Do you like to watch sports on TV?
Well, I don’t think so as I am not really a sporty person.
Do you play any sports?
Well, I don’t really play many sports but in summer, I swim a lot.
Do you have a favorite sport star?
Well, I don’t think so as I am not a big fan of sports.
What kinds of sports are popular in China?
Well, I think it largely depends on people’s preferences. Some may prefer to play heavy sports like basketball and football while some may be fond of light ones such as jogging and yoga.
What kinds of sports would you like to try in the future?
Well, I would love to try skiing as I think it looks so cool to ski in winter.
Part 2 & 3
Describe a country or city where you want to live or work in the future.
You should say:
Where the country or city is
Why you want to live or work there
Who you like to live or work with
Explain what you have to do to achieve your dreams
此话题属于“地点类”类话题， 所要描述的是“你想生活或工作的城市或国家”；可能使用的主要时态是“一般现在时态”以及“一般将来时态”等；在交代前三个“basic information”时， 我们可以思考除了陈述这些基础信息以外， 可否在哪些点上进行拓展， 从而使你的描述更加真实可信； 比如在交代这个地方的地理位置时， 是否可以顺便说明它的气候特征，当地居民的饮食习惯等等， 由于气候特征及饮食习惯等原因，使我个人原因在这里生活或学习。
Well, speaking of a city I would like to live and work in, it is the capital city of Yunnan province, Kunming. I still remember the time when I first visited that city while I was still at college years ago. It was during one summer holiday when I took a trip to Yunnan with a few of my roommates, and we had a terrific time there for 5 days. I really enjoyed that trip for two main reasons. One is that the city has the most pleasant climate, so we didn’t feel hot at all through it was summer, and I guess that is probably the reason why that place is often described as one of the most liveable cities in China. And the second reason is that I am so into the food there. No matter where we ate or what we ate, I just love their food, and I can still recall that there is one special kind of cold noodles I am really crazy about. It is actually made of rice and supposed to be eaten with several different sorts of vegetables such as celeries, mushrooms, carrots as well as cucumber. Therefore, it is not only so yummy to eat, but so healthy to people.
Ever since I came back from that city, I would often dream of living in that city with my family, and to make my dream come true, of course I would have to find a job there first. As I’ve been working as a teacher of English for almost 5 years, I think I would probably look for information to see if there are still any vacancies available for teachers from some schools or training organizations in that city, and I may also have to participate in an online interview or physically travel there for the job interview after I get shortlisted. If I can successfully get the offer in the end, I will quit my current job here and then prepare to move to the city, which is going to take a lot of work, I imagine.
①liveable： 形容词； 适合居住的
Eg：New York is often described as one of the least liveable cities in the US due to its high living expense.
②vacancy: 名词； 空缺 空白 空位
Eg：Most companies have many vacancies available for various positions at the beginning of each March, as lots of employees tend to change their jobs by the end of each year.
③physically : 副词； 身体上的 肢体上的
Eg: I am 100% sure that she is sick both physically and mentally.
④shortlisted : 形容词； 筛选的
Eg: She feels rather frustrated as she got the news that she is not shortlisted for the university she dreams to study in.
Do you like to live alone or share a room with others?
Well, I like to live alone because I am really a light sleeper, which means any movements at nights would probably wake me up. Besides, I might snore a bit when I get really exhausted, and I don’t want to disturb other people.
①snore： 动词； 打呼噜
Eg：He snores so loudly that people living next to door could even hear him.
Eg：Peter doesn’t like mountain-climbing, as it always makes him feel exhausted.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of working abroad?
Well, you could try some authentic food and get to know different cultures while you work abroad, which are obviously some advantages. However, you might also feel astonished when you have to experience cultural shock or when you get homesick, and those are some of the disadvantages.
①obviously： 副词； 显然的 明显的
Eg：It is obviously crucial for college students to take courses on interpersonal skills.
②astonished: 形容词；吃惊的 诧异的
Eg：His parents are quite astonished that their son finally made his way to a top university.
Would you like to live in a developed city with high salary but with polluted air?
