Part I Writing (30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic: Overseas Study at an Early Age. You should write at least 150 words following the outline given below:
Overseas Study at an Early Age
Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-4, mark
Y (for YES) if the statement agrees with the information given in the passage;
N (for NO) if the statement contradicts the information given in the passage;
NG (for NOT GIVEN) