【阅读】

READING PASSAGE 1

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on Reading Passage 1 below.

The wonder plant

Bamboo is used for a wide range of purposes, but now it seems it may be under threat.

 

A

Every year, during the rainy season, the mountain gorillas of central Africa migrate to the lower slopes of the Virunga Mountains to graze on bamboo. For the 650 or so that remain in the wild, it's a vital food source. Without it, says Ian Redmond, chairman of the Ape Alliance, their chances of survival would be reduced significantly.

Gorillas aren't the only local keen on bamboo. For the people who live close to the Virungas, it’s a valuable and versatile raw material. But in the past 100 years or so, resources have come under increasing pressure as populations have exploded and large areas of bamboo forest have been cleared to make way for commercial plantations. Sadly, this isn’t an isolated story. All over the world, the ranges of many bamboo species appear to be shrinking, endangering the people and animals that depend upon them.

 

B

Despite bamboo's importance, we know surprisingly little about it. A recent report published by the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) and the international Network for Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR) has revealed just how profound our ignorance of global bamboo resources is, particularly in relation to conservation.

There are almost 1,600 recognised species of bamboo, but the report concentrated on the 1,200 or so woody varieties distinguished by the strong stems, or 'culms', that most people associate with this versatile plant. Of these, only 38 'priority species’ identified for their commercial value have been the subject of any real scientific research to date.

This problem isn't confined to bamboo. Compared to the work carried out on animals, the science of assessing the conservation status of plants is still in its infancy. 'People have only started looking at this during the past 10-15 years, and only now are they understanding how to go about it systematically,' says Dr Valerie Kapos, one of the report's authors.

 

C

Bamboo tends to grow in 'stands' (or groups) made up of individual plants that grow from roots known as rhizomes. It is the world's fastest-growing woody plant and some species grow over a meter in one day. But the plant's ecological role extends beyond providing food for wildlife. Its rhizome systems, which lie in the top layers of the soil, are crucial in preventing soil erosion. And there is growing evidence that bamboo plays an important part in determining forest structure and dynamics. 'Bamboo's pattern of mass flowering and mass death leaves behind large areas of dry biomass that attract wildfire/ says Kapos. ‘When these bum, they create patches of open ground far bigger than would be left by a fallen tree. Patchiness helps to preserve diversity because certain plant species do better during the early stages of regeneration when there are gaps in the canopy.’

 

D

However, bamboo’s most immediate significance lies in its economic value. Many countries, particularly in Asia, are involved in the trade of bamboo products. Modern processing techniques mean it can be used in a variety of ways, for example as flooring and laminates. Traditionally it is used in construction, but one of the fastest growing bamboo products is paper -25 per cent of paper produced in India is made from bamboo fibre.

Of course, bamboo's main function has always been in domestic applications, and as a locally traded product it is worth about US$4,5 billion annually. Bamboo is often the only readily available raw material for people in many developing countries, says Chris Stapleton, a research associate at the UK's Royal Botanic Gardens. ‘Bamboo can be harvested from forest areas or grown quickly elsewhere, and then converted simply without expensive machinery or facilities,’ he says, ‘In this way, it contributes substantially to poverty alleviation.'

 

 

E

 

Keen horticulturists will spot an apparent contradiction in the worrying picture painted by the UNEP-INBAR report. Those in the West who've followed the recent vogue for cultivating exotic species in their gardens will point out that, if it isn't kept in check, bamboo can cause real problems. ‘In a lot of places, the people who live with bamboo don’t perceive it as being under threat in any way,’ says Kapos. ‘In fact, a lot of bamboo species are very invasive if they've been introduced.' So why are so many species endangered?

 

There are two separate issues here, says Ray Townsend, arboretum manager at the Royal Botanic Gardens. 'Some plants are threatened because they can’t survive in the habitat - they aren’t strong enough or there aren't enough of them, perhaps. But bamboo can take care of itself - it's strong enough to survive if left alone. What is under threat is its habitat. When forest goes, it’s converted into something else: then there isn't anywhere for forest plants such as bamboo to grow.'

 

F

Around the world, bamboo species are routinely protected as part of forest ecosystem in national parks and reserves, but there is next to nothing that protects bamboo in the wild for its own sake. The UNEP-1NBAR report will help conservationists to establish effective measures aimed at protecting valuable wild bamboo species.

Townsend, too, sees the UNEP-INBAR report as an important step forward in promoting the cause of bamboo conservation. 'Until now, bamboo has been perceived as a second-class plant. When you talk about places like the Amazon, everyone always thinks about hardwoods. Of course, these are significant but there’s a tendency to overlook the plants they are associated with, which are often bamboo species.'

 

Questions 1-7

Reading Passage 1 has six sections, A-F.

Which section contains the following information?

Write the correct letter, A-F, in boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet.

NB You may use any letter more than once.

 

1       an assessment of current levels of knowledge about bamboo

2       a comparison between bamboo and more fragile plants

3       details of the commercial significance of bamboo

4       a human development that is threatening the availability of bamboo

5       a description of the limited extent of existing research on bamboo

6       examples of the uses to which bamboo is put

7       an explanation of how bamboo may contribute to the survival of range of plants

 

Questions 8-11

Look at the following statements (Questions 8-11) and the list of people below.

Match each statement with the correct person, A-D.

Write the correct letter, A-D, in boxes 9-11 on your answer sheet.

NB You may use any letter more than once.

 

8       Some people do not regard bamboo as an endangered plant species.

9       A scarcity of bamboo places certain wildlife under threat.

10     Research methods investigating endangered plants have yet to be fully developed

11     The greatest danger to bamboo is disturbance of the places it grows in.

 

 

List of People

A

Ian Redmond

B

Valerie Kapos

C

Chris Stapleton

D

Ray Townsend

 

 

Questions 12 and 13

Answer the questions below.

Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 12 and 13 on your answer sheet.

 

12     What ecological problem do the roots of bamboo help to control?

13     Which bamboo product is undergoing market expansion?

 

 

 

 

READING PASSAGE 2

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.

The Triune* Brain

Bamboo is used for a wide range of purposes, but now it seems it may be under threat.

 

The first of our three brains to evolve is what scientists call the reptilian cortex. This brain sustains the elementary activities of animal survival such as respiration, adequate rest and a beating heart. We are not required to consciously “think” about these activities.

The reptilian cortex also houses the startle centre”,a mechanism that facilitates swift reactions to unexpected occurrences in our surroundings. That panicked lurch you experience when a door slams shut somewhere in the house, or the heightened awareness you feel when a twig cracks in a nearby bush while out on an evening stroll are both examples of the reptilian cortex at work. When it comes to our interaction with others, the reptilian brain offers up only the most basic impulses: aggression, mating, and territorial defence. There is no great difference, in this sense, between a crocodile defending its spot along the river and a turf war between two urban gangs.

Although the lizard may stake a claim to its habitat, it exerts total indifference toward the well-being of its young. Listen to the anguished squeal of a dolphin separated from its pod or witness the sight of elephants mourning their dead, however, and it is clear that a new development is at play. Scientists have identified this as the limbic cortex. Unique to mammals, the limbic cortex impels creatures to nurture their offspring by delivering feelings of tenderness and warmth to the parent when children are nearby. These same sensations also cause mammals to develop various types of social relations and kinship networks. When we are with others of our kind be it at soccer practice, church, school or a nightclub - we experience positive sensations of togetherness, solidarity and comfort. If we spend too long away from these networks, then loneliness sets in and encourages us to seek companionship.

Only human capabilities extend far beyond the scope of these two cortexes. Humans eat, sleep and play, but we also speak, plot, rationalise and debate finer points of morality. Our unique abilities are the result of an expansive third brain - the neocortex - which engages with logic, reason and ideas. The power of the neocortex comes from its ability to think beyond the present, concrete moment. While other mammals are mainly restricted to impulsive actions (although some, such as apes, can learn and remember simple lessons), humans can think about the “big picture”. We can string together simple lessons (for example, an apple drops downwards from a tree; hurting others causes unhappiness) to develop complex theories of physical or social phenomena (such as the laws of gravity and a concern for human rights).

The neocortex is also responsible for the process by which we decide on and commit to particular courses of action. Strung together over time, these choices can accumulate into feats of progress unknown to other animals. Anticipating a better grade on the following morning’s exam, a student can ignore the limbic urge to socialise and go to sleep early instead. Over three years, this ongoing sacrifice translates into a first class degree and a scholarship to graduate school; over a lifetime, it can mean ground-breaking contributions to human knowledge and development. The ability to sacrifice our drive for immediate satisfaction in order to benefit later is a product of the neocortex.

 

Understanding the triune brain can help us appreciate the different natures of brain damage and psychological disorders. The most devastating form of brain damage, for example, is a condition in which someone is understood to be brain dead. In this state a person appears merely unconscious sleeping, perhaps - but this is illusory. Here, the reptilian brain is functioning on autopilot despite the permanent loss of other cortexes.

 

Disturbances to the limbic cortex are registered in a different manner. Pups with limbic damage can move around and feed themselves well enough but do not register the presence of their littermates. Scientists have observed how, after a limbic lobotomy** one impaired monkey stepped on his outraged peers as if treading on a log or a rock.In our own species, limbic damage is closely related to sociopathic behaviour. Sociopaths in possession of fully-functioning neocortexes are often shrewd and emotionally intelligent people but lack any ability to relate to, empathise with or express concern for others.

One of the neurological wonders of history occurred when a railway worker named Phineas Gage survived an incident during which a metal rod skewered his skull, taking a considerable amount of his neocortex with it. Though Gage continued to live and work as before, his fellow employees observed a shift in the equilibrium of his personality. Gage’s animal propensities were now sharply pronounced while his intellectual abilities suffered; garrulous or obscene jokes replaced his once quick wit. New findings suggest, however, that Gage managed to soften these abrupt changes over time and rediscover an appropriate social manner. This would indicate that reparative therapy has the potential to help patients with advanced brain trauma to gain an improved quality of life.

 

 

* Triune = three-in-one

**lobotomy = surgical cutting of brain nerves

 

Questions 14-22

A       the reptilian cortex

B       the limbic cortex

C       the neocortex

 

Classify the following as typical of

 

 

 

 

 

Write the correct letter, A, B or C, in boxes 14-22 on your answer sheet.

14     giving up short-term happiness for future gains

15     maintaining the bodily functions necessary for life

16     experiencing the pain of losing another

17     forming communities and social groups

18     making a decision and carrying it out

19     guarding areas of land

20     developing explanations for things

21     looking after one’s young

22     responding quickly to sudden movement and noise

 

Questions 23-26

Complete the sentences below.

Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 23-26 on your answer sheet.

 

23     A person with only a functioning reptilian cortex is known as ____________

24     ____________ in humans is associated with limbic disruption.

25     An industrial accident caused Phineas Gage to lose part of his ____________                

26     After his accident, co-workers noticed an imbalance between Gage's ____________   and higher-order thinking.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

READING PASSAGE 3

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40, which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.

Language diversity

One of the most influential ideas in the study of languages is that of universal grammar (UG). Put forward by Noam Chomsky in the 1960s, it is widely interpreted as meaning that all languages are basically the same, and that the human brain is born language-ready, with an in-built programme that is able to interpret the common rules underlying any mother tongue. For five decades this idea prevailed, and influenced work in linguistics, psychology and cognitive science. To understand language, it implied, you must sweep aside the huge diversity of languages, and find their common human core.

 

Since the theory of UG was proposed, linguists have identified many universal language rules. However, there are almost always exceptions. It was once believed, for example, that if a language had syllables* that begin with a vowel and end with a consonant (VC), it would also have syllables that begin with a consonant and end with a vowel (CV). This universal lasted until 1999, when linguists showed that Arrernte, spoken by Indigenous Australians from the area around Alice Springs in the Northern Territory, has VC syllables but no CV syllables.

 

Other non-universal universals describe the basic rules of putting words together. Take the rule that every language contains four basic word classes: nounsverbs, adjectives and adverbs. Work in the past two decades has shown that several languages lack an open adverb classwhich means that new adverbs cannot be readily formed, unlike in English where you can turn any adjective into an adverb, for example soft into softly. Others, such as Lao, spoken in Laos, have no adjectives at all. More controversially, some linguists argue that a few languages, such as Straits Salish, spoken by indigenous people from north-western regions of North America, do not even have distinct nouns or verbs. Instead, they have a single class of words to include events, objects and qualities.

 

Even apparently indisputable universals have been found lacking. This includes recursion, or the ability to infinitely place one grammatical unit inside a similar unit, such as 'Jack thinks that Mary thinks that... the bus will be on time’. It is widely considered to be the most essential characteristic of human language, one that sets it apart from the communications of all other animals. Yet Dan Everett at Illinois State University recently published controversial work showing that Amazonian Piraha does not have this quality.

But what if the very diversity of languages is the key to understanding human communication? Linguists Nicholas Evans of the Australian National University in Canberra, and Stephen Levinson of the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics in Nijmegen, the Netherlands, believe that languages do not share a common set of rules. Instead, they say, their sheer variety is a defining feature of human communication – something not seen in other animals. While there is no doubt that human thinking influences the form that language takes, if Evans and Levinson are correctlanguage in turn shapes our brains. This suggests that humans are more diverse than we thought, with our brains having differences depending on the language environment in which we grew up. And that leads to a disturbing conclusion: every time a language becomes extinct, humanity loses an important piece of diversity.

If languages do not obey a single set of shared rules, then how are they created? 'Instead of universals you get standard engineering solutions that languages adopt again and again, and then you get outliers,' says Evans. He and Levinson argue that this is because any given language is a complex system shaped by many factors, including culture, genetics and history. There are no absolutely universal traits of language, they sayonly tendencies. And it is a mix of strong and weak tendencies that characterises the ‘bio-cultural, mix that we call language.

According to the two linguists, the strong tendencies explain why many languages display common patterns. A variety of factors tend to push language in a similar directionsuch as the structure of the brain, the biology of speech, and the efficiencies of communication. Widely shared linguistic elements may also be ones that build on a particularly human kind of reasoning. For example, the fact that before we learn to speak we perceive the world as a place full of things causing actions (agents) and things having actions done to them (patients) explains why most languages deploy these grammatical categories.

Weak tendencies, in contrast, are explained by the idiosyncrasies of different languages. Evans and Levinson argue that many aspects of the particular natural history of a population may affect its language. For instance, Andy Butcher at Flinders University in Adelaide, South Australia, has observed that indigenous Australian children have by far the highest incidence of chronic middle-ear infection of any population on the planet, and that most indigenous Australian languages lack many sounds that are common in other languages, but which are hard to hear with a middle-ear infection. Whether this condition has shaped the sound systems of these languages is unknown, says Evans, but it is important to consider the idea.

 

Levinson and Evans are not the first to question the theory of universal grammar, but no one has summarised these ideas quite as persuasively, and given them as much reach. As a result, their arguments have generated widespread enthusiasm, particularly among those linguists who are tired of trying to squeeze their findings into the straitjacket of ‘absolute universals’. To some, it is the final nail in UG’s coffin. Michael Tomasello, co-director of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, has been a long-standing critic of the idea that all languages conform to a set of rules. 'Universal grammar is dead,' he says.

 

*a unit of sound

 

 

Questions 27-40

Questions 27-32

Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 3?

Write

YES                     if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer

NO                     if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer

NOT GIVEN     if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

 

27     In the final decades of the twentieth century, a single theory of language learning was dominant.

28     The majority of UG rules proposed by linguists do apply to all human languages.

29     There is disagreement amongst linguists about an aspect of Straits Salish grammar.

30     The search for new universal language rules has largely ended.

31     If Evans and Levinson are right, people develop in the same way no matter what language they speak.

32     The loss of any single language might have implications for the human race. 

 

Questions 33-37

Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

33     Which of the following views about language are held by Evans and Levinson?

A      Each of the world’s languages develops independently.

B      he differences between languages outweigh the similarities.

C      Only a few language features are universal.

D     Each language is influenced by the characteristics of other languages.

 

34     According to Evans and Levinson, apparent similarities between languages could be due to

A       close social contact.

B       faulty analysis.

C       shared modes of perception.

D      narrow descriptive systems.

 

35     In the eighth paragraph, what does the reference to a middle-ear infection serve as?

A      A justification for something.

B      A contrast with something.

C       The possible cause of something.

D      The likely result of something.

 

36     What does the writer suggest about Evans’ and Levinson’s theory of language development?

A       It had not been previously considered.

B       It is presented in a convincing way.

C       It has been largely rejected by other linguists.

D      It is not supported by the evidence.