Absolutely not. I really think it is important and necessary to live in a place where the air is clean enough so that my family and I would not be so afraid to get outside, and as for high salary, I never think it can guarantee a happy and healthy life.
①absolutely： 副词；绝对的 完全的
Eg：What he has proposed is absolutely reasonable, so most of us agreed.
②guarantee: 动词；保证 确保
Eg：In order to guarantee the high quality of their products, the company introduced a sophisticated quality control system from Germany.
You should spend 20 minutes on this task.
The chart below shows the rate of males and females who were overweight in Australia from 1980 to 2010.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.
The bar chart gives information about the percentage of overweight men and women in Australia over 30 years from 1980 to 2010.
Overall, it is clear that this three-decade period witnessed a noticeable increase in overweight rate of both men and women in Australia, and the obese men clearly outnumbered their female counterparts.
During two decades from 1980 to 2000, the ratio of overweight males experienced an unbalanced increase from 47% to 70%. By the year of 1990, the overweight ratio had risen at a slower pace to just over 50%, while from then on, it rocketed to 70% in 2000. In the meantime, the overweight figures of the female saw a similar trend, rising gradually from 30% in 1980 to 50% in 2000.
From 2000 to 2010, the percentage of overweight men witnessed an opposite trend, with a slight decrease of 3%, while the overweight rate in the female remained stable at approximately 50% during this decade.
Word count: 158
①rate: n. 比率
②outnumber: vt. 数量超过
③counterpart: n. 对应的人或物
④ratio: n. 比率（=rate）
⑤rocket: vi. 快速增长
⑥see a similar trend: 呈现相似的趋势
⑦witness an opposite trend: 呈现相反的趋势
⑧remain stable at: 保持稳定在……
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Universities should accept equal numbers of male and female students in every subject. Do you agree or disagree？
Nowadays，full-time university students tend to focus on their studying. Some people think it is essential for university students to be involved in other activities. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
In some countries, secondary schools provide a general education of a range of subjects. In others, children have a narrow range of subjects related to a particular career. Which do you think is more appropriate for modern world?
As scientists contribute more to the development of our society than other people do, science students should get more financial support from the government than other students. Do you agree or disagree?
Some people think that all young people should be required to have full-time education until they are at least 18 years old. To what extent do you agree or disagree？
As part of education, students should spend a period of time studying and living in a different country to learn language and culture. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Some people think only best students should be rewarded; others think we should reward students who show improvement. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
Old people have their own ideas of how to think, behave and live. However, these are no longer suitable for young people in preparing their modern life. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
With the development of many countries, people start to live individually and live in very small family units. What are the causes? What effects does it have on society?
Many people believe that scientific research should be carried out and controlled by the government rather than private companies. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Some people think they have right to use as much fresh water as they want, while others believe governments should strictly control the use of fresh water as it is limited resource. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
The government has the duty to ensure that its citizens have a healthy diet, while others believe this is individuals' responsibility. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
With the increasing demand for energy sources of oil and gas, people should look for sources of oil and gas in remote and untouched places. Do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages of damaging such areas?
Some people think that instead of preventing climate change, we need to find a way to live with it. Do you agree or disagree?
Some people say the best way to solve the environmental problem is to raise the price of fuel, to what extent do you agree or disagree？
Environmental problems are too big for individual countries and individual people to address. We have reached the stage where the only way to protect the environment is to address it at an international level. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?
Nuclear energy is a better sources of energy to meet the increasing demand of energy. Do you agree or disagree?
Some think most crime is the result of circumstances e.g. poverty and other social problems. Others believe that most crime is caused by people who are bad by nature. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
Some people believe that young people who commit serious crimes should be punished in the same way as adults. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
The increase in food production owes much to fertilizers and better machinery, but some people think that it has a negative impact on human health and community. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Some groups of people have benefited from modern communication technology but some people have not benefited at all, to what extent do you agree or disagree?
Some people think it’s necessary to use animals for testing medicines intended for human use. Others, however, think it’s not right to do that. Discuss both views and give you own opinion.
In some countries it is illegal for companies to reject job applicants for their age. Is this positive or negative to the development?
