Most of us are taught to pay attention to what is said—the words. Words do provide us with some information, but meanings are derived from so many other sources that it would hinder our effectiveness as a partner to a relationship to rely too heavily on words alone. Words are used to describe only a small part of the many ideas we associate with any given message. Sometimes we can gain insight into some of those associations if we listen for more than words. We don’t always say what we mean or mean what we say. Sometimes our words don’t mean anything except “ I’m letting off some steam. I don’t really want you to pay close attention to what I’m saying. Just pay attention to what I’m feeling.” Mostly we mean several things at once. A person wanting to purchase a house says to the current owner, “This step has to be fixed before I’ll buy.” The owner says, “ It’s been like that for years.” Actually, the step hasn’t been like that for years, but the unspoken message is: “ I don’t want to fix it. We put up with it. Why can’t you?” The search for a more expansive view of meaning can be developed of examining a message in terms of who said it, when it occurred, the related conditions or situation, and how it was said.
When a message occurs can also reveal associated meaning. Let us assume two couples do exactly the same amount of kissing and arguing. But one couple always kisses after an argument and the other couple always argues after a kiss. The ordering of the behaviors may mean a great deal more than the frequency of the behavior. A friend’s unusually docile behavior may only be understood by noting that it was preceded by situations that required an abnormal amount of assertiveness. Some responses may be directly linked to a developing pattern of responses and defy logic. For example, a person who says “No!” to a serials of charges like “You’re dumb,” “You’re lazy,” and “You’re dishonest,” may also say “No!” and try to justify his or her response if the next statement is “And you’re good looking.”
We would do well to listen for how messages are presented. The words, “If sure has been nice to have you over,” can be said with emphasis and excitement or ritualistically. The phrase can be said once or repeated several times. And the meanings we associate with the phrase will change accordingly. Sometimes if we say something infrequently it assumes more importance; sometimes the more we say something the less importance it assumes.
1.Effective communication is rendered possible between two conversing partners, if ___.
A.they use proper words to carry their ideas.
B.they both speak truly of their own feelings.
C.they try to understand each other’s ideas beyond words.
D.they are capable of associating meaning with their words.
2.“I’m letting off some steam” in paragraph 1 means___.
A.I’m just calling your attention.
B.I’m just kidding.
C.I’m just saying the opposite.
D.I’m just giving off some sound.
3.The house-owner’s example shows that he actually means___.
A.the step has been like that for years.
B.he doesn’t think it necessary to fix the step.
C.the condition of the step is only a minor fault.
D.the cost involved in the fixing should be shared.
4.Some responses and behaviors may appear very illogical, but are justifiable if___.
A.linked to an abnormal amount of assertiveness.
B.seen as one’s habitual pattern of behavior.
C.taken as part of an ordering sequence.
D.expressed to a series of charges.
5.The word “ritualistically” in the last paragraph equals something done___.
A.without true intention.
C.in a way of ceremony.
D.with less emphasis.
We can begin our discussion of “population as global issue” with what most persons mean when they discuss “the population problem”: too many people on earth and a too rapid increase in the number added each year. The facts are not in dispute, It was quite right to employ the analogy that likened demographic growth to “a long, thin powder fuse that burns steadily and haltingly until it finally reaches the charge and explodes.”
To understand the current situation, which is characterized by rapid increases in population, it is necessary to understand the history of population trends. Rapid growth is a comparatively recent phenomenon. Looking back at the 8,000 years of demographic history, we find that populations have been virtually stable or growing very slightly for most of human history. For most of our ancestors, life was hard, often nasty, and very short. There was high fertility in most places, but this was usually balanced by high mortality. For most of human history, it was seldom the case that one in ten persons would live past forty, while infancy and childhood were especially risky periods. Often, societies were in clear danger of extinction because death rates could exceed their birthrates. Thus, the population problem throughout most of history was how to prevent extinction of the human race.
This pattern is important to notice. Not only does it put the current problems of demographic growth into a historical perspective, but it suggests that the cause of rapid increase in population in recent years is not a sudden enthusiasm for more children, but an improvement in the conditions that traditionally have caused high mortality.
Demographic history can be divided into two major periods: a time of long, slow growth which extended from about 8,000 BC.till approximately AD. 1650. In the first period of some 9600 years, the population increased from some 8 million to 500 million in 1650. Between 1650 and the present, the population has increased from 500 million to more than 4 billion. And it is estimated that by the year 2000 there will be 6.2 billion people throughout the world. One way to appreciate this dramatic difference in such abstract numbers is to reduce the time frame to something that is more manageable. Between 8000BC and 1650, an average of only 50,000 persons was being added annually to the world’s population each year. At present, this number is added every six hours. The increase is about 80,000,000 persons annually.
1.Which of the following demographic growth pattern is most suitable for the long thin powder fuse analogy?
A.A virtually stable or slightly decreasing period and then a sudden explosion of population.
B.A slow growth for a long time and then a period of rapid, dramatic increase.
C.Too many people on earth and a few rapid increase in the number added each year.
D.A long period when death rates exceeds birthrates and then a short period with higher fertility and lower mortality.
2.During the first period of demographic history, societies were often in danger of extinction because___.
A.only one in ten persons could live past 40.
B.there was higher mortality than fertility in most places.
C.it was too dangerous to have babies due to the poor conditions.
D.our ancestors had little enthusiasm for more children.
3.Which statement is true about population increase?
A.There might be an increase of 2.2 billion persons from now to the year 2000.
B.About 50,000 babies are born every six hours at present.
C.Between 8000 BC and the present, the population increase is about 80,000,000 persons each year.
D.The population increased faster between 8000BC and 1650 than between 1650 and the present.
4.The author of the passage intends to___.
A.warn people against the population explosion in the near future.
B.compare the demographic growth pattern in the past with that after 1650.
C.find out the cause for rapid increase in population in recent years.
D.present us a clear and complete picture of the demographic growth.
5.The word “demographic” in the first paragraph means___.
A.statistics of human.
C.accumulation of human.
D.development of human.