 

37     Which of the following best describes the writer’s purpose?

A To describe progress in the field of cognitive science.

B To defend a long-held view of language learning.

C To identify the similarities between particular languages.

D To outline opposing views concerning the nature of language.

 

Questions 38-40

Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-E, below.

Write the correct letter, A-E.

38     The Arrernte language breaks a ‘rule’ concerning

39     The Lao language has been identified as lacking

40     It has now been suggested that Amazonia Piraha does not have

A       words of a certain grammatical type.

B       a sequence of sounds predicted by UG.

C       words which can have more than one meaning.

D      the language feature regarded as the most basic.

E       sentences beyond a specified length.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

KEYS:

Passage 1

1

B

此题讲人们对bamboo 的现有认识水平,全篇文章只有B段在讲关于竹认识,竹研究方面的进展,因此对应到B段,B段一开始便提到“.....has revealed just how profound our ignorance of global bamboo resources is, (揭示了我们对全球竹资源的无知有多么深刻)。

2

E

E段提到“some plants ac threatened because they can’t survive in the habitat-they aren't strong enough or there aren’t enough of them, perhaps. But bamboo can take care of itself-it strong enough to survive if left alone.”虽未提到more fragile plant,但提到“not strong,整句是将 bamboo more fragile plant 进行了对比。

3

D

此题答案比较容易找到。题目中commercial —词即提醒考生在文 章D段第一句便提到bamboo的economic value,并且D段全段明显在讲 Bamboo的商业价值,商业用途。

4

A

此题答案较隐蔽,但细心阅读也不难找到A....resources have come under increasing pressure as populations have exploded and large areas of bamboo forest have been cleared to make way for commercial plantations. 此句讲人口爆炸式增长且大枇竹林被砍伐,用于商业种 植,此类人类活动造成竹资源面临更大的压力。

5

B

此题较容易,题目中“research”提醒人们找到B段讲竹资源的研 究,B段罗列的数字都能体现迄今为止对竹资源的研究很有限。

6

D

关键要读懂题目的意思,“put sth. into use”将...投 入使用,即如何使用竹资源的例子,即竹子的用途,原文D段便在讲 竹子的各种产品,各种商业用途,如用作“flooring and laminates, paper 等”

7

C

题目意题目意思是:竹子如何帮助其他植物的生存; 仔细阅读后会发现在C段最后一句讲到When these bum, they create patches of open ground. ...Patchiness helps to preserve diversity because certain plant species do better during... 从“preserve”,“certain plant species”,“do better”等字眼, 我们可以确认竹子确能帮助其他植物。

certain

8

B

E段打引号的地方kapos说:In a lot of places, the people who live with bamboo don't perceive it as being under threat in any way. “Perceive sth. as”认为…即有 些人并不认为竹子面临威胁;题目中“regard sth. as”也是认为的意思,“endangered species”濒危物种。此题也是典型的考“paraphrase”,即 换一种说法。

9

A

“place sth. under threat”将某物至于威胁中,“scarcity”稀缺;原文 A段 Ian Redmond,说到:without it, their chances of survival would be reduced significantly.此处it 指代上文bamboo, “their chances of survival”指gorilla的生存机会;与题目表达意思一样。

10

B

调查濒危植物的研究方法有待发展。此题提到“research自然回到文章B段找答案,B段只有Dr Valerie Kapos讲了一句话“People have only started looking at this during how to go about it systematically.”与题目一致

11

D

题目说对竹子造成最大威胁的是对其生长环the place it grows in”对应原文E段的habitat 词;并且能找到一句话“What is under threat is its habitat.(生长地,栖息地即面临威胁的 是竹子的生长地,而不是竹子本身,竹子本身是很强壮的,能独自生长,但一旦其生长环境遭到破坏,其将面临威胁。

“What is under threat is its habitat.境的破坏。“the placc it grows in”对应原文E段的habitat —词;并且能找到一句

话“What is under threat is its habitat.(生长地,栖息地即面临威胁的 是竹子的生长地,而不是竹子本身,竹子本身是很强壮的,能独自生 长,但一旦其生长环境遭到破坏,其将面临威胁。

12

 

Soil erosion

题目中提至“ecological”即回到原文唯有C段提到的the plant's ecological role....arc crucial in preventing soil erosion. 竹子能够控制,防止水土流失。

13

Paper

题目提到“bamboo product”,即回到讲此话题的D段找答案。 其中有一句提到 “but one of the fastest growing bamboo products is paper”, “fastest growing”与“market expansion”相对应。

 

 

Passage 2

 

14

C

 

15

A

 

 

16

B

 

17

B

 

18

C

 

19

A

 

20

C

 

21

B

 

22

A

 

23

brain dead

 

24

sociopathic behavior

 

25

neocortex

 

26

animal propensities

 

 

Passage 3

27

Y

PARAGRAPH 1 says that one of the most influential ideas is that of universal grammar which prevailed from the 1960s for the next five decades.

28

N

PARAGRAPH 2 shows that linguists have identified many universal language rules. However, there are almost always exceptions.

29

Y

PARAGRAPH 3 confirms that some linguists are controversial in arguing that languages, such as Straits Salish do not even have distinct nouns or verbs.

30

NG

Although the passage tells us that some linguists are pleased to move away from the search for universal language rules, it does not say if this is a majority of linguists.

31

N

PARAGRAPH 5

The Evans and Levinson ideas suggest that human brains are different depending on the language environment.

32

Y

PARAGRAPH 5

... every time a language becomes extinct, humanity loses an important piece of diversity.

33

A

PARAGRAPH 6

... any given language is a complex system shaped by many factors, including culture, genetics and history.

34

C

PARAGRAPH 7

Linguistic elements may build on human reasoning. We perceive the world in a certain way before we learn to speak.

35

C

PARAGRAPH 8

Notes that middle ear infections are common among indigenous Australian children and their language lacks sounds which would be difficult to hear, given an ear infection. There may be a cause- and-effect relationship here.

36

B

PARAGRAPH 9

'Levinson and Evans are not the first to question the theory of universal grammar, but no one has summarised these ideas quite as persuasively,

37

D

The passage compares in an objective manner the differing views of linguists.

38

B

PARAGRAPH 2

... syllables but no CV syllables.

39

A

PARAGRAPH 3

'Others, such as Lao ... have no adjectives at all.

40

D

PARAGRAPH 4

'Even apparently indisputable universals have been found lacking. This includes recursion ... Amazonian Piraha does not have this quality.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

【听力】

 

Section 1 & Section 2重点场景(生活类):学科,动物,制作流程,报名申请,旅游住宿。

Section 3 & Section 4重点场景(学术类):师生讨论,学术讲座,作业讨论,论文选题。

 

Section 1

Questions 1-10

Complete the form below.

Write ONE WORD AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer.

 

THEATRE ROYAL PLYMOUTH Booking Form

Example

Answer

Performance

The Impostor

Date

Saturday 1 _____

Time

2 _____

Tickets

three adults and one child

Seats in

the 3 _____

Seat row/number(s)

4 _____

Method of delivery

post

Total payment

£39

Card details:

Type

Number

Name

 

5 _____

6 _____

Mr. J 7 _____

Address

8 _____ Street, London

9 _____

Additional requests

put on the mailing list

Book 10 _____

 

 

 

 

 

SECTION 2

Questions 11-17

Label the plan of the rock festival site below.

Choose SEVEN answers from the box and write the correct letter, A-I, next to Question 11-17.

 

A

art exhibition

B

band entrance

C

car park

D

craft fair

E

exhibitions’ entrance

F

fringe stage

G

lock-up garages

H

main stage

I

restaurant

 


Questions 18 and 20

Complete the sentences below.

Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer.

18 To show you are an official visitor, you have to wear the _____ provided.

19 Cars blocking paths could prevent access by _____ in an emergency.

20 To reclaim items from storage, you must show your _____.

 

 

Section 3

Questions 21 and 30

Complete the sentences below.

Questions 21-25.

Write NO MORR THAN TWO WORDS for each answer.

21. Students must follow _____ to prevent accidents in the lab.

22. The students have not been using _____ while in the lab.

23. Students cannot eat or drink until _____ is finished and they have washed their hands.

24. Tessa should tie her hair back to avoid danger when she is working with a _____ or chemicals.

25. Students must wear long sleeves and shoes made of _____ in the lab.

Questions 26-28

Choose the correct letter A, B or C.

26 Which student is currently using an appropriate notebook?

A Vincent

B Tessa

C Neither student

27 The tutor says that writing observations in complete sentences

A is often not a good use of time

B makes them easier to interpret later

C means that others can understand them

 

28 The students must write dates

A next to each drawing

B next to each written section

C next to each drawing and written section

 

Questions 29 and 30

Choose TWO letters, A-E.

Which TWO things must he included in the conclusion to the experiment?

A. the questions investigated

B. the solutions to the questions

C. the student’s own thoughts about the experiment

D. the length of time spent on the experiment

E. the student’s signature

 

Question 24-27

Choose the correct letter A, B or C.

24 Why does Marco’s tutor advise him to avoid the Team Management course?

A It will repeat work that Marco has already done.

B It is intended for students at a lower level than Marco.

C It may take too much time to do well.

 

25 Why does Marco want to do a dissertation?

A He thinks it will help his future career.

B He would like to do a detailed study.

C He has already done some work for it.

 

26 What does Marco's tutor think about the dissertation outline?

A The topic is too narrow to be useful.

B The available data may be unsuitable

C The research plan is too complicated.

 

27 What does Marco decide to do about his dissertation?

A contact potential interviewees

B change to another topic

C discuss it with Professor Briggs

 

Questions 28-30

Complete the sentences below.

Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer.

Practical details

28 A first draft of the dissertation should be completed by the end of _____

29 The dissertation should be registered with the _____ of the department.

30 Marco should get a copy of the statistic software form the _____

 

Section 4

Questions 31-35

Write ONLY ONE WORD for each answer.

Manufacturing in the English midlands

31 In the eighteenth century, the still determined how most people made a living.

32 In the ground were minerals which supported the many _____ of the region.

33 Since the late sixteenth century the French settlers had made _____

34 In Cheshire     _____ was mined and transported on the river Mersey.

35 Potters worked in a few _____ situated on the small hills of North Staffordshire.

 

Questions 36-40

Write ONE WORD for each answer

Pottery notes

Earthware

Advantages:

  • potters used 36 _____ clay
  • saved money on 37 _____

disadvantage:

     needed two firings in the kiln to be 38 

     fragility led to high 39 _____ during manufacturing

Stoneware

  • more expensive but better
  • made from a 40 _____ of clay and flint.