Countries with a long average working time are more economically successful than those countries which do not have a long working time. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Some people think news has no connection to people's lives, so it is a waste of time to read news in the newspaper and watch news programs in television. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Research shows that overeating can be just as harmful as smoking. Thus, the advertising of certain food products should be banned, as cigarette is banned in many countries. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Tourism is a multibillion-dollar industry that supports economic development. However some people think that it causes too much damage to the local environment and culture. Do you agree or disagree?
Foreign tourists abroad should be charged more than local people when visiting the local historical and cultural tourist attractions. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Some people believe famous people's support towards international aid organizations draws the attention to problems, while others think celebrities make the problems less important. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
题目：Some people think news has no connection to people's lives, so it is a waste of time to read the news on the newspaper and watch television news programs. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
解题思路：对于回答“是否同意型”的作文题目，可以完全采用同意/否定的观点，也可以从多角度入手，得出部分同意/否定的结论。本题观点可分成2部分，一部分是“news has no connection to people's lives”，另一部分是“it is a waste of time to read/watch the news”。写作时这两点都需要涉及。
There is no deny that news is one of the most common information source for the public, but somehow its relation with our life seems to be rather awkward nowadays. Therefore, it is not strange to say that the value of news is not as high as it is expected to be.
This view is especially correct when it comes to news about popular stars in fields of entertainment, where paparazzi tabloids report all kinds of titbits of celebrities who have nearly no connections with the readers. As amusement becomes the mainstream pursuit of the times, people are just willing to indulge themselves in the hyped-up sensations even though they are fully aware of the deliberate exaggerations will not better their own lives. From these kinds of news, stars gain attention, media earn money and common people know how to waste time.
Thankfully, there still exists some latest information which does have relations with people’s livelihood, except the disappointing fact that the exposed negative cases are seldom followed up on their solutions or final results. For instance, reports on substandard vaccines and sexual abuses raise public attention every few years, but each time the scandal appears, it will not take long to subside miraculously as if nothing has ever happened. Even though the incident has crossed a moral line, those who are not stake holders do not deserve explanations. Transparency and truth never find their way to the broad mass of people, let alone the news of the thorough overhaul of the industry. In this sense, reading or watching such news only serves as a way to kill time as nothing will be changed however depressed and discontented the public are.
As discussed above, entertainment reports that take up the largest part of news merely serves to help people kill leisure times, while some other news seems to be connected with our lives, there is still no need to watch or read since the results are already well set by those in the saddle.
①awkward: adj. 尴尬的
②paparazzi tabloids: 小报新闻
③titbit: n. 花边新闻
④substandard vaccines: 劣等疫苗
⑤subside: v. 下沉；平息；减弱
⑥the thorough overhaul of: 彻底整治……
⑦in the saddle: 管理者，领导者
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Section 1 & Section 2重点场景（生活类）：求职，预约医生，博物馆导览，公园导览，制作工艺。
Section 3 & Section 4重点场景（学术类）：机械流程，设备结婚扫，论文讨论，学术讲座，心理健康。
Section 1 Questions 1-10
Example James has not seen Annie lately due to spending long hours at work.
1 James enjoys the _____ of his work.
2 Annie does not enjoy all the _____ for her work.
3 Annie’s job involves _____, and offering advice to land managers or owners who wish to make changes.
4 Annie works in the council’s _____ division.
5 Annie outlines her clients’ legal obligations, and proposes the _____ of their land.
Choose TWO letters. A-E
Write NO MORE THAN ONE WORD for each answer.
What the business sells: 4 _____
Idea for business: 5 _____ society
Business customers: 6 _____
Choose ONE letter, A-E.
Which TWO of the following are likely to cause the farmer difficulties in her development application?
A New accommodation
B Anew road
C Olive trees
D A volcano
E A wetland
Answer the questions below.
Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS OR A NUMBER for each answer.
8 For whom does Annie think carefully controlled land use is valuable?
9 When did a tram service cease in James and Annie's town?
10 What did James study at university?
SECTION 2 Questions 11-20
Classify the following things that:
A Hamish the musician did or does.
B Juliette the interviewer did or does.
C Ray Rogers the music show host did or does.
Write the correct letter, A, B, or C, on your answer sheet.
