think they use cellphones for different purposes. For example they’ll use cellphones to make a phone call or send a text message like everyone does. Of course they’ll also search for some information to help their study. But most of the time I’m afraid, they will watch online videos, play games or browse social media.
Eg：Download the full report, the Executive Summary or browse the report by chapter.
②social media: 词组；社交媒体
Eg：And about half of American adults have a presence on social media, according to Pew.
4. What are the advantages/disadvantages of using cellphones?
Using cellphones on one hand has greatly benefited our life. We can place a takeaway order or buy a movie ticket on our phones, we can also use mobile payment system to pay for what we buy, and that’s how a cashless society is created. On the other hand, cellphones also inevitably bring some drawbacks to us. With more time spent on cellphones, people nowadays become more and more indifferent, and some of them heavily rely on cellphones that they feel really anxious without having their phones at hand.
Eg：Financing government by printing money inevitably leads to higher inflation and all of its associated problems.
②at hand: 副词；在手边
Eg：I put this book at hand only to meet the unexpected need.