READING PASSAGE 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.
The pesticide-free village
Gerry Marten and Dona Glee Williams report on reliance on the Indian village of Punukula, so nearly destroyed by reliance on pesticides.
Around 20 years ago, a handful of families migrated from the Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh, south-east India, into Punukula, a community of around 900 people farming plots of between two and ten acres. The outsiders from Guntur brought cotton culture with them, and this attracted resident farmers by promising to bring in more hard cash than the mixed crops they were already growing to eat and sell, such as millet, mung beans, chilli and rice. But growing cotton meant using pesticides and fertilisers - until then a mystery to the mostly illiterate farmers of the community.
Local agro-chemical dealers obligingly filled the need for information and supplies. Th sse ‘middlemen' sold commercial seeds, fertilisers and insecticides on credit, and guaranteed purchase of the crop. They offered technical advice provided by the companies that supplied their products. The farmers depend on the dealers. If they wanted to grow cotton – and they did - it seemed they had no choice.
A quick ‘high’ of booming yields and incomes hooked growers during the early years of cotton in the region. Outlay on insecticides was fairly IO\A/ because cotton pests hadn't moved in yet. Many farmers were so impressed with the chemicals that they started using them on their other crops as well. The immediate payoffs from chemically-dependent cotton agriculture both ensured and obscured the fact that the black dirt fields had gone into a freefall of environmental degradation, dragged down by a chain of cause and effect.
Soon cotton-eaters, such as bollworms and aphids, plagued the fields. Repeated spraying killed off the most susceptible pests and left the strongest to reproduce and pass on their resistance to generations of ever-hardier offspring. As the bugs grew tougher and more abundant, farmers applied a greater variety and quantity of poisons, something mixing 'cocktails' of as many as ten insecticides. At the same time, cotton was gobbling up the nutrients in the soil, leaving the growers no option but to invest in chemical fertilisers.
By the time some farmers tried to break free of their chemical dependence, insecticides had already decimated the birds, wasps, beetles, and other predators that had once provided natural control of crop pests. Without their balancing presence, pests ran riot if insecticide was cut back. As outlays for fertilisers and insecticides escalated, the cost of producing cotton mounted. Eventually the expense of chemical inputs outgrew the cash value of the crop, and farmers fell further and further into debt and poverty.
Their vicious cycle was only broken by the willingness of a prominent village elder to experiment with something different. He had been among the first villagers to grow cotton, and he would be the first to try it without chemicals, as set out by a programme in Non-Pesticide Management (NPM). This had been devised for Punukala with the help of a Non-Government Organisation called SECURE that had become aware of the hardships caused by the pesticide trap.
It involved turning to neem, a fast-growing, broad-leaved evergreen tree related to mahogany. Neem protects itself against insects by producing a multitude of natural pesticides that have evolved specifically to defeat plant-eating insects. Thus they are generally harmless to human and other animals, including birds and insects that eat pests.
The plant is native to India and Burma, where it has been used for centuries to control pests and to promote health. To protect cotton, neem seeds are simply ground into a powder, soaked overnight in water, and sprayed onto the crop at least every 10 days. Neem cake applied to the soil kills insect pests and doubles as an organic fertiliser high in nitrogen. As neem grows locally and is easy to process, it is much less expensive than the chemical insecticides sold for profit by the dealers and their corporate suppliers.
Quick, short-term gains had once pushed Punukula into chemical-dependent agriculture. Now they found that similar immediate rewards were helping to speed change in the other direction: the harvest of the next 20 NPM farmers was as good as the harvest of farmers using insecticides, and they came out ahead because they weren't buying insecticides, instead of investing cash (in short supply) in chemicals, they invested time and labour in NPM practices.
By the end of 2000, all the farmers in Punukula village were using NPM rather than chemicals for cotton, and they began to use it on other crops as well. The Ghange gathered momentum as NPM became even more effective once everyone was using it. The status and economic opportunities of women improved - neem became a source of income for some of them, as they gathered seeds from the surrounding area to sell for NPM in other villages. The improve situation meant that families could afford to put more land under cultivation.
In 2004, the panchayat (village government) formally declared Punukula to be a pesticide-free village. And they have big plans for the future, such as water purification. The village now serves as a model for disseminating NPM to other communities, with around 2000 farmers visiting each year.
What began as a few farmers desperate to find a way to farm without poisons has become a movement with the potential to pull an entire region back from ecological disaster.
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
1 Cotton growing was expected to raise more money than other crop.
2 Some of the local agro-chemical dealers had been farmers in the past.
3 Initially the farmers’ cotton yields were low.
4 At first, the farmers failed to notice the negative effects on their fields of pesticide use.
Complete the notes below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 5 - 10 on your answer sheet.
- Developed with the aid of SECURE
- Based on use of an 5 ______________ called neem
- Neem contains many 6 ______________ that target plant-eating predators
- Used as a pesticide
- 7______________formed by grinding seeds
- left 8 ______________to soak in water
- Sprayed regularly
- Used as a pesticide and as a fertilizer
- added in 9 ______________form to soil
- contains a lot of 10 ______________
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 11 - 13 on your answer sheet.
- In which year did farmers finally stop using chemicals on cotton crops in Punukula?