11 He / She went to rock concerts as a teenager.
12 He / She cried on the radio.
13 He / She was very nervous about performing in public.
14 He / She thinks work adversely affected his / her private life.
Complete the table below.
Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.
Part of the process of making an acoustic guitar
1. Sourcing the wood:
The back of a good guitar is made from rosewood. Cedar is used for the top, but mahogany is used for the neck as it can endure changes in (15) and humidity.
2. Book matching
4. Creating a sound hole
Braces are glued onto the top and back to improve (16)_____
and reflect sound waves.
6. Creating the sides:
Wet wooden strips are placed into a curved mould.
7. Preparing the neck:
The neck is carved from a single piece of wood, and a metal rod is driven up it for (17) _____
The back, sides, top, and neck are glued and clamped together (18) _____
Section 3 Questions 21 and 30
Complete the table below.
Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer.
A presentation on vertical gardening
Parts I & IV
Both students’ work
Label the diagram below on the following page.
Choose THREE answers from the box, and write the correct answer, A-E, next to questions 26-28.
Choose the correct letter. A, B, or C.
29. Overall, how does Marina feel about vertical gardening?
A Rather skeptical
B Keen with reservations
30. To whom does David think vertical gardening will mostly appeal?
A Big businesses rather than individuals
B The developing world
C People all over the world
Section 4 Questions 31-40
Choose the correct letter. A, B, or C.
31 What is a concern of a growing number of the speaker’s clients?
A Financial hardship
B Future uncertainty
C Vague discontent
32 Why did the female client stop her sessions with the psychologist?
A She did not have time.
B The psychologist did not help.
C The reasons are unclear.
Complete the table below.
Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.
34. People in developed countries have _____ to credit.
35. For poor people, they must use a private lender for a _____.
36. People have increasing debts when they cannot_____.
37. This might be because of something unplanned, for example, a failed business or _____.
Complete the flow chart below.
Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.
Is self-fulfilment right?
Writers/Philosophers/Others who symbolise
(33) _____ rather
• Dietrich Bonhoeffer; Emmanuel Kant; Martin Luther King; Nelson Mandela
• People in (34) _____ ghost towns, & parts of the developing world
• The speaker's (35) _____
King’s 3 dimensions: Length + Breadth + Height
• Height = especially hard for (36) _____ to accept
• For King, Height = God
• For non-religious people. Height = Something (37) _____
than oneself / An abstract idea, like equality or (38) _____
The speaker questions the do-what-you-love principle as it may degrade menial (39) _____
True self-fulfilment is sometimes doing disagreeable things for the sake of (40) _____
4. Ecological Assessment
5. best use
6-7. BE (in either order)
8. Future generations
18. for several days
22. large-scale / large scale
24. tropical rainforests
33. self-sacrifice / self-sacrifice
34. rural areas
36. the young (must include the’)
READING PASSAGE 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.
The Origins of Laughter
While joking and wit are uniquely human inventions, laughter certainly is not. Other creatures, including chimpanzees, gorillas and even rats, laugh. The fact that they laugh suggests that laughter has been around for a lot longer than we have.
There is no doubt that laughing typically involves groups of people. “Laughter evolved as a signal to others — it almost disappears when we are alone,” says Robert Provine, a neuroscientist at the University of Maryland. Provine found that most laughter comes as a polite reaction to everyday remarks such as “see you later”, rather than anything particularly funny. And the way we laugh depends on the company we’re keeping. Men tend to laugh longer and harder when they are with other men, perhaps as a way of bonding. Women tend to laugh more and at a higher pitch when men are present, possibly indicating flirtation or even submission.
To find the origins of laughter, Provine believes we need to look at play. He points out that the masters of laughing are children, and nowhere is their talent more obvious than in the boisterous antics, and the original context is play. Well-known primate watchers, including Dian Fossey and Jane Goodall, have long argued that chimps laugh while at play. The sound they produce is known as a pant laugh. It seems obvious when you watch their behavior — they even have the same ticklish spots as we do. But after removing the context, the parallel between human laughter and a chimp’s characteristic pant laugh is not so clear. When Provine played a tape of the pant laughs to 119 of his students, for example, only two guessed correctly what it was.
