You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.

The construction of roads and bridges


Although there were highway links in Mesopotamia from as early as 3500 BCthe Romans were probably the first road-builders with fixed engineering standards. At the peak of the Roman Empire in the first century AD, Rome had road connections totalling about 85,000 kilometres.

Roman roads were constructed with a deep stone surface for stability and load-bearing. They had straight alignments and therefore were often hilly. The Roman roads remained the main arteries of European transport for many centuries, and even today many roads follow the Roman routes. New roads were generally of inferior quality, and the achievements of Roman builders were largely unsurpassed until the resurgence of road-building in the eighteenth century.

With horse-drawn coaches in mind, eighteenth-century engineers preferred to curve their roads to avoid hills. The road surface was regarded as merely a face to absorb wear, the load-bearing strength being obtained from a properly prepared and well-drained foundation. Immediately above this, the Scottish engineer John McAdam (1756-1836) typically laid crushed stone, to which stone dust mixed with water was added, and which was compacted to a thickness of just five centimetres, and then rolled. McAdams surface layer - hot tar onto which a layer of stone chips was laid – became known as 'tarmacadam', or tarmac. Roads of this kind were known as flexible pavements.

By the early nineteenth century – the start of the railway age - men such as John McAdam and Thomas Telford had created a British road network totalling some 200,000 km, of which about one sixth was privately owned toll roads called turnpikes. In the first half of the nineteenth century, many roads in the US were built to the new standards, of which the National Pike from West Virginia to Illinois was perhaps the most notable.

In the twentieth century, the ever-increasing use of motor vehicles threatened to break up roads built to nineteenth-century standards, so new techniques had to be developed.

On routes with heavy trafficflexible pavements were replaced by rigid pavements, in which the top layer was concrete, 15 to 30 centimetres thick, laid on a prepared bed. Nowadays steel bars are laid within the concrete. This not only restrains shrinkage during setting, but also reduces expansion in warm weather. As a result, it is possible to lay long slabs without danger of cracking.

The demands of heavy traffic led to the concept of high-speed, long-distance roads, with access – or slip-lanes – spaced widely apart. The US Bronx River Parkway of 1925 was followed by several variants – Germany's autobahns and the Pan American Highway. Such roads – especially the intercity autobahns with their separate multi-lane carriageways for each direction – were the predecessors of today's motorways.


The development by the Romans of the arched bridge marked the beginning of scientific bridge-building; hitherto, bridges had generally been crossings in the form of felled trees or flat stone blocks. Absorbing the load by compression, arched bridges are very strong. Most were built of stone, but brick and timber were also used. A fine early example is at Alcantara in Spain, built of granite by the Romans in AD 105 to span the River Tagus. In modern times, metal and concrete arched bridges have been constructed. The first significant metal bridge, built of cast iron in 1779, still stands at Ironbridge in England.

Steel, with its superior strength-to-weight ratio, soon replaced iron in metal bridge-work. In the railway age, the truss (or girder) bridge became popular. Built of wood or metal, the truss beam consists of upper and lower horizontal booms joined by vertical or inclined members.

The suspension bridge has a deck supported by suspenders that drop from one or more overhead cables. It requires strong anchorage at each end to resist the inward tension of the cablesand the deck is strengthened to control distortion by moving loads or high winds. Such bridges are nevertheless light, and therefore the most suitable for very long spans. The Clifton Suspension Bridge in the UK, designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunei (1806-59) to span the Avon Gorge in England, is famous both for its beautiful setting and for its elegant design. The 1998 Akashi Kaikyo Bridge in Japan has a span of 1,991 metres, which is the longest to date.

Cantilever bridges, such as the 1889 Forth Rail Bridge in Scotland, exploit the potential of steel construction to produce a wide clearwater space. The spans have a central supporting pier and meet midstream. The downward thrust, where the spans meet, is countered by firm anchorage of the spans at their other ends. Although the suspension bridge can span a wider gap, the cantilever is relatively stable, and this was important for nineteenth-century railway builders. The world's longest cantilever span – 549 metres – is that of the Quebec rail bridge in Canada, constructed in 1918.