- What did the women of Punukula collect to make money?
- What project do the authorities in Punukula hope to set up in the future?
READING PASSAGE 2
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.
New filter promises clean water for millions
An ingenious invention is set to bring clean water to developing countries, and while the science may be cutting edge, the materials are extremely down to earth.
A handful of clay, yesterday's coffee grounds and some cow manure are the ingredients that could bring clean, safe drinking water to many developing countries. The simple new technology, developed by Australian National University (ANU) materials scientist and potter Tony Flynn, allows water filters to be made from commonly available materials and fired (or baked) using cow manure as the source of heat, without the need for a kiln (an oven for baking or drying pottery). The filters have been tested and shown to remove common pathogens (disease-producing organisms) including E-coli.
The invention was born out of a project involving the Manatuto community in East Timor. A charity operating there wanted to help set up a small industrial site manufacturing water filters, but initial research found the local clay to be too fine – a problem solved by the addition of organic material.
While the problems of producing a working ceramic filter in East Timor were overcome, the solution was kiln-based and particular to that community’s materials and couldn't be applied elsewhere. Flynn’s technique for manure firing, with no requirement for a kiln, has made this zero technology approach available anywhere it is needed.
Other commercial clay filters do exist, but, even if available, with prices starting at US$5 each, they are often outside the budgets of most people in the developing world. Unlike other water filtering devices, Flynn's filters are inexpensive and simple to produce. Take a handful of clay, mix it with a handful of organic material such as used tea leaves, coffee grounds or rice hulls, add water in a sufficient quantity to make a stiff mixture and form a cylindrical pot that has one end dosed, then dry it in the sun. According to Flynn, used coffee grounds have given the best results to date. The walls of the filter can be measure using the width of an adult finger as the standard. Next, surround the pots with straw, put them in a mound of cow manure, light the straw and then top up the burning manure as required. The filters are finished in 45 to 60 minutes.
The properties of cow manure are vital, as the fuel can reach a temperature of 700 degrees in half an hour, and will be up to 950 degrees after another 20 to 30 minutes. The manure makes a good fuel because it is very high in organic material that burns readily and quickly. The manure has to be dry and is best used exactly as found in the field; there is no need to break it up or process it any further. In contrast, a potter’s kiln is an expensive item and can take up to four or five hours to get up to 800 degrees. It needs expensive scarce fuel, such as gas or wood to heat it, and experience to use it. With no technology, no insulation and nothing other than a pile of cow manure and a match, none of these requirements apply.
It is also helpful that, like clay and organic material, cow manure is freely available across the developing world. A cow is a natural fuel factory. Manure is a mixture of vegetable materials of different sizes, and cow manure as a fuel is the same wherever it is found.
Just as using manure as a fuel for domestic use is not a new idea, the fact that liquid can pass through clay objects is something that potters have always known, and clay’s porous nature is something that, as a former ceramics lecturer in the ANU School of Art, Flynn is well aware of. The difference is that, rather than viewing the porous nature of the material as a problem - after all, not many people want a pot that won't hold water - his filters capitalize on this property.
The filtration process is simple, but effective. The basic principle is that there are passages through the filter that are wide enough for water droplets to pass through, but too narrow for pathogens. Tests with the deadly E-coli bacterium have seen the filters remove 96.4 to 99.8 per cent of the pathogen - well within safe levels. The thickness of the clay container needs to be the same thickness as an adult finger for the process to be effective. If this is the case, using only one filter, a liter of water can be obtained in two hours.
The use of organic material, which burns away leaving cavities after firing, helps produce the structure in which pathogens will become trapped. It overcomes the potential problems of finer clays that may not let water through and also means that cracks are soon halted. And like clay and cow manure, organic material is universally available in the developing communities that need most assistance, as tea, coffee and rice are grown in these areas.
With all the components being widely available, Flynn says there is no reason the technology couldn't be applied throughout the developing world. He has no plans to exploit his idea financially by registering ownership through a patent. If he did, any commercial copying would legally entitle him to a share in any profits made. Without a patent, there will be no illegality in it being adopted in any community that needs it. ‘Everyone has a right to clean water, and these filters have the potential to enable anyone in the world to drink water safely,' says Flynn.
Complete the flow-chart below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS/AND ORA NUMBER from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 14-19 on your answer sheet.
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2?
In boxes 20-23 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
20 The clay in the Manatuto project was initially unsuitable for the project's purpose.
21 Coffee grounds produce filters that are twice as efficient as those using other organic materials.
22 It takes half an hour for a cow-manure fire to reach 950 degree.
23 E-coli is the most difficult bacterium to remove from water by filtration.
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
Write the correct letter in boxes 24-26 on your answer sheet.
24 The Manatuto project aimed to set up a
A charitable trust.
B filtration experiment.
C water filter factory.
D community kiln.
25 To be effective, the Flynn filters must
A remove ail dangerous pathogens.
B be a particular thickness.
C filter water as quickly as possible.
D be made from 100 per cent clay.
26 Flynn does not intend to patent his filter because he
A wants it be freely available.
B has produced a very simple design.
C cannot make a profit in poor countries.
D has already given the idea to a charity.