These findings underline how chimp and human laughter vary. When we laugh the sound is usually produced by chopping up a single exhalation into a series of shorter with one sound produced on each inward and outward breath. The question is: does this pant laughter have the same source as our own laughter? New research lends weight to the idea that it does. The findings come from Elke Zimmerman, head of the Institute for Zoology in Germany, who compared the sounds made by babies and chimpanzees in response to tickling during the first year of their life. Using sound spectrographs to reveal the pitch and intensity of vocalizations, she discovered that chimp and human baby laughter follow broadly the same pattern. Zimmerman believes the closeness of baby laughter to chimp laughter supports the idea that laughter was around long before humans arrived on the scene. What started simply as a modification of breathing associated with enjoyable and playful interactions has acquired a symbolic meaning as an indicator of pleasure.
Pinpointing when laughter developed is another matter. Humans and chimps share a common ancestor that lived perhaps 8 million years ago, but animals might have been laughing long before that. More distantly related primates, including gorillas, laugh, and anecdotal evidence suggests that other social mammals can do too. Scientists are currently testing such stories with a comparative analysis of just how common laughter is among animals. So far, though, the most compelling evidence for laughter beyond primates comes from research done by Jaak Panksepp from Bowling Green State University, Ohio, into the ultrasonic chirps produced by rats during play and in response to tickling.
All this still doesn’t answer the question of why we laugh at all. One idea is that laughter and tickling originated as a way of sealing the relationship between mother and child. Another is that the reflex response to tickling is protective, alerting us to the presence of crawling creatures that might harm us or compelling us to defend the parts of our bodies that are most vulnerable in hand-to-hand combat. But the idea that has gained the most popularity in recent years is that laughter in response to tickling is a way for two individuals to signal and test their trust in one another. This hypothesis starts from the observation that although a little tickle can be enjoyable, if it goes on too long it can be torture. By engaging in a bout of tickling, we put ourselves at the mercy of another individual, and laughing is what makes it a reliable signal of trust, according to Tom Flamson, a laughter researcher at the University of California, Los Angels. “Even in rats, laughter, tickle, play and trust are linked. Rats chirp a lot when they play,” says Flamson. “These chirps can be aroused by tickling. And they get bonded to us as a result, which certainly seems like a show of trust.”
We’ll never know which animal laughed the first laugh, or why. But we can be sure it wasn't in response to a prehistoric joke. The funny thing is that while the origins of laughter are probably quite serious, we owe human laughter and our language-based humor to the same unique skill. While other animals pant, we alone can control our breath well enough to produce the sound of laughter. Without that control there would also be no speech — and no jokes to endure.
Look at the following research findings (Questions 1-6) and the list of people below.
Match each finding with the correct person, A, B, C or D.
Write the correct letter, A, B, C or D, in boxes 1-6 on your answer sheet.
NB You may use any letter more than once.
- Babies and some animals produce laughter which sounds similar.
- Primates are not the only animals who produce laughter.
- Laughter can be used to show that we feel safe and secure with others.
- Most human laughter is not a response to a humorous situation.
- Animal laughter evolved before human laughter.
- Laughter is a social activity.
List of People
Complete the summary using the list of words, A-K, below.
Write the correct letter, A-K, in boxes 7-10 on your answer sheet.
Some scientists believe that laughter first developed out of 7 _____. Research has revealed that human and chimp laughter may have the same 8 _____. Scientists have long been aware that 9 _____ laugh, but it now appears that laughter might be more widespread than once thought. Although the reasons why humans started to laugh are still unknown, it seems that laughter may result from the 10 _____ we feel with another person.
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?
In boxes 11-13 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
11 Both men and women laugh more when they are with members of the same sex.
12 Primates lack sufficient breath control to be able to produce laughs the way humans do.
13 Chimpanzees produce laughter in a wider range of situations than rats do.
READING PASSAGE 2
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.