Questions 1-3

Label the diagram below.

Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer.

Flexible Pavement


Questions 4-7

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?


TRUE        if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE        if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN     if there is no information on this


4       Road construction improved continuously between the first and eighteenth centuries.

5       In Britain, during the nineteenth century, only the very rich could afford to use toll roads.

6       Nineteenth-century road surfaces were inadequate for heavy motor traffic.

7      Traffic speeds on long-distance highways were unregulated in the early part of the twentieth century.


Questions 8-13

Complete the table below.

Use ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.

Type of bridge



Arched bridge

  • Introduced by the 8_________________      
  • Very strong.
  • Usually made of

9 __________________

Alcantara, Spain Ironbridge, UK

Truss bridge

  • Made of wood or metal.
  • Popular for railways.


Suspension bridge

  • Has a suspended deck.
  • Strong but 10_________________

Clifton, UK

Akashi Kaikyo,Japan (currently the

11 _________________span)

Cantilever bridge

  • Made of


  • More 13_________________

than the suspension bridge.

Quebec, Canada



You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.


Neanderthals and modern humans




The evolutionary processes that have made modern humans so different from other animals are hard to determine without an ability to examine human species that have not achieved similar things. However, in a scientific masterpiece, Svante Paabo and his colleagues from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, in Leipzig, have made such a comparison possible. In 2009at a meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, they made public an analysis of the genome  of Neanderthal man.


Homo neanderthalensis, to give its proper name, lived in Europe and parts of Asia from 400,000 years ago to 30,000 years ago. Towards the end of this period it shared its range with interlopers in the form of Homo sapiens, who were spreading out from Africa. Howeverthe two species did not settle down to a stable cohabitation. For reasons which are as yet unknown, the arrival of Homo sapiens in a region was always quickly followed by the disappearance of Neanderthals.


Before 2009Dr Paabo and his team had conducted only a superficial comparison between the DNA of Neanderthals and modem humans. Since then, they have performed a more thorough study and, in doing so, have shed a fascinating light on the intertwined history of the two species. That history turns out to be more intertwined than many had previously believed.


Dr Paabo and his colleagues compared their Neanderthal genome (painstakingly reconstructed from three bone samples collected from a cave in Croatia) with that of five living humans from various parts of Africa and Eurasia. Previous genetic analysis, which had only examined DNA passed from mother to child in cellular structures called mitochondria, had suggested no interbreeding between Neanderthals and modern humans. The new, more extensive examination, which looks at DNA in the cell nucleus rather than in the mitochondria, shows this conclusion is wrong. By comparing the DNA in the cell nucleus of Africans (whose ancestors could not have crossbred with Neanderthals, since they did not overlap with them) and various Eurasians (whose ancestors could have crossbred with Neanderthals), Dr Paabo has shown that Eurasians are between one percent and four percent Neanderthal.


That is intriguing. It shows that even after several hundred thousand years of separation, the two species were inter-fertile. It is strange, though, that no Neanderthal mitochondrial DNA has turned up in modern humans, since the usual pattern of invasion in historical times was for the invaders' males to mate with the invaded's females. One piece of self-knowledge, then – at least for non-Africans – is that they have a dash of Neanderthal in them. But Dr Paabo's work also illuminates the differences between the species. By comparing modern humans, Neanderthals, and chimpanzees, it is possible to distinguish genetic changes which are shared by several species of human in their evolution away from the great-ape lineage, from those which are unique to Homo sapiens.



More than 90 percent of the 'human accelerated regions' that have been identified in modem people are found in Neanderthals too. However, the rest are not. Dr Paabo has identified 212 parts of the genome that seem to have undergone significant evolution since the species split. The state of genome science is still quite primitive, and it is often unclear what any given bit of DNA is actually doing. But an examination of the 20 largest regions of DNA that have evolved in this way shows that they include several genes which are associated with cognitive ability, and whose malfunction causes serious mental problems. These genes therefore look like good places to start the search for modern humanity's essence.