READING PASSAGE 3
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40, which are based on Reading Passage
Reading Passage 3 has seven paragraphs, A-G.
Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A-F from the list of headings below.
Write the correct number, i-ix, in boxes 27-32 on your answer sheet.
List of Headings
Action already taken by the United Nations
Marketing the hydrogen car
Making the new technology available worldwide
Some negative predictions from one group of experts
How the new vehicle technology works
The history of fuel-cell technology
A holistic view of climate change
Locating the essential ingredient
Sustaining car manufacture
27 Paragraph A
28 Paragraph B
29 Paragraph C
30 Paragraph D
31 Paragraph E
32 Paragraph F
Are hydrogen cars the answer?
It is tempting to think that the conservation of coral reefs and rainforests is a separate issue from traffic and air pollution. But it is not. Scientists are now confident that rapid changes in the Earth's climate are already disrupting and altering many wildlife habitats. Pollution from vehicles is a big part of the problem.
The United Nation’s Climate Change Panel has estimated that the global average temperature rise expected by the year 2100 could be as much as 6°C, causing forest fires and dieback on land and coral bleaching in the ocean. Few species, if any, will be immune from the changes in temperature, rainfall and sea levels. The panel believes that if such catastrophic temperature rises are to be avoided, the quantity of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide, being released into the atmosphere must be reduced. That will depend on slowing the rate of deforestation and, more crucially, finding alternatives to coal, oil and gas as our principal energy sources.
Technologies do exist to reduce or eliminate carbon dioxide as a waste product of our energy consumption. Wind power and solar power are both spreading fast, but what are we doing about traffic? Electric cars are one possible option, but their range and the time it takes to charge their batteries pose serious limitations. However, the technology that shows the most potential to make cars climate-friendly is fuel-cell technology. This was actually invented in the late nineteenth century, but because the world's motor industry put its effort into developing the combustion engine, it was never refined for mass production. One of the first prototype fuel-cell-powered vehicles has been built by the Ford Motor Company. It is like a conventional car，only with better acceleration and a smoother ride. Ford engineers expect to be able to produce a virtually silent vehicle in the future.
So what’s the process involved – and is there a catch? Hydrogen goes into the fuel tank, producing electricity. The only emission from the exhaust pipe is water. The fuel-cell is, in some ways similar to a battery, but unlike a battery it does not run down. As long as hydrogen and oxygen are supplied to the cell, it will keep on generating electricity. Some cells work off methane and a few use liquid fuels such as methanol, but fuel-ceils using hydrogen probably have the most potential. Furthermore, they need not be limited to transport. Fuel-cells can be made in a huge range of size, small enough for portable computers or large enough for power stations. They have no moving parts and therefore need no oil. They just need a supply of hydrogen. The big question, then, is where to get it from.
One source of hydrogen is water. But to exploit the abundant resource, electricity is needed, and if the electricity is produced by a coal-fired power station or other fossil fuel, then the overall carbon reduction benefit of the fuel-cell disappears. Renewable sources, such as wind and solar power, do not produce enough energy for it to be economically viable to use them in the 'manufacture' of hydrogen as a transport fuel. Another source of hydrogen is, however, available and could provide a supply pending the development of more efficient and cheaper renewable energy technologies. By splitting natural gas (methane) into its constituent parts, hydrogen and carbon dioxide are produced. One way round the problem of what to do with the carbon dioxide could be to store it back below ground – so called geological sequestration. Oil companies, such as Norway's Statoil, are experimenting with storing carbon dioxide below ground in oil and gas wells.
With freak weather conditions, arguably caused by global warming, frequently in the headlines, the urgent need to get fuel-cell vehicles will be available in most showrooms. Even now, fuel-cell buses are operating in the US, while in Germany a courier company is planning to take delivery of fuel-cell-powered vans in the near future. The fact that centrally-run fleets of buses and vans are the first fuel-cell vehicles identifies another challenge – fuel distribution. The refueling facilities necessary to top up hydrogen-powered vehicles are available only in a very few places at present. Public transport and delivery firms are logical places to start, since their vehicles are operated from central depots.
Fuel-cell technology is being developed right across the automotive industry. This technology could have a major impact in slowing down climate change, but further investment is needed if the industry – and the world's wildlife – is to have a long-term future.
Complete the sentences below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 33-36 on your answer sheet.
33 In the late nineteenth century, the car industry invested in the development of the ____________, rather than fuel-cell technology.
34 Ford engineers predict that they will eventually design an almost ___________ car.
35 While a fuel-cell lasts longer, some aspects of it are comparable to a ___________.
36 Fuel-cells can come in many sizes and can be used in power stations and in ___________ as well as in vehicles.
Do the following statements agree, with the information given in Reading Passage 3?
In boxes 37-40 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
37 Using electricity produced by burning fossil fuels to access sources of hydrogen may increase the positive effect of the fuel-cell.