Stories and poems aimed at children have an exceedingly long history: lullabies, for example, were sung in Roman times, and a few nursery games and rhymes are almost as ancient. Yet so far as written-down literature is concerned, while there were stories in print before 1700 that children often seized on when they had the chance, such as translations of Aesop's fables, fairy-stories and popular ballads and romances, these were not aimed at young people in particular. Since the only genuinely child-oriented literature at this time would have been a few instructional works to help with reading and general knowledge, plus the odd Puritanical tract as an aid to morality, the only course for keen child readers was to read adult literature. This still occurs today, especially with adult thrillers or romances that include more exciting, graphic detail than is normally found in the literature for younger readers.
By the middle of the 18th century there were enough eager child readers, and enough parents glad to cater to this interest, for publishers to specialize in children's books whose first aim was pleasure rather than education or morality. In Britain, a London merchant named Thomas Boreham produced Cajanus, The Swedish Giant in 1742, while the more famous John Newbery published A Little Pretty Pocket Book in 1744. Its contents – stories, children's games plus a free gift ('A ball and a pincushion') – in many ways anticipated the similar lucky-dip contents of children's annuals this century. It is a tribute to Newbery's flair that he hit upon a winning formula quite so quickly, to be pirated almost immediately in America.
Such pleasing levity was not to last. Influenced by Rousseau, whose Emile(1762) decreed that all books for children save Robinson Crusoe were a dangerous diversion, contemporary critics saw to it that children's literature should be instructive and uplifting. Prominent among such voices was Mrs. Sarah Trimmer, whose magazine The Guardian of Education (1802) carried the first regular reviews of children's books. It was she who condemned fairy tales for their violence and general absurdity; her own stories, Fabulous Histories (1786) described talking animals who were always models of sense and decorum.
So the moral story for children was always threatened from within, given the way children have of drawing out entertainment from the sternest moralist. But the greatest blow to the improving children's book was to come from an unlikely source indeed: early 19th century interest in folklore. Both nursery rhymes, selected by James Orchard Halliwell for a folklore society in 1842, and collection of fairy tales by the scholarly Grimm brothers, swiftly translated into English in 1823,soon rocket to popularity with the young, quickly leading to new editions, each one more child-centered than the last. From now on younger children could expect stories written for their particular interest and with the needs of their own limited experience of life kept well to the fore.
What eventually determined the reading of older children was often not the availability of special children's literature as such but access to books that contained characters, such as young people or animals, with whom they could more easily empathize, or action, such as exploring or fighting that made few demands on adult maturity or understanding.
The final apotheosis of literary childhood as something to be protected from unpleasant reality came with the arrival in the late 1930s of child-centered best-sellers intend on entertainment at its most escapist. In Britain novelist such as Enid Blyton and Richmal Crompton described children who were always free to have the most unlikely adventures, secure in the knowledge that nothing bad could ever happen to them in the end. The fact that war broke out again during her books' greatest popularity fails to register at all in the self-enclosed world inhabited by Enid Blyton's young characters. Reaction against such dream-worlds was inevitable after World War II, coinciding with the growth of paperback sales, children's libraries and a new spirit of moral and social concern. Urged on by committed publishers and progressive librarians, writers slowly began to explore new areas of interest while also shifting the settings of their plots from the middle-class world to which their chiefly adult patrons had always previously belonged.
Critical emphasis, during this development, has been divided. For some the most important task was to rid children's books of the social prejudice and exclusiveness no longer found acceptable. Others concentrated more on the positive achievements of contemporary children's literature. That writers of these works are now often recommended to the attentions of adult as well as child readers echoes the 19th-century belief that children's literature can be shared by the generations, rather than being a defensive barrier between childhood and the necessary growth towards adult understanding.
Complete the table below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 14-18 on your answer sheet.
Not aimed at young children
Education and morality
By the middle of 18th century
Collection of 14 and games
Read for pleasure
A Little Pretty Pocket Book (exported to 15 )
Early 19th century
Growing interest in 16
To be more children-centered
Nursery rhymes and 17
Stories of harm- free 18
Enid Blyton and Richmal Crompton’s novels
Look at the following people and the list of statements below.
Match each person with the correct statement.
Write the correct letter A-E in boxes 19-21 on your answer sheet.
19 Thomas Boreham
20 Mrs. Sarah Trimmer
21 Grimm Brothers
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage?