The newly evolved regions of DNA also include a gene called RUNX2, which controls bone growth. That may account for differences in the shape of the skull and the rib cage between the two species. By contrast an earlier phase of the study had already shown that Neanderthals and moderns share the same version of a gene called FOXP2, which is involved in the ability to speak, and which differs in chimpanzees. It is all, then, very promising and a second coup in quick succession for Dr Paabo. Another of his teams has revealed the existence of a hitherto unsuspected species of human, using mitochondrial DNA found in a little-finger bone. If that species, too, could have its full genome read, humanity's ability to know itself would be enhanced even further.



Questions 14-18

Look at the following characteristics (Questions 14-18) and the list of species below.

Match each feature with the correct species, A, B or C.

Write the correct letter, A, B or C.

NB You may use any letter more than once.

14 Once lived in Europe and Asia.

15 Originated in Africa.

16 Did not survive long after the arrival of immigrants.

17 Interbred with another species.

18 Appears not to have passed on mitochondrial DNA to another species.

List of species

A Homo neanderthalensis

B Homo sapiens

C both Homo neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens


Questions 19-23

19 an account of the rejection of a theory

20 reference to an unexplained link between two events

21 the identification of a skill-related gene common to both Neanderthals and modern humans

22 the announcement of a scientific breakthrough

23 an interesting gap in existing knowledge


Questions 24-26

Complete the summary below.

Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.

The nature of modern humans

Recent work in the field of evolutionary anthropology has made it possible to compare modem humans with other related species. Genetic analysis resulted in several new findings. First, despite the length of time for which Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis had developed separately, 24______________ did take place. Secondly, genes which evolved after modern humans split from Neanderthals are connected with cognitive ability and skeletal 25     _______________.

The potential for this line of research to shed light on the nature of modern humans was further strengthened when analysis of a 26________________ led to the discovery of a new human species.




Questions 27-31

Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 3? Write

YES                             if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer

NO                            if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer

NOT GIVEN       if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

  1. It is more than a thousand years since people started to catch fish for commercial use.
  2. In general, open access to the oceans is still regarded as desirable.
  3. Sea fishing is now completely banned in the majority of protected areas.
  4. People should be encouraged to reduce the amount of fish they eat.
  5. The re-introduction of certain mammals to the Mediterranean is a straightforward task.


Questions 32-34

Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

  1. What does the writer mean with the question, 'How much time have we got?' in the fifth paragraph?

A Fisheries policies are currently based on uncertain estimates.

B Accurate predictions will allow governments to plan properly.

C Fisheries managers should provide clearer information.

D Action to protect fish stocks is urgently needed.

  1. What is the writer's comment on the Common Fisheries Policy?

A   Measures that it advocated were hastily implemented.


B   Officials exaggerated some of its recommendations.

C   It was based on predictions which were inaccurate.

D   The policy makers acquired a good reputation.

  1. What is the writer's conclusion concerning the decline of marine resources? A The means of avoiding the worst outcomes needs to be prioritised.

B Measures already taken to avoid a crisis are probably sufficient.

C The situation is now so severe that there is no likely solution.

D It is no longer clear which measures would be most effective.


Questions 35-40

Complete the summary using the list of words/phrases, A-J, below.

Measures to protect the oceans

Up till the twentieth century the world's supply of fish was sufficient for its needs. It was unnecessary to introduce 35 ____________ of any kind, because large areas of the oceans were inaccessible. However, as 36      ____________ improved, this situation changed, and in the middle of the twentieth century, policies were introduced to regulate 37 ____________.


These policies have not succeeded. Today, by comparison with 38 ____________ the oceans have very little legal protection.

Despite the doubts that many officials have about the concept of 39 ____________ these should be at the heart of any action taken.

The consequences of further 40____________ are very serious, and may even affect our continuing existence.


A action

B controls


failure D fish catches

E fish processing

F fishing techniques

G large boats

H marine reserves

1 the land


the past



Passage 1


hot tar

PARAGRAPH 3 '...hot tar onto which a layer of stone chips was laid - became known as ^tarmacadam .