38 The oil company Statoil in Norway owns gas wells in other parts of the world.
39 Public transport is leading the way in the application of fuel-cell technology,
40 More funding is necessary to ensure the success of the fuel-cell vehicle industry.
Reading Passage 1
1. True. 雅思阅读每一道题都能对应到原文中的一句话。因此考生首先 需要定位找到原文那句话。此题对应到原文第一段The outsiders from Guntur brought cotton culture with them, and this attracted resident farmers by promising to bring in more hard cash than the mixed crops they were already growing to east and sell, such as 此句中promise to bring
in (承诺带来，有希望带来）正好对应题目中知was expected to (期望，预计）；more hard cash对应more money.由此可知，题目与原文 阐述一致，因而答案为True。
2. Not Given.此句中local agro-chemical dealer—词指引我们定位到原文 第—段中的Local agro-chemical dealers obligingly filled the need for information and supplies ... 继续往下读，一直读完第一段，没有发现任何信息是介绍这些dealer的来源，他们之前是否是农民，我们无 从得知，因此，此题我们无法判断其正确还是错误，所以答案为Not Given.
3. False.此句对应原文第二段第句 A quick “high” of booming yields and incomes hooked growers during the early years of cotton in the region. 题目中的initially对应原文的during the early years，原文中的yields未变，指棉花的产量很“high”，booming(繁荣，激增)。题目Low显然与此 相反，因此答案为False.
4. True. 接着往下读便能发现原文有这样一句话:Many farmers were so impressed with chemicals that they started using them on their other crops as well.(农民对化学药剂的效力如此吃惊以至于他们开始将此种药剂 使用于其他作物上)。由此可见，农民一开始并没有意识到此种化学品 的坏处，才将其推广于其他作物上。与题目中fail to notice the negative effects (未能注意到真坏作用）。因此答案夫True。
5. Evergreen tree.请注意雅思填空题的答案多直接摘抄于原文，即直接 找到原文中合适的实意词语（大多数情况是名词短语等实义词，而非 介词，连词等虚义词），填上即可，不需要自己造词，但需注意题目 规定单词个数，单复数，大小写以及语法问题。此题定位到原文第五段大写字母Non- Pesticide Management (NPM),并定为于SECURE 这个 词之后，因为题目中的第一点已经出现了SECURE这个信息点，因此 我们需要的信息肯定在此词之后。往下读，可看到neem，a fast-growing, broad-leaved evergreen tree related mahogany.此句型为典型的同位语下定义句型，前面neem为核心词，我们不需要知道其具体名 称，从后面的同位语解释可知其为一种生长很快，长者宽叶子的常青 树。去掉前面的fast-growing, broad-leaved形容词以及后罝形容词 related mahogany,提取出中心名词evergreen tree,即为此题答案，再检查符合题目规定不超过2个单词的原则，且横线前已有an.
6. Natural Pesticides.题目中contain指包含，因而横线上必然填一种名词物质，后面的that定语从句，解释了这种物质是一种能攻击吃植物的捕食者的物质。回到原文可找到Neem protects itself against insects by producing a multitude of natural pesticides that have evolved specifically to defeat plant-eating insects.(印度楝树可以保护自身不受昆虫侵害，適过 生产一种许多的天然杀虫剂，此种杀虫剂专门用来击败吃植物的昆虫)。可见a multitude of natural pesticides后的that从句解释了其可以 defeat plant-eating insects的特性，符合题目向解释，因此去掉数量词a multitude of ,剩下中心词natural pesticides即为正确答案。
7.A powder.此题定位至原文第六段To protect cotton, neem seeds are simply ground into a powder, ...ground是动词grind(研磨)的过去分词形式，be ground into a powder即被研磨成粉末。
8. Overnight.此句对应原文的 soaked overnight in water... （浸泡在水里—夜），题目中换一种表达left overnight to soak in water （被放在水里一夜）.此空位副词填空，但只要把握住Paraphrase（换种表达这一核心方法）抓住横线前后词语，在文中都能找到正确答案。
9. Cake. Cake在这儿并非表示蛋糕，而指类似于蛋糕的糕状或者硬块
状。原文中可找到 Neem cake applied to the soil kills insect pests（用于土壤的糕状楝树可以杀死害虫），题目中横线后form一词提示需要填一种形式，即以糕状的形式添加于土壤。
10. Nitrogen.此句话接着往下读就是....doubles as an organic fertilizer high in nitrogen.(富金双倍的有机肥，氣气)。Contains 与 be high in
11. 2000.读完题目，可见答案为一个年份，在此年份，Punukula这个地方的农民停止在棉花上使用化学品了。扫读全文，寻找几个年份数 字，最终发现在第八段第一句By the end of 2000，all the farmers in Punukula village were using NPM rather than chemical for cotton.此句中 rather than (而不是）表示了他们不再使用化学品了。根据题目规定答 案不超过两个单词或者一个数字，所以直接用2000.