 

 

Answer key

Section 1

1. 26(th)

2. 7.00

3. circle

4. A21-24

5. Master/Mastercard

6. 32900587644012899

7. Whitton

8. 42 South

9. SW25GE

10. headphones

 

Section 2

11. D

12. F

13. I

14. B

15. E

16. A

17. G

18. arm band

19. ambulance

20. yellow ticket

 

Section 3

21. safety procedures/directions / safely rules

22. eye protection / safety glasses/goggles

23. clean-up / clean up / cleanup

24. naked flame

25. leather

26. C

27. B

28. C

29.&30. (in either order)

C

E

 

Section 4

31 land

32 industries/trades

33 glass

34 salt

35 villages

36 local

37 fuel

38 waterproof

39 wastage/waste

40 mixture/mix/combination

 

 

 

【口语】

 

最近30天口语话题TOP15

 

 

Part 1

Part 2&3

1

Work or studies

特别的一餐

2

Home/Accommodation

想去的国家/城市

3

Name

省钱

4

Hometown

感兴趣的历史时期

5

Dictionary

陪伴老人

6

Foreign food

童年玩具

7

Plant

有名的运动员

8

Sleep

近来喜事

9

Space travel

街市购物

10

Punctuality

需改进的公共场所

11

App

受欢迎的人

12

Killing time

乐于助人

13

News/newspaper

电视节目

14

Rainy days

集中精力

15

Outdoor activities

旅行想法

 

以下为本次考试部分高频话题解析:

 

Part 1

Transportation

What form of transport do you usually use?

 

参考答案:

Well, as a college student, I normally take the subway when I need to travel within the city, but I would also have to take buses sometimes when there are places that I cannot reach by subway.

 

What means of transport do Chinese people most often choose?

 

参考答案:

Well, you know, people take different forms of transport depending on different factors. For instance, people may take subway more often because subway system is already part of the city’s infrastructure. However, people might have to take buses a lot more when there is no subway in their city.

 

What do you think of the transport situation in your city?

 

参考答案:

Well, as I now live in Shanghai which is one of the first-tier cities in China, it has the most advanced public transport system, such as subway, buses, trains, taxis as well as airplanes. However, traffic congestion has been a headache to the city as there are more and more private cars on roads.

 

What will become the most popular means of transport in China?

 

参考答案:

Well, I think it is definitely subway as it is convenient, cheap as well as fast compared with other means of transport. On top of that, it is obviously environmentally friendly to take subway, and that is probably the reason why more and more cities have started building subway over all China.

 

 

 

Part 2 & 3

Part 2

Describe an interesting website you often visit.

You should say:

What it is

When you first visited it

What you found out;

And explain why it was interesting to you.

 

提示:

此话题属于物品类话题, 所要描述的是“一个有趣的网站”;使用的主要时态应该是过去时态 “一般现在时态”以及现在完成时态;在交代前三个“basic information”的时候, 我们需要思考:它们之间是否存在某种 logical connection?或者可以给出哪些相关的拓展信息? 比如,在描述第一次接触这个网站的时候, 大家可以尝试给出更多的细节,尽量给考官创造出画面感;另外,大家须特别关注, 第一个信息点是最最重要的, 需要在最开始就告知考官你要描述的这个网站是什么。

 

到最后解释,说明的部分,大家需要展开说明为什么这个网站如此有趣, 特别, 比如它的内容, 展现形式或者它提供的其他服务等等。

 

参考答案:

Well, there's indeed one particular website I would like to talk about, and it is Taobao. You may have heard of it if you have stayed in China long enough.

 

Anyway, it's become one of the most influential and popular websites in China. As a shopping website, millions of sellers take advantage of this platform to sell all kinds of products every day, which is such a benefit for shoppers as people from all ages seem to be interested in it,  so just like what people say, there is nothing you cannot find if you go to search for it on Taobao.

 

I could still remember it was about 8 years ago that I first visited that website when I was actually trying to look for something else on another website, and suddenly a pop-up window came out so I just unconsciously clicked on it. And then it turned out to be Taobao.com. From then on, as I began to use it more and more, I was surprised to find out there's a huge variety of products being sold every day. Plus, you could find lots of special offers there occasionally.

 

I enjoy that website so much as it's such a wonderful place where I can shop anything I need without having to walk around at those shopping malls, which can be really exhausting. In addition, it's also an amazing place where I can do some window shopping just to kill time when I feel really bored. Therefore, I have to admit, the more I use it, the more I like it.

 

重点词汇及表达:

influential 形容词; 有影响力的 

EgWith his influential background, Peter definitely has a great impact on the changes of the company.

 

a variety of : 短语; 各种各样的

EgWith a variety of products in those online shops.

 

exhausting: 形容词; 令人疲惫的

Eg: Many people are in favor of rock-climbing, but it can be a rather exhausting activity.

 

window-shopping 名词; 浏览商店的橱窗(只看不买)

EgStudents usually enjoy window-shopping as most of them do not have enough money.

 

Part 3题目

 

What do you think of on-line education?

 

参考答案:

Well, I personally think it's a positive trend as it doesn't require learners to travel to traditional schools or classrooms, which saves a lot of time.

Instead, the learner can just stay at home sitting in front of a computer with the internet access, and then he or she can just enjoy the pleasure of receiving education.

 

重点词汇及表达:

①positive 形容词;积极的  乐观的

EgNo matter what troubles he faces, he can always stay positive.  

 

access: 名词;使用权

EgPeter sent a complaint letter to the manager of the hotel as there was no internet access in his room.

 

How does internet shape the way people live?

 

参考答案:

Well, our life has been dramatically changed since the invention of the internet.

In the past, we didn't have the access to the latest news unless we turned on our TV or read newspaper, but now with the internet, especially with the internet function in our smartphone, we can get the news so fast.

 

重点词汇及表达:

dramatically 副词;夸张的 戏剧化的

EgAfter living for 5 years in the US, her eating habit has dramatically changed.

 

②function : 名词; 功能  作用

EgI suggest you try to find more functions in this new smartphone.

 

Why do some people, especially young women get addicted to on-line shopping?