5/five cm/ centimetres


'Immediately above this ... and... compacted to a thickness of just five centimetres ...'



PARAGRAPH 3 '...stone dust mixed with water...'



PARAGRAPH 2 says that new roads were generally of inferior quality, and that the achievements of Roman builders were largely unsurpassed until the eighteenth century'



Although PARAGRAPH 4 states that privately owned toll roads were built in the nineteenth century, it does not comment on who could afford to use them.



PARAGRAPH 5 confirms that the advent of heavy traffic meant that roads were inadequate:

'the ever-increasing use of motor vehicles threatened to break up roads built to nineteenth-century standards...'



Paragraph 7 details the development of high speed roads but does not mention the use or non-use of speed restrictions.




The development by the Romans of the arched bridge …'




'Most were built of stone




'Such bridges are nevertheless





The 1998 Akashi Kaikyo Bridge in Japan has a span of 1,991 metres, which is the longest to date.'




'Cantilever bridges ... exploit the potential of steel construction




'Although the suspension bridge can span a wider gap, the cantilever is relatively stable...'



Passage 2




Homo neanderthalensis lived in Europe and parts of Asia, as did Homo sapiens.




'... interlopers in the form of Homo sapiens, who were spreading out from Africa.'




'... the arrival of Homo sapiens in a region was always quickly followed by the disappearance of Neanderthals.'



PARAGRAPH E tells us that the two species, i.e. Homo neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens were inter-fertile.



PARAGRAPH E says that '…no Neanderthal mitochondrial DNA has turned up in modern humans.'



PARAGRAPH D explains the change in thinking about the relationship between the two species:

'Previous genetic analysis...had suggested no interbreeding between Neanderthals and modern humans. The new ... examination ... shows this conclusion is wrong.'



The final sentence of PARAGRAPH B explains that we do not yet know why the arrival of Homo sapiens in a region was always quickly followed by the disappearance of Neanderthals.



PARAGRAPH G says that Neanderthals and modern humans share the same version of a gene which is involved in the ability to speak.



PARAGRAPH A sets out the groundbreaking nature of the analysis by Svante Paabo and his colleagues.



PARAGRAPH E notes that it is strange, 'that no Neanderthal mitochondrial DNA has turned up in modern humans, since the usual pattern of invasion in historical times was for the invaders, males to mate with the invadeds' females.,






... even after several hundred thousand years of separation, the two species were inter-fertile. .





The newly evolved regions of DNA also include a gene called RUNX2, which controls bone growth. That may account for differences in the shape of the skull




paragraph g

Another of his teams has revealed the existence of a hitherto unsuspected species of human, using mitochondrial DNA found in a little-finger bone.,




Passage 3



PARAGRAPH 1 tells us that the first commercial fishermen cast their nets and hooks over a thousand years ago.



PARAGRAPH 2 supports the statement by stating that, in general, we view the oceans as something which should be open to all.



PARAGRAPH 2 contradicts the statement when it says that '... most marine protected areas allow some fishing to continue.,



The passage focuses on ways of protecting supplies of fish; it does not discuss the option of limiting consumer demand.



PARAGRAPH 4 makes it clear that destruction of the variety of mammals has been much easier than their recovery will be to manage.



The writer means that pleas from fisheries' managers for more time to make their models work, delay action which might lead to real success.



None of the statements A, B or D is supported by the passage, but in PARAGRAPH 5 the writer says:

.The Common Fisheries Policy exemplifies the worst pitfalls: flawed models ' Which agrees with statement C.



In PARAGRAPH 6 the writer says:

We can go a long way to avoiding this catastrophic mistake with simple common-sense management thus supporting statement A. Statements B, C and D are contradicted in the passage.




'by the nineteenth century it was still felt, justifiably, that the plentiful resources of the sea were ... beyond the reach of fishing, and so there was little need to restrict fishing or



create protected areas/




1 …modern fishing technologies leave fish no place to hide



paragraph 1

/... the only refuges from fishing are those we deliberately create/ PARAGRAPH 5

'creating marine reserves ... has been tried and refined for the last fifty years.7



paragraph 1

..the sea trails far behind the land in terms of the area and the quality of protection given. .