12. Neem Seeds.此题提到women,立即定位到第八段The status and economic opportunities of women improved-neem became a source of income for some of them, as they gathered seeds from...gather 与 collect 对应，当地女性搜集种子提高收入。为了避免指代不清，最好在seeds前 加上neem，两个词也不运出题目的规定。
13. Water purification.此题中Authorities对应到原文的第九段 government，接着读便能找到 And they have big plans for the future, such as water purification.即提到了政府未乘的计划。
Reading Passage 2
14-15. clay, water.关于water filter的制作步骤锁定到原文第三段从Take a handful of clay, mix it with a handful of organic material such as..., add water in a sufficient quantity to....一直至第三段结束，都在一步一步介绍过滤器的制作过程，根据以上黑体部分，很容易取出mixture的 主要三成分：clay, organic material, water.原文用的动词短语mix it with,而在题目中换成了名词mixture，这种也是一种paraphrase。
16-17. cow manure, straw.接着往下读，就能发现第一步,制作好 mixture,将其做成cylindrical pot (圆柱形的罐子)，接下来第二步就是 Next, surround the pots with straw, put them in a mound of cow manure, ...直到段末。可推断16，17题的两个答案必从此中挑选出来，推敲后 很容易发现火的来源来自于straw (稻草）和cow mature(牛类)。
18. 950 degrees.此题相对简单，第四段两个温度，一个700 degrees，另外一个950 degrees,注意不要混淆，题目问的是最高温度maximum.注 意写的时候带上单位degrees.
19. 60 minutes.答案比较隐蔽，在第三段最后_句，The filters arc finished in 45 to 60 minutes.因此最大 maximum 时间是60 minutes,注 意带上时间单位。
20. True. 一看到题目中的Manatuto就马上定位到原文只有一个地方出 现此词语，即在第二段，扫读后，发现句子but initial research found the local clay to be too fine- a problem solved by the addition of organic materials. Too带否定语气，fine有一个意思指精细，因此其黏土是too fine(过于精细的>,是不适合制作过滤器的，破折号后面也补充说明 了，正因为黏土不适合，才通过添加有机材料解决此问题。
21. Not Given.原文第三段有一个话，According to Flynn, used coffee grounds have given the best results to date.即咖啡遼能ii到迄今为止最 好的效果，但并没有明确指出其效率是别的材料的2倍。因此，题目 无从考证。
22. False.原文第四段第一句话写了要达到700度需要半小时，要达到 950度另外还需要20-30分钟，因此加起来需要50-60分钟。注意after another 20 to 30 minutes.此题粗心较容易出错。
23. Not Given.原文有两个地方提到了E-coli，第一段末尾和第七段中 间，但都没有提到它是the most difficult bacterium ,因为我们不能妄下判断。
24. C.对应原文第二段 A charity operating there wanted to set up a small industrial site manufacturing water filters，...企图建立一个小型的工厂，制造水过滤器。
25. B .答案在第七段可以找到。The thickness of the clay container needs to be the same thickness as an adult finger for the process to be effective. B 答案符合。A答案all不对，原文第七段只说了去除96.4头99.8_ percent of the pathogen- well within safe levels (己在安全范围类内了）； C，D答案原文中都没有提到。
Reading Passage 3
27. Vii.第一段是总概况式地介绍文章背景，引出下文，关键词是 climate change, holistic是“全局”的意思。
28. iv.第二段确实提到UN,但是并没有讲到其Action,所以不要误选 i;仔细看，会发现是United Nation's Climate Change Panel, panel有“专家组”的意思，整个第二段都是在讲专家组的estimates，believes,所以正确答案应该是iv.
30. v.第四段第一句便提到process，接下来讲到hydrogen goes into the fuel tank，可推断其在讲工作原理模式。
31. viii. 扫读E段，可知其在将氢气的来源，即对应ingredient,整段在 讲诉如何获得氢气。
32. iii. F段讲的是燃料电池技术的应用，如何在美国，德国等地普 及。
33. Combustion engine.由题目中的in the late nineteenth century 很快就 能定位到原文C段的This was actually invented in the late nineteenth century, but because the world's motor industry put its effort into developing the combustion engine, it was never refined for mass production.此句中 this 指代上一句末尾的 fuel-ceIl technology, put its effort in doing sth.指将其精力投入做某事；it was never refined for mass production, it!旨代fuel-cell technology，—句的意思是燃料电池技术没有 得到改进，未投入大规模生产。
34. Silent .Ford马上定位到原文C段最后一句Ford engineers cxpect to be able to produce a virtually silent vehicle in the future.雅思考试，很多题 考得是Paraphrase (释义，改写），即对等表达，题目中用另外一个词 或者另外一种表达来解释原文中词语、句子的意思。此题中，只要知道 Virtually是“几乎”的意思，vehicle 等于“car”，cxpect to do sth.等于“predict”,那么这道题答案也就轻而易举了。
35. Battery.原文D段 The fuel-cell is，in some ways, similar to a battery，
but 此题稍难，需要知道comparable to sth意思是“相当于，可比 较，比得上”，跟原文“similar to”(与什么相似).
