Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage.
The Paris climate agreement finalised in December last year heralded a new era for climate action. For the first time, the world’s nations agreed to keep global warming well below2℃.
This is vital for climate-vulnerable nations. Fewer than 4% of countries are responsible for more than half of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions. In a study published in Nature Scientific Reports, we reveal just how deep this injustice runs.
Developed nations such as Australia, the United States, Canada, and European countries are essentially climate “free-riders”: causing the majority of the problems through high greenhouse gas emissions, while incurring few of the costs such as climate change’s impact on food and water. In other words, a few countries are benefiting enormously from the consumption of fossil fuels, while at the same time contributing disproportionately to the global burden of climate change.
On the flip side, there are many “forced riders”, who are suffering from the climate change impacts despite having scarcely contributed to the problem. Many of the world’s most climate-vulnerable countries, the majority of which are African of small island states, produce a very small quantity of emissions. This is much like a non-smoker getting cancer from second-hand smoke, while the heavy smoker is fortunate enough to smoke in good health.
The Pairs agreement has been widely hailed as a positive step forward in addressing climate change for all, although the details on addressing “climate justice” can be best described as sketchy.
The goal of keeping global temperature rise “well below”2℃ is commendable but the emissions-reduction pledges submitted by countries leading up to the Pairs talks are very unlikely to deliver on this.
More than $100 billion in funding has been put on the table for supporting developing nations to reduce emissions. However, the agreement specifies that there is no formal distinction between developed and developing nations in their responsibility to cut emissions, effectively ignoring historical emissions. There is also very little detail on who will provide the funds or, importantly, who is responsible for their provision. Securing these funds, and establishing who is responsible for raising them will also be vital for the future of climate-vulnerable countries.
The most climate-vulnerable countries in the world have contributed very little to creating the global disease from which they now suffer the most. There must urgently be a meaningful mobilisation of the polices outlined in the agreement if we are to achieve national emission reductions while helping the most vulnerable countries adapt to climate change.
And it is clearly up to the current generation of leaders from high-emitting nations to decide whether they want to be remembered as climate change tyrants or pioneers.
46. The author is critical of the Paris climate agreement because__________.
A) it is unfair to those climate-vulnerable nations
B) it aims to keep temperature rise below 2℃ only
C) it is beneficial to only fewer than 4% of countries
D) it burdens developed countries with the sole responsibility
47. Why does the author call some developed countries climate “free-riders”?
A) They needn’t worry about the food and water they consume.
B) They are better able to cope with the global climate change.
C) They hardly pay anything for the problems they have caused.
D) They are free from the greenhouse effects affecting ”forced riders”.
48.Why does the author compare the “forced riders” to second-hand smokers?
A) They have little responsibility for public health problems.
B) They are vulnerable to unhealthy environmental conditions.
C) They have to bear consequences they are not responsible for.
D) They are unaware of the potential risks they are confronting.
49.What does the author say about the $100 billion funding?
A) It will motivate all nations to reduce carbon emissions.
B) There is no final agreement on where it will come from.
C) There is no clarification of how the money will be spent.
D) It will effectively reduce greenhouse emissions worldwide.
50. What urgent action must be taken to realise the Paris climate agreement?
A) Encouraging high-emitting nations to take the initiative.
B) Calling on all the nations concerned to make joint efforts.
C) Pushing the current world leaders to come to a consensus.
D) Putting in effect the policies in the agreement at once.
细节题。根据题目可以定位到原文第五段The Pairs agreement has been widely hailed as a positive step forward in addressing climate change for all, although the details on addressing “climate justice” can be best described as sketchy. Although之前的意思是对巴黎协定的肯定，认为巴黎协定被称赞为应对气候改变的积极的一步，although之后是对巴黎协定的否定，认为巴黎协定只是粗略地谈到了气候平等。 因此A 选项是正确选项。
细节题。根据题目和关键词free-riders可以定位到原文第三段对“free-riders”的解释：causing the majority of the problems through high greenhouse gas emissions, while incurring few of the costs such as climate change’s impact on food and water. 即（发达国家）通过大量地排放温室气体，引起了大部分的问题，然而遭受了很少的损失，比如气候变化对食品和水造成的影响。C选项中cause 和原句causing对应，hardly pay anything 和incurring few of the costs 对应。
细节题。根据题目可以定位到原文第四段，On the flip side, there are many “forced riders”, who are suffering from the climate change impacts despite having scarcely contributed to the problem. 许多“forced riders” 遭受气候变化的影响，尽管他们自己几乎没有造成这个问题。选项C正好是原句的同义转换，意为他们（这些“forced rider”）必须承担他们没有责任要承担的后果。其中bear consequences 与suffering 对应。 Not responsible for 与having scarcely contributed to 对应。
细节题。根据题目可以定位到原文第七段，There is also very little detail on who will provide the funds or, importantly, who is responsible for their provision. 其中B选项中no final agreement 和very little detail 对应，Where it will come from 和who will provide the funds对应。
细节题。根据关键词urgent可以定位到原文第八段，There must urgently be a meaningful mobilisation of the polices outlined in the agreement if we are to achieve national emission reductions, 其中D选项中put into effect the polices 与mobilisation of the polices对应。