To some people, creating marine reserves is an admission of failure. .




If we don't break out of this cycle of failure, humanity will lose a key source of protein, and much more besides. Disrupting natural ecosystem processes ...could have ramifications for human life itself. .





Section 1 & Section 2重点场景(生活类):日常生活,旅游导览,找工作,制作流程,报名申请,旅游住宿。

Section 3 & Section 4重点场景(学术类):师生讨论,学术讲座,作业讨论,论文选题, 动植物研究。


Section 1

Questions 1-2

Complete the notes below.

Write NO MORE THAN ONE WORD for each answer.

Advice on plumbers and decorators


Make sure the company is: local

Pont call a plumber during the 1 _____      

Look at trade website: 2 www._____.com  


Questions 3-10

Complete the table below.

Write NO MORE THAN ONE WORD for each answer.



Positive points

Negative points

Peake’s Plumbing

  • Pleasant and friendly
  • Give 3 _____ information
  • Good quality work

• Always 4 _____

John Damerol
Plumbing Services

  • 5 _____ than other companies


  • Reliable
  • Not very polite
  • Tends to be

6 _____

Simonson Plasterers


  • Able to do lots of different 7 _____

• More 8 _____ than other companies

H.L. Plastering

  • Reliable.
  • Also able to do

9 _____

• Prefers not to use long 10 _____



Section 2

Questions 11-20

Choose the correct answer, A, B or C.

Museum work placement

11   On Monday, what will be the students' working day?

A 9.00 a.m. - 5.00 p.m.

B 8.45 a.m. - 5.00 p.m.

C 9.00 a.m. - 4.45 p.m.


12   While working in the museum, students are encouraged to wear

A formal clothing such as a suit.

B a cap with the museum logo.

C their own casual clothes.


13   If students are ill or going to be late, they must inform

A the museum receptionist.

B their museum supervisor.

C their school placement tutor.


14   The most popular task whilst on work placement is usually

A making presentations in local primary schools.

B talking to elderly people in care homes.

C conducting workshops in the museum.


15   The best form of preparation before starting their work placement is to read

A the history of the museum on the website.

B the museum regulations and safety guidance.

C notes made by previous work placement students.


Questions 16-20

Label the plan below.

Write the correct letter, A-l, next to questions 16-20


Where in the museum are the following places?

16   Sign-in office      _____            

17   Gallery 1               _____      

18   Key box           _____      

19   Kitchen area      _____

20   Staff noticeboard   _____    



Section 3

Questions 21-26

What is the tutor's opinion of the following company projects?

Choose FIVE answers from the box, and write the correct letter, A-H, next to questions 21-26.


Tutor’s opinion

A    It would be very rewarding for the student.

B    It is too ambitious.

C    It would be difficult to evaluate.

D    It wouldn’t be sufficiently challenging.

E    It would involve extra costs.

F     It is beyond the student’s current ability.

G    It is already being done by another student.

H    It would probably have the greatest impact on the company.


Company projects

21   Customer database     _____             

22   Online sales catalogue  _____     

23   Payroll                   _____

24   Stock inventory       _____    

25   Internal security               _____

26   Customer services           _____


Questions 27-30

Questions 27-28

Choose TWO letters, A-E.

Which TWO problems do Sam and the tutor identify concerning group assignments?

A    Personal relationships.

B    Cultural differences.

C    Division of labour.

D    Group leadership.

E    Group size.


Questions 29-30

Choose TWO letters, A-E.

Which TWO problems does Sam identify concerning the lecturers?

A Punctuality.

B Organisation.

C Accessibility.

D Helpfulness.

E Teaching materials.



Section 4

Questions 31-40

Complete the notes below.

Write ONE WORD ONLY for each answer.

The Tawny Owl

Most 31 _____ owl species in UK

Strongly nocturnal



Mainly lives in 32 _____, but can also be seen in urban areas. e.g. parks.