36. Portable computers.题目谈到其size问题，可找到原文D段Fuel-cells can be made in a huge range of size, small enough for portable computers or large enough for power stations.(燃料电池可制成本同大小，小到可 以用于便携式电脑，大到可以用于发电站)。与power stations相并列的 即是答案。
37. False.原文E段第二句话But to exploit the abundant resource, electricity is needed, and if ....then the overall carbon reduction benefit of the fuel-cell disappears. (但是要开发大量的资源，就需要用电，而如果 是通过燃烧煤炭或者其他化石能源来发电的话，那么燃料电池的整体碳减排优势就消失了)。题目表达意思与此相反，所以错误。
38. Not Given.看到题目中的专有名词Statoil in Norway就该找到原文唯一提及此公司的E段，阅读前后，都没有发现有关此公司天然气井分布的信息，因此判断为Not given.
39. True.此题需要从原文F段推断得出。题目意思是说公共交通是使 用燃料电池科技的领头羊。F段提到fuel-cell buses arc operating in the US,后文提到燃料分配问题，最后一句提到public transport and delivery firms are the logical places to start,结合以上信息，可推断出公共交通领域应该是实施燃料电池科技的首要地。
40. True.此题较简单，原文最后一段最后一句明确提到，but future investment is needed...即表示发展此科技需要more funding (更多的资金)。
Section 1 & Section 2重点场景（生活类）：旅游导览，找工作，制作流程，报名申请，旅游住宿。
Section 3 & Section 4重点场景（学术类）：师生讨论，学术讲座，作业讨论，论文选题。
Complete the form below.
Enquiries about temporary work
Name: Jane 1 _____
Address: 2 _____
Telephone number: 07792430921
Availability: Can start work on 3 _____
Preferred type of work: Assistant 4 _____
Relevant skills: Familiar with kitchen 5 _____
Relevant qualifications: Training required: A 6 _____ certificate
A 7 _____ course
Name: Dr Ruth Price
Position: 8. _____
Phone number: 9. _____
Other: Applicant has a form of 10. _____
Choose the correct answer, A. B or C.
11 The Tamerton Centre was set up in order to encourage people
A to enjoy being in the countryside.
B to help conserve the countryside.
C to learn more about the countryside.
12 Last year’s group said that the course
A built their self esteem.
B taught them lots of new skills.
C made them fitter and stronger.
13 For the speaker, what's the most special feature of the course?
A You can choose which activities you do.
B There’s such a wide variety of activities.
C You can become an expert in new activities.
14 The speaker advises people to bring
A their own board games.
B extra table tennis equipment.
C a selection of films on DVD.
15 Bed-time is strictly enforced because
A it’s a way to reduce bad behaviour.
B tiredness can lead to accidents.
C it makes it easy to check everyone’s in.
Questions 16 and 20
What rules apply to taking different objects to the Centre? Match each object with the correct rule, A-C.
Write the correct letter, A-C.
16 Electrical equipment
17 Mobile phone
18 Sun cream
19 Aerosol deodorant
A You MUST take this
B You CAN take this, if you wish
C You must NOT take this
Questions 21-25 Label the diagram below.
Write the correct letter, A-G. next to questions 21-25 below.
(Year 6 Lesson)
21 Waste container
23 Water inlet
25 Overflow tank
Questions 26-30 Complete the flow chart below.
Choose FIVE answers from the box and write the correct letter, A-G, next to questions 26-30.
Complete the notes below.
Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer.
Creating artificial gills
- Taking in oxygen: mammals - lunge; fish - gills
- Long-held dreams - humans swimming underwater without oxygen tanks
- Oxygen tanks considered too 31 _____ and large
- Attempts to extract oxygen directly from water
- 1960s - prediction that humans would have gills added by 32 ______
- Ideas for artificial gills were inspired by research on
- fish gills
- fish swim bladders
- animals without gills - especially bubbles used by 33 _____
Building a simple artificial gill
- Make a watertight box of a material which lets 34 _____ pass through
- Fill with air and submerge in water
- Important that the diver and the water keep 35 _____
- The gill has to have a large 36 _____
- Designers often use a network of small 37 _____ on their gill
Main limitation - problems caused by increased 38 _____ in deeper water
- Supplying oxygen for use on 39 _____
- Powering 40 _____ cells for driving machinery underwater
2 42 West Lane
3 06.11/ 11th June
7 First Aid
8 (college) tutor
9 0208 685114
10 colour/color blindness
36 surface area
39 submarines/ a submarine
Work or studies
Do you like your name?
Yeah. I think my name contains the love and expectation from my parents, so I like a lot.
Does your name have any special meaning?
Yes. My family name is Lin, which means forest in Chinese, and my first name is Jiashu, which means good trees, so my parents hoped me to be a person who can be useful to the society just like a good tree.
What kinds of names are popular in China?
Usually parents will choose Chinese characters that contains a good meaning, but recently many young parents will choose the same name as their favorite celebrities for their children.
Is there any tradition about naming hobbies?
Yes, especially for some big families, they will have fixed middle names, and only first name varies. So by their names you can see which branch of the family they are from and how many siblings they have got.
Part 2 & 3
Describe someone who is a good parent.
You should say:
Who this person is
How you know this person
What this person does
And explain why you think this person is a good parent
此话题属于“人物”类话题。可以描述自己的父母，那么“how you know this person”可省略；也可以描述亲戚或朋友同学的父母，甚至可以描述为人父母的名人明星等。注意讲清此人身份，并解释为什么你觉得此人是一位好的父亲或母亲。可以说他/她认真负责，平易近人，理解孩子等等。
An excellent parent I know is my neighbour's mother who lives next door. I went to the same school with my neighbour, and his mother often visits my home to have conversations with my parents about raising children. I called her aunt Lee.
Aunt Lee is in her mid-thirties, working as a successful interpreter. She even published a book about interpretation. And I often see her in the local news.