 

Well, reasons may vary, but I guess the most direct reason is the convenience brought by on-line shopping. With those on-line stores selling all sorts of goods, it is clearly so easy for those young women to browse what they like, meaning all they need to do is to sit in front of their computer and click their mouse to make their purchase.

 

重点词汇及表达:

vary 动词; 不同  不一样

EgPeople may vary in terms of their personalities, but they all come here for one purpose. That is to win the contest and get the award.

 

②purchase : 动词/名词; 购买

EgIn order to stop him from overspending, he keeps a record of each purchase he makes.

 

Do you think people can live without the internet?

 

参考答案:

Definitely not.

Internet has greatly shaped the way we live in so many amazing ways, so we rely on it for almost everything.

For instance, we use it to send emails at work, to stay in touch with friends, to look for information and we also use it for fun when we feel bored.

 

重点词汇及表达:

amazing 形容词;吃惊的  美好的

EgWith so many amazing movies in the up-coming season, he does not really know which one to watch.

 

rely on: 动词短语; 依赖  依靠

EgMost Chinese kids rely on their parents too much so what usually happens is that they find it hard to live on their own independently after they start their study abroad.

 

 

本次口语解析由以下沪江留学老师产出

 

王栋老师

沪江网校首席雅思口语名师;雅思口语8分;英文专业8级;10年以上英文教学经验;获教育部“语言学教学资格证书”;剑桥大学TKT教师资格证书;国内本科英语教育专业;海外硕士国际贸易专业;美国华盛顿工作经验。

 

 

【写作】
 

本预测根据雅思写作的话题分类和出题规律,精选出以下真题,供广大烤鸭参考。

 

A类小作文:

数据类图表

非数据类图表

表格

饼图 (Hot)

流程图

曲线图

柱图 (Hot)

地图(Hot)

 

小作文重点关注柱图、饼图。

 

 

以下为柱形图例题及范文解析:

 

题目:

You should spend 20 minutes on this task.

The chart below gives information about Southland’s main exports in 2000, 2018, and future projections for 2025.

 

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.

 

Write at least 150 words.

 

Southland’s main exports in 2000 and 2018, and future projections for 2025

  

 

审题思路:

本篇柱形图(bar chart),主要展示了Southland地区过去(2000年)、现在(2018年)的主要出口商品状况,以及对未来2025年的推测,需要考生对主要信息进行总结、并对比相关信息。横轴分别是旅游业、奶制品和肉类三种主要出口项,纵轴是每项在不同年份对应的出口金额0-10( £billion)

 

解题思路:

既然涉及到三项产品、三个不同年份,又要抓要点、作对比,考生不妨先从三项产品体量的横向比较,例如出口份额最多的是旅游,而后奶制品,最后是肉类。然后再以每项出口产品内部随着时间变化的趋势,如旅游逐渐增长、奶制品增后略有回落、肉类持续下降。写作过程中、涉及到份额值的表述时,请一定记得写billion这一单位。此外,还应注意过去、现在、将来数据描述时对时态的精准把握。

 

参考范文:

 

The bar chart depicts the performance of three driving exports in Southland in 2000 and 2018, with their future projections for the year 2025. Overall, it can be observed that international tourism is likely to dominate among the three sectors, though dairy products will continue to stay strong.

 

In 2000, it is obvious that international tourism ranked first among the three export sectors, with its revenue exceeding a little over 8 billion pounds. Then the data has increased steadily, reaching a higher level at nearly 9 billion in 2018. It is predicted that the proceeds of international tourism will continue to rise to an approximate 10 billion pounds till 2025. 

 

The revenue of dairy products surged from around 7 billion pounds in 2000 to nearly 10 billion this year. It is estimated that exports in this sector may fall back slightly to approximately 9.5 billion in the future. 

 

Meat products remain the third major exports in Southland, with its revenue decreasing from 6 billion to roughly 5.5 billion in 2018. Experts predict there will be a further decline to 5 billion in 2025.

 

Word count: 183

 

重点表达:

depict: v. 描述

dominate: v. 占主导

surge: v. 飙升,激增

revenue, proceeds: n. 收入,收益

⑤文中加粗词汇表示大约,大概,近似,可交替使用。

 

 

本次机经真题解析由以下沪江留学老师产出

 

席瑛玮老师

沪江网校雅思老师,线上线下授课经验丰富,在大学有两年多出国留学课程及SQA专业课授课经验;云南师范大学英语和教育学双学士,东国大学研究生院国际商务硕士;获剑桥TKT资格证,British Council雅思教师培训证书,高中英语教师资格证书等。

 

A类大作文:

大作文重点关注社会类、教育类、环境类话题。

 

政府类

教育类(Hot)

社会类(Hot)

科技类

旅游类

工作类

犯罪类

媒体类

环境类(Hot)

其他类

 

教育类

Universities should accept equal numbers of male and female students in every subject. Do you agree or disagree

 

Nowadaysfull-time university students tend to focus on their studying. Some people think it is essential for university students to be involved in other activities. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

 

In many countries, children are encouraged to take part in some paid work. Some people think this practice is unacceptable because it brings about negative impacts on the healthy development of children, while others maintain that paid work is conducive to children's growth, because it helps children to form a correct attitude and form a sense of responsibility. What's your opinion?

 

As scientists contribute more to the development of our society than other people do, science students should get more financial support from the government than other students. Do you agree or disagree?

 

Some people think that all young people should be required to have full-time education until they are at least 18 years old. To what extent do you agree or disagree

 

Schools should teach children some academic subjects which will be beneficial to their future careers. Therefore, other subjects such as music and sports are not important. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?

      

Some people think parents should read or tell stories to children. Others think parents needn’t do that as children can read books or watch TV, movies by themselves. Discuss the both views and give your own opinion.