     Short wings and 33 _____ for navigation

     drown and 34 _____ feathers, for camouflage

Large eyes (more effective than those of 35 _____ ), for good night vision

     Very good spatial 36 _____ for predicting where prey might be found

     Excellent 37 _____, for locating prey from a perch



Main food is small mammals.

Owls in urban areas eat more 38 _____.



Two thirds of young owls die within a 39 _____.

Owls don’t disperse over long distances.

Owls seems to dislike flying over large areas of 40 _____.




Answer key

Section 1

1 weekend(s)

2 plasdeco

3 clear

4 late/unreliable

5 cheaper

6 messy

7 designs

8 expensive

9 painting

10 ladder(s)


Section 2

11 B

12 C

13 A

14 B

15 C

16 C

17 I

18 H

19 D

20 G



Section 3

21 D

22 B

23 A

24 H

25 F

26 E

27/28 B/E

29/30 A/C


Section 4

31   common

32   woodland/woods/forest(s)

33   tail

34   grey/gray

35   humans/people

36   memory

37   hearing

38   birds

39   year

40   water







Part 1

Part 2&3


Work or studies















Foreign food









Space travel









Killing time






Rainy days



Outdoor activities





Part 1

  1. Travel (space travel)


Do you want to travel in the outer space?



Yeah that would be fantastic! I always want to experience the gravity-free condition, and it would be amazing to overlook the whole universe from the spaceship.


What would you do if you had this opportunity?



I would first attend some special trainings regularly. I’m not a very fit person, or I have to say subhealthy, so I need to work out to get ready for the possible weightlessness or other harsh conditions I might encounter in the space.


Do you like to travel by air?



Yes and no. Travelling by air is indeed very fast, and the service on the airline can be good as well, but it takes a lot of time to get to the airport and go through the security check. So if it’s not too far, maybe it’s better to take the train.


When was the last time you went travelling?



I went to a coastal city in the northern part of China last weekend with my friends. We went there by train and had a lot of delicious seafood. It was a nice trip.


Part 2 & 3

Part 2题目1


Describe something you made yourself.

You should say:

What you made.

Why you make it.

How you make it.

and explain how you felt about it.






I used to make a bamboo lantern. A lantern is a traditional handicraft in the southern part of China. There is a Lantern Festival right after the Spring Festival. It is the time when people make and appreciate this work of art. In order to celebrate the festival, I made a lantern under the guidance of my grandfather.

The whole lantern looks like a rabbit. The frame of the lamp was made of sliced bamboo, and a bulb was placed at the bottom of the framework. And the Xuan paper was pasted onto the framework, which was painted with vivid Chinese paintings.

I like this bamboo lantern very much, although the color on it is a bit faded, it still looks beautiful when the bulb is lit up. More importantly, it contains a lot of precious memories that I have with my grandfather. I hope we can protect this traditional skill and pass on to the next generation.



handicraft 名词;手工艺品

EgEach location will host special events like handicraft conferences and demonstrations by local artisans.


appreciate: 动词;欣赏,感激,增值

EgIn order to appreciate the novel, one must be able to enter the spirit of the work.


③vivid: 形容词;生动的,鲜明的

EgThe painter brushed over the canvas to bring out a more vivid effect.


light up: 词组;照亮,点亮

EgFinally, we were dazzled by two high-tech garments that harness LEDs to light up the night.


 Part 3题目


1. Why do some people prefer to make things themselves?



I guess it’s because they enjoy the process or want to have a special design. Some people enjoy the process of making things themselves, because it will give them a sense of achievement. On the other hand, things designed and made by oneself are usually different from others, which means you can have something very unique and special if you make it by yourself.



achievement 名词:成就

EgThis achievement is surely unprecedented.


unique: 形容词;独特的,独一无二的

EgThe real innovations are expected to come from a device finding its own unique uses.