In my view, she is an excellent parent since she is open-minded. She often communicates with her son instead of commanding him what to do. She allows her son to choose arts as his major, which is not a common choice of Chinese parents.
She is also good fun. Anyone's day could be brightened up with her jokes. I believe she brings a lot of laughter to her family. That's why I think aunt Lee is a good parent.
Eg：He said he had asked for an interpreter at the hearing, scheduled for 14:00 BST.
Eg：His spirit lives on today at an attraction full of open-minded possibility and feel-good charms.
③good fun: 形容词；有趣的，开心的
Eg：On a personal level, I have always found him good fun and very affable.
④ brighten: 动词；使发光，使明亮，使生辉
Eg：Most years, the first snow will have just fallen to brighten the otherwise dark forest.
1. What are the qualities of a good parent?
I guess to be a good parent, one has to be responsible. For example, parents should take good care of children’s health and other development. On the other hand, I think good parents should also be open-minded. It’s important for parents to get to know their children, such as their thoughts and hobbies. Even if parents may not agree, at least they should try to understand.
①take care of： 词组；照顾，注意
Eg：We folks here in the Midwest are an independent type, we take care of ourselves.
②at least: 词组；至少
Eg：All these businesses are growing at least 5% a year, with gross margins above 30%.
2. Who will take care of children in your country?
Normally it’s the mom who takes most of the responsibility of taking care of a child, and many fathers are out there making money. But recently there is a trend that both parents would go to work and look after children with joint effort.
Eg：When the crowd is too bullish or bearish, the trend is about to reverse.
②joint effort: 词组；共同努力
Eg：The global initiative on nuclear terrorism to create a joint effort to secure vulnerable nuclear materials and set new standards is another important step that we are pursuing together
3. Do you think you will be a good parent?
In my view, I guess I am able to educate my kids well. This can mostly be attributed to my personality. First of all, I am quite extroverted, which allows me to develop pretty good communication skills. Through effective communication, I suppose it would be easier for me to get on with my kids. Besides, being a graphic designer, I am also creative. This means that I can create tons of fun to entertain my kids. By doing this, not only would our bond be tighten, but also my kids' creativity would be cultivated.
Eg：At the beginning of the study those with extroverted personalities were given high status ratings by others.
Eg：Good publishers find and cultivate writers, some of whom do not initially have much commercial promise.
4. What are the drawbacks if children are taken care of by their grandparents?
When children spend time with their grandparents, it is beneficial for them to learn more about their grandparents' lives. It is an excellent way for elderly people to pass on customs to the next generation. It strengthens traditional culture as well since they will impart knowledge and ethical principles to their grandchildren. On a personal level, children will feel loved and cared of when they are with their grandparents. Furthermore, grandparents tend to give their grandchildren things their parents refuse to offer, such as candies or cookies, which will delight and please them.
①pass on： 词组；传递，继续
Eg：These are the messages they will live by and then pass on to their own children.
Eg：Mexico and Chile could impart valuable lessons from their own successful records of response to crisis.
You should spend 20 minutes on this task.
The chart below gives information about Southland’s main exports in 2000, 2018, and future projections for 2025.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.
Southland’s main exports in 2000 and 2018, and future projections for 2025
本篇柱形图（bar chart），主要展示了Southland地区过去（2000年）、现在（2018年）的主要出口商品状况，以及对未来2025年的推测，需要考生对主要信息进行总结、并对比相关信息。横轴分别是旅游业、奶制品和肉类三种主要出口项，纵轴是每项在不同年份对应的出口金额0-10( £billion)。
The bar chart depicts the performance of three driving exports in Southland in 2000 and 2018, with their future projections for the year 2025. Overall, it can be observed that international tourism is likely to dominate among the three sectors, though dairy products will continue to stay strong.
In 2000, it is obvious that international tourism ranked first among the three export sectors, with its revenue exceeding a little over 8 billion pounds. Then the data has increased steadily, reaching a higher level at nearly 9 billion in 2018. It is predicted that the proceeds of international tourism will continue to rise to an approximate 10 billion pounds till 2025.
The revenue of dairy products surged from around 7 billion pounds in 2000 to nearly 10 billion this year. It is estimated that exports in this sector may fall back slightly to approximately 9.5 billion in the future.
Meat products remain the third major exports in Southland, with its revenue decreasing from 6 billion to roughly 5.5 billion in 2018. Experts predict there will be a further decline to 5 billion in 2025.
Word count: 183
①depict: v. 描述
②dominate: v. 占主导
③surge: v. 飙升，激增
④revenue, proceeds: n. 收入，收益
Universities should accept equal numbers of male and female students in every subject. Do you agree or disagree？
Nowadays，full-time university students tend to focus on their studying. Some people think it is essential for university students to be involved in other activities. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
In many countries, children are encouraged to take part in some paid work. Some people think this practice is unacceptable because it brings about negative impacts on the healthy development of children, while others maintain that paid work is conducive to children's growth, because it helps children to form a correct attitude and form a sense of responsibility. What's your opinion?
As scientists contribute more to the development of our society than other people do, science students should get more financial support from the government than other students. Do you agree or disagree?