In boxes 9-13 on your answer sheet write
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
22 Children didn’t start to read books until 1700.
23 Sarah Trimmer believed that children’s books should set good examples.
24 Parents were concerned about the violence in children’s books.
25 An interest in the folklore changed the direction of the development of children’s books.
26 Today children’s book writers believe their works should appeal to both children and adults.
READING PASSAGE 3
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40, which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.
Honey Bees in Trouble
Can native pollinators fill the gap?
A Recently, ominous headlines have described a mysterious ailment, colony collapse disorder(CCD)，that is wiping out the honeybees that pollinate many crops. Without honeybees, the story goes, fields will be sterile, economies will collapse, and food will be scarce.
B But what few accounts acknowledge is that what’s at risk is not itself a natural state of affairs. For one thing, in the United States, where CCD was first reported and has had its greatest impacts, honeybees are not a native species. Pollination in modem agriculture isn’t alchemy, it’s industry. The total number of hives involved in the U.S. pollination industry has been somewhere between 2.5 million and 3 million in recent years. Meanwhile, American farmers began using large quantities of organophosphate insecticides, planted large-scale crop monocultures, and adopted “clean farming” practices that scrubbed native vegetation from field margins and roadsides. These practices killed many native bees outright—they’re as vulnerable to insecticides as any agricultural pest—and made the agricultural landscape inhospitable to those that remained. Concern about these practices and their effects on pollinators isn’t new—in her 1962 ecological alarm cry Silent Spring, Rachel Carson warned of a ‘Fruitless Fall’ that could result from the disappearance of insect pollinators.
C If that ‘Fruitless Fall, has not—yet—occurred, it may be largely thanks to the honeybee, which farmers turned to as the ability of wild pollinators to service crops declined. The honeybee has been semi-domesticated since the time of the ancient Egyptians, but it wasn’t just familiarity that determined this choice: the bees’ biology is in many ways suited to the kind of agricultural system that was emerging. For example, honeybee hives can be closed up and moved out of the way when pesticides are applied to a field. The bees are generalist pollinators, so they can be used to pollinate many different crops. And although they are not the most efficient pollinator of every crop, honeybees have strength in numbers, with 20,000 to 100,000 bees living in a single hive. “Without a doubt, if there was one bee you wanted for agriculture, it would be the honeybee, “says Jim Cane, of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The honeybee, in other words, has become a crucial cog in the modem system of industrial agriculture. That system delivers more food, and more kinds of it, to more places, more cheaply than ever before. But that system is also vulnerable, because making a farm field into the photosynthetic equivalent of a factory floor, and pollination into a series of continent-long assembly lines, also leaches out some of the resilience characteristic of natural ecosystems.
D Breno Freitas, an agronomist, pointed out that in nature such a high degree of specialization usually is a very dangerous game: it works well while all the rest is in equilibrium, but runs quickly to extinction at the least disbalance. In effect, by developing an agricultural system that is heavily reliant on a single pollinator species, we humans have become riskily overspecialized. And when the human-honeybee relationship is disrupted, as it has been by colony collapse disorder, the vulnerability of that agricultural system begins to become clear.
E In fact, a few wild bees are already being successfully managed for crop pollination. “The problem is trying to provide native bees in adequate numbers on a reliable basis in a fairly short number of years in order to service the crop，” Jim Cane says. “You’re talking millions of flowers per acre in a two-to three-week time frame, or less, for a lot of crops.” On the other hand, native bees can be much more efficient pollinators of certain crops than honeybees, so you don’t need as many to do the job. For example, about 750 blue orchard bees (Osmia lignaria) can pollinate a hectare of apples or almonds, a task that would require roughly 50,000 to 150,000 honeybees. There are bee tinkerers engaged in similar work in many comers of the world. In Brazil, Breno Freitas has found that Centris tarsata, the native pollinator of wild cashew, can survive in commercial cashew orchards if growers provide a source of floral oils, such as by interplanting their cashew trees with Caribbean cherry.