2. What are the major differences between the things you buy from a store and the thing you made all by yourself?



The first main difference I think is uniqueness. Things sold in a store are usually ready-made products and many people have exactly the same thing as you do. However if you make something by yourself and it will probably be the only one in the world. Another difference is that, it’s a matter of time. Self-made products can take a long time, but if you buy things from a store, it’s fast and convenient.



uniqueness 名词;独特性,唯一性

EgThis uniqueness bridges the physical and digital worlds, accelerating innovation, time-to-market, and market growth.


②ready-made: 形容词;现成的,做好的

EgDo you have any ready-made clothes that will fit me?


3. Do you think DIY will become more and more popular in the near future?



I don’t think so. Although there are many DIY shops recently, it is more like a hobby, people would like to give it a go, but will not take it seriously. With the development of technology, mass production is the main stream. It’s fast and convenient. That’s why many handicrafts fail to be handed down from past generations because we’ve got more modern and handy alternatives.



mass production 词组:大批量生产,大规模生产

EgIn an age of mass production, it is a delight to visit these family-owned wineries.


hand down: 词组;流传下来,世代相传

EgParticularly in Confucian societies in East Asia, people are more keen to hand down the latest tools and knowledge to the next generation.









沪江网校首席雅思口语名师; 英国谢菲尔德大学毕业;英文专业8级;5年以上英文教学经验。








饼图 (Hot)



柱图 (Hot)







题目:The pie charts show the percentage of five kinds of books sold by a bookseller between 1972 and 2012. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. Write at least 150 words.





在观察饼图时,我们可在脑海中将它转化为柱状图或者折线图,重点关注其变化趋势。可以将上升趋势的Adult fictionChildren's fiction 放在一起描述,下降趋势的BiographyOthers以及先升后降的Travel可以放在一起描述



These three pie charts compare the popularity of five different kinds of books according to the sales of a bookseller during forty years.


From 1972 to 2012, the sales of fictions witnessed a gradual rise and always ranked the top among these categories. In 1972, adult fiction and children's fiction were equally popular, and the sales of these two were both 20%. Then the percentage of adult fiction surged to 45% in the following 40 years. On the other hand, the sales of children's fiction experienced steady growth and reached 25% in the year 2012.


In contrast, there was a decreasing trend for sales of biography and other books, and biography books was less favored than other books in these forty years, and the gaps were 5%, 5% and 4% respectively. With regard to the travel books, their popularity experienced a fluctuation and finally surpassed the figure of biography, arriving at 10% in 2012.


Generally speaking, the sales of fiction continued to rise while biography and other books were less appreciated during the whole period.



witness: v. 见证

respectively: adv. 分别地;各自地

surpass: v.超越,胜过










Universities should accept equal numbers of male and female students in every subject. Do you agree or disagree


Nowadaysfull-time university students tend to focus on their studying. Some people think it is essential for university students to be involved in other activities. To what extent do you agree or disagree?


In some countries, secondary schools provide a general education of a range of subjects. In others, children have a narrow range of subjects related to a particular career. Which do you think is more appropriate for modern world?


As scientists contribute more to the development of our society than other people do, science students should get more financial support from the government than other students. Do you agree or disagree?


Some people think that all young people should be required to have full-time education until they are at least 18 years old. To what extent do you agree or disagree


As part of education, students should spend a period of time studying and living in a different country to learn language and culture. To what extent do you agree or disagree?


Some people think only best students should be rewarded; others think we should reward students who show improvement. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.



An increasing number of people do not know their neighbors, and there is no longer a sense of community. What do you think are the causes of this situation? What solutions can you suggest?


Old people have their own ideas of how to think, behave and live. However, these are no longer suitable for young people in preparing their modern life. Discuss both views and give your opinion.


With the development of many countries, people start to live individually and live in very small family units. What are the causes? What effects does it have on society?



Many people believe that scientific research should be carried out and controlled by the government rather than private companies. To what extent do you agree or disagree?


Some people think they have right to use as much fresh water as they want, while others believe governments should strictly control the use of fresh water as it is limited resource. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.


The government has the duty to ensure that its citizens have a healthy diet, while others believe this is individuals' responsibility. Discuss both views and give your opinion.