Some people think that all young people should be required to have full-time education until they are at least 18 years old. To what extent do you agree or disagree？
Schools should teach children some academic subjects which will be beneficial to their future careers. Therefore, other subjects such as music and sports are not important. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?
Some people think parents should read or tell stories to children. Others think parents needn’t do that as children can read books or watch TV, movies by themselves. Discuss the both views and give your own opinion.
Some people think museums should be enjoyable places to attract and entertain young people, while others think the purpose of museums should be to educate, not entertain. Discuss both sides and give your own opinion.
It is the only way to improve the safety on ours roads that give much strict punishment for driving offence. Do you agree?
Old people have their own ideas of how to think, behave and live. However, these are no longer suitable for young people in preparing their modern life. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
With the development of many countries, people start to live individually and live in very small family units. What are the causes? What effects does it have on society?
Some people think health care should be free for everyone, while others think they should pay medical costs for themselves. Discuss both sides and give your own opinion.
Scientific research should be carried out and controlled by government rather than private companies. Do you agree or disagree?
Some people think they have right to use as much fresh water as they want, while others believe governments should strictly control the use of fresh water as it is limited resource. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
The government has the duty to ensure that its citizens have a healthy diet, while others believe this is individuals' responsibility. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
With the increasing demand for energy sources of oil and gas, people should look for sources of oil and gas in remote and untouched places. Do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages of damaging such areas?
Some people think that instead of preventing climate change, we need to find a way to live with it. Do you agree or disagree?
Some people say the best way to solve the environmental problem is to raise the price of fuel, to what extent do you agree or disagree？
Environmental problems are too big for individual countries and individual people to address. We have reached the stage where the only way to protect the environment is to address it at an international level. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?
Some people think that environmental problems are too big for individuals to solve. Others, however, believe that these problems cannot be solved if individuals do not take actions. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
Some think most crime is the result of circumstances e.g. poverty and other social problems. Others believe that most crime is caused by people who are bad by nature. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
The increase in food production owes much to fertilizers and better machinery, but some people think that it has a negative impact on human health and community. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
The development of technologies is causing environmental problems. Some people believe that the solution is for everyone to adopt a simpler way of life while others say that technologies can solve these problems. Discuss the both viewpoints and give your own opinion.
Some people think it’s necessary to use animals for testing medicines intended for human use. Others, however, think it’s not right to do that. Discuss both views and give you own opinion.
In many countries, women are allowed to take maternity leave from their jobs during the first month after the birth of their babies. Does the advantage outweigh the disadvantages?
Countries with a long average working time are more economically successful than those countries which do not have a long working time. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Advertising can influence the way people think, so it has negative effects. Do you agree or disagree?
Tourism is a multibillion-dollar industry that supports economic development. However some people think that it causes too much damage to the local environment and culture. Do you agree or disagree?
Foreign tourists abroad should be charged more than local people when visiting the local historical and cultural tourist attractions. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Some people believe famous people's support towards international aid organizations draws the attention to problems, while others think celebrities make the problems less important. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
With the development of technology and science, some people believe that there is no great value of artists such as musicians and painters. What are the things artists can do but the scientist cannot? Why should we encourage the art area?
题目：Some people think parents should read or tell stories to children. Others think parents needn’t do that as children can read books or watch TV, movies by themselves. Discuss the both views and give your own opinion.
In recent years, much more attention has been paid to family education. There is much controversy over whether children should learn stories from their parents or on their own. In my opinion, the importance of reading or telling stories to children by parents cannot be ignored.
On the one hand, children learn how to relate to the world around them on the basis of the relationship they develop with their parents and the life lessons their parents share with them. Reading stories provides a good opportunity for parents to spend some quality time with their offspring, and set a model on how to communicate with others. In addition, when reading moral stories, parents can impart correct life values to children and help shape the way they see the world. For instance, the fairy tale about a fox is often more than a funny story. The true value of this kind of stories lies in teaching kids the harm of greed.
On the other hand, children can reap the benefits from reading books and watching TV by themselves. To be specific, it is believed that children can improve their autonomous ability in information obtaining, and since this process is self-paced, they can develop their time management skills and qualities such as persistence, all of which are beneficial for their future study and career. However, if children start reading and watching stories by themselves at a very young age, there is a possibility of misunderstanding the concept of stories, and also a likelihood of accessing misleading information. After some time, children will be negatively influenced by such kind of input.
In conclusion, I would say that even though reading independently helps develop children's certain abilities, sharing stories with children can be a better approach with both emotional and instructional value. Parents should not stop reading and telling stories to their kids until they become old enough to read independently.
①on the basis of: 根据，基于……
②quality time: n. 珍贵时光，优质时间〔尤指全心照顾子女的时间〕
③impart correct life value: 传授正确的人生价值
④shape: vt. 塑造
⑤reap the benefits from: 获益
⑦self-paced: adj. 按照自己进度的
⑧persistence: n. 坚持不懈
⑨emotional and instructional value: 情感和教学价值
沪江网校雅思教研，英国杜伦大学毕业；英文专业8级；高中英语教师资格证书等，主攻雅思托福等留学考试。参与沪江网校World English A2和 B1、新版雅思6.5分写作、新版雅思7分写作等课程的设计规划与制作。