 

社会类

Some people think museums should be enjoyable places to attract and entertain young people, while others think the purpose of museums should be to educate, not entertain. Discuss both sides and give your own opinion.

 

It is the only way to improve the safety on ours roads that give much strict punishment for driving offence. Do you agree?

 

Old people have their own ideas of how to think, behave and live. However, these are no longer suitable for young people in preparing their modern life. Discuss both views and give your opinion.

 

With the development of many countries, people start to live individually and live in very small family units. What are the causes? What effects does it have on society?

 

政府类

Scientific research should be carried out and controlled by government rather than private companies. Do you agree or disagree?

 

Some people think they have right to use as much fresh water as they want, while others believe governments should strictly control the use of fresh water as it is limited resource. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

 

The government has the duty to ensure that its citizens have a healthy diet, while others believe this is individuals' responsibility. Discuss both views and give your opinion.

 

环境类

With the increasing demand for energy sources of oil and gas, people should look for sources of oil and gas in remote and untouched places. Do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages of damaging such areas?

 

Some people think that instead of preventing climate change, we need to find a way to live with it. Do you agree or disagree?

 

Some people say the best way to solve the environmental problem is to raise the price of fuel, to what extent do you agree or disagree

 

Environmental problems are too big for individual countries and individual people to address. We have reached the stage where the only way to protect the environment is to address it at an international level. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?

 

Some people think that environmental problems are too big for individuals to solve. Others, however, believe that these problems cannot be solved if individuals do not take actions. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

 

犯罪类

Some think most crime is the result of circumstances e.g. poverty and other social problems. Others believe that most crime is caused by people who are bad by nature. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

 

科技类

The development of technologies is causing environmental problems. Some people believe that the solution is for everyone to adopt a simpler way of life while others say that technologies can solve these problems. Discuss the both viewpoints and give your own opinion.

 

Some people think it’s necessary to use animals for testing medicines intended for human use. Others, however, think it’s not right to do that. Discuss both views and give you own opinion.

 

工作类

In many countries, women are allowed to take maternity leave from their jobs during the first month after the birth of their babies. Does the advantage outweigh the disadvantages?

 

Countries with a long average working time are more economically successful than those countries which do not have a long working time. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

 

媒体类

The government has the duty to ensure that its citizens have a healthy diet, while others believe this is individuals' responsibility. Discuss both views and give your opinion.

 

Advertising can influence the way people think, so it has negative effects. Do you agree or disagree?

 

旅游类

Tourism is a multibillion-dollar industry that supports economic development. However some people think that it causes too much damage to the local environment and culture. Do you agree or disagree?

 

Foreign tourists abroad should be charged more than local people when visiting the local historical and cultural tourist attractions. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

 

其他类

Some people believe famous people's support towards international aid organizations draws the attention to problems, while others think celebrities make the problems less important. Discuss both views and give your opinion.

 

With the development of technology and science, some people believe that there is no great value of artists such as musicians and painters. What are the things artists can do but the scientist cannot? Why should we encourage the art area?

 

 

以下为重点话题及范文解析:

题目:With the increasing demand for energy sources of oil and gas, people should look for sources of oil and gas in remote and untouched places. Do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages of damaging such areas?

 

题型:权衡利弊型

 

话题:环境类

 

解题思路:这一命题要求我们对比优势劣势,得出最终结论;从偏远地区开采能源,优势是可以满足发展需求,提升当地居民生活水平,劣势是可能会影响生态环境,造成不可逆破坏。更好的方式是发展太阳能、风能等新能源。

 

参考范文:

As is known to all, energy resources such as oil and gas are closely connected with economic growth and technology development. Unfortunately, a large part of the resources we rely on are not renewable. Facing the problem of energy scarcity, many people shift their focus to the remote and unexploited areas for oil and gas. But I insist that in the long run, the downsides of the act prevail over the advantages it might bring.

 

Admittedly, exploring the energy resources in untouched areas can ease the pressure on energy shortage--provided that the chosen place does contain abundant oil or gas. Besides, the mining projects there will produce positive effects on other aspects such as transportation, infrastructure and job opportunity, all of which can surely improve the living standard of the local people.

 

However, it should be noted that with this method, the energy crisis could only be mitigated for a while, but never eradicated, since resources as such will eventually be used up some day. Then the locals will experience job losses again. Worse still, the exploitation poses a huge threat to our environment and ecologic system. Without strict laws and regulations, these money-oriented operations are very likely to disrupt the rare animal species, cut down the migratory pathways and even cause a lasting damage to the environment. Obviously, the consequences are too costly to afford as it is our future habitats and civilisation that are under attack. Rather than merely focusing on conventional energies, people need to broaden their horizons to other renewable forms such as solar power and wind energy.

 

All considerations discussed above, we can easily reach the conclusion that although tapping oil and gas can bring instant benefits in a small range, the aftereffect may be devastating and irreversible. Therefore it is more reasonable to leave the unexploited land for some more sustainable development.

 

 

重点表达:

renewable: adj.  可再生的

energy scarcity:  能源短缺

prevail over:  超过

it should be noted that:  需要注意的是

eradicated: v.   彻底根除

a lasting damage:  持久性损害

aftereffect: n.   后续影响

 

本次机经由以下沪江留学老师产出

 

王倩竹老师

沪江网校留学资深教研老师,同济大学英语语言文学硕士,主攻雅思托福等留学考试。参与沪江网校《雅思保七冲八》、Unlock A1-B2雅思能力课程、World English B1、新版雅思6.5分阅读、新版雅思7分听力等课程的设计规划与制作,并帮助多名1V1学生达到雅思写作7分。

 

 

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