With the increasing demand for energy sources of oil and gas, people should look for sources of oil and gas in remote and untouched places. Do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages of damaging such areas?


Some people think that instead of preventing climate change, we need to find a way to live with it. Do you agree or disagree?


Some people say the best way to solve the environmental problem is to raise the price of fuel, to what extent do you agree or disagree


Environmental problems are too big for individual countries and individual people to address. We have reached the stage where the only way to protect the environment is to address it at an international level. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?


Nuclear energy is a better sources of energy to meet the increasing demand of energy. Do you agree or disagree?



Some think most crime is the result of circumstances e.g. poverty and other social problems. Others believe that most crime is caused by people who are bad by nature. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.


Some people believe that young people who commit serious crimes should be punished in the same way as adults. To what extent do you agree or disagree?



The increase in food production owes much to fertilizers and better machinery, but some people think that it has a negative impact on human health and community. To what extent do you agree or disagree?


Some groups of people have benefited from modern communication technology but some people have not benefited at all, to what extent do you agree or disagree?


Some people think it’s necessary to use animals for testing medicines intended for human use. Others, however, think it’s not right to do that. Discuss both views and give you own opinion.



In some countries it is illegal for companies to reject job applicants for their age. Is this positive or negative to the development?


Countries with a long average working time are more economically successful than those countries which do not have a long working time. To what extent do you agree or disagree?



Some people think news has no connection to people's lives, so it is a waste of time to read news in the newspaper and watch news programs in television. To what extent do you agree or disagree?


Research shows that overeating can be just as harmful as smoking. Thus, the advertising of certain food products should be banned, as cigarette is banned in many countries. To what extent do you agree or disagree?



Tourism is a multibillion-dollar industry that supports economic development. However some people think that it causes too much damage to the local environment and culture. Do you agree or disagree?


Foreign tourists abroad should be charged more than local people when visiting the local historical and cultural tourist attractions. To what extent do you agree or disagree?



Some people believe famous people's support towards international aid organizations draws the attention to problems, while others think celebrities make the problems less important. Discuss both views and give your opinion.




题目:Some think most crime is the result of circumstances e.g. poverty and other social problems. Others believe that most crime is caused by people who are bad by nature. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.









While crime is condemned all over the world, it has yet to be explained why certain individuals violate laws. Some blame the misdeeds on the malicious nature that makes a person criminal, and others on the environment in which law-breakers are raised up.


Admittedly, there are many external factors triggering manifold malefactions, especially in places where inequalities are obvious. Statistics show that the wider the economic gap is, the higher violent crime rates will be. Comparison exacerbates jealousy and hatred when lower classes dedicate much more but still get far less than those who have high socio-economic status. Worse still, such societies are intentionally ignorant of the true justice or equality, let alone providing the welfare to compensate the unprivileged group. Therefore, a vicious cycle is formed -- the poor do not have access to a better life, so they are forced to resort to extreme actions such as robbery or steal to keep alive, which exactly offers the power-holders a righteous reason to eliminate “the uncivilized” by depriving them of the right to receive quality education, medical care and job opportunities.


However, with so many onlookers worldwide, it is not that easy for a certain government to shed off responsibilities for its social problems. Smartly enough, it summons a group of scholars and conjures up a seemingly new theory about human nature, albeit dressed up in the language of biology and psychology, the core theme is rather traditional that the criminals are sub-human predator. Genetic makeup acts as a cause of delinquency and above all, criminality is a problem that should be dealt with on an individual level rather than a social basis. In this way, people are convinced that criminals are born rather than made and their society is not guilty.


Though the old-aged debate between nature and nurture in terms of crime motives has never stopped, from my point of view, I never relate evil to “bad blood”. Too often a culprit in court is also a victim of the circumstance as well, and social issues attribute more to tragedies than genetic heritages.



condemned: adj.  被认为不当的

malicious: adj.  恶意的

manifold malefaction:  多种不法行为

ignorant of:  忽视……

conjure up:   虚构

genetic makeup:  基因组成

culprit: n. 罪犯






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