F In certain places, native bees may already be doing more than they’re getting credit for. Ecologist Rachael Winfree recently led a team that looked at pollination of four summer crops (tomato, watermelon, peppers, and muskmelon) at 29 farms in the region of New Jersey and Pennsylvania. Winfiree’s team identified 54 species of wild bees that visited these crops, and found that wild bees were the most important pollinators in the system: even though managed honeybees were present on many of the farms, wild bees were responsible for 62 percent of flower visits in the study. In another study focusing specifically on watermelon, Winfree and her colleagues calculated that native bees alone could provide sufficient pollination at 90 percent of the 23 farms studied. By contrast, honeybees alone could provide sufficient pollination at only 78 percent of farms.
G “The region I work in is not typical of the way most food is produced，” Winfree admits. In the Delaware Valley, most farms and farm fields are relatively small, each fanner typically grows a variety of crops, and farms are interspersed with suburbs and other types of land use which means there are opportunities for homeowners to get involved in bee conservation, too. The landscape is a bee-friendly patchwork that provides a variety of nesting habitat and floral resources distributed among different kinds of crops, weedy field margins, fallow fields, suburban neighborhoods, and semi natural habitat like old woodlots, all at a relatively small scale. In other words, ’’pollinator-friendly” farming practices would not only aid pollination of agricultural crops, but also serve as a key element in the over all conservation strategy for wild pollinators, and often aid other wild species as well.
H Of course, not all farmers will be able to implement all of these practices. And researchers are suggesting a shift to a kind of polyglot agricultural system. For some small-scale farms, native bees may indeed be all that’s needed. For larger operations, a suite of managed bees—with honeybees filling the generalist role and other, native bees pollinating specific crops—could be augmented by free pollination services from resurgent wild pollinators. In other words, they’re saying, we still have an opportunity to replace a risky monoculture with something diverse, resilient, and robust.
Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage?
In boxes 27-30 on your answer sheet, write
YES - if the statement agrees with the information
NO - if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN - if there is no information on this
27 In the United States, farmers use honeybees in a large scale over the past few years
28 Cleaning farming practices would be harmful to farmers’
29 The blue orchard bee is the most efficient pollinator among native bees for every crop
30 It is beneficial to other local creatures to protect native bees
Choose the correct letter, A,B,C or D.
Write your answers in boxes 31-35 on your answer sheet.
31. The example of the ‘Fruitless Fair underlines the writer’s point about
A needs for using pesticides.
B impacts of losing insect pollinators.
C vulnerabilities of native bees.
D benefits in building more pollination industries.
32. Why can honeybees adapt to the modem agricultural system?
A the honeybees can pollinated more crops efficiently
B The bees are semi-domesticated since ancient times.
C Honeybee hives can be protected away from pesticides.
D The ability of wild pollinators using to serve crops declines.
33. The writer mentions factories and assembly lines to illustrate
A one drawback of the industrialised agricultural system.
B a low cost in modem agriculture.
C the role of honeybees in pollination.
D what a high yield of industrial agriculture.
34. In the 6th paragraph，Wlnfree’s experiment proves that
A honeybee can pollinate various crops.
B there are many types of wild bees as the pollinators.
C the wild bees can increase the yield to a higher percentage
D wild bees work more efficiently as a pollinator than honey bees in certain cases
35. What does the writer want to suggest in the last paragraph?
A the importance of honey bees in pollination
B adoption of different bees in various sizes of agricultural system
C the comparison between the intensive and the rarefied agricultural system
D the reason why farmers can rely on native pollinators
Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-F, below.
Write the correct letter, A-F, in boxes 36-40 on your answer sheet
36 Headline of colony collapse disorder states that
37 Viewpoints of Freitas manifest that
38 Examples of blue orchard bees have shown that
39 Centris tarsata is mentioned to exemplify that
40 One finding of the research in Delaware Valley is that
A. native pollinators can survive when a specific plant is supplied.
B. it would cause severe consequences both to commerce and agriculture.
C. honey bees cannot be bred.
D. some agricultural landscapes are favorable in supporting wild bees.
E. a large scale of honey bees are needed to pollinate.
F. an agricultural system is fragile when relying on a single pollinator
11. Not Given
13. Not Given
14. rhymes, stories / stories, rhymes
24. NOT GIVEN
28. NOT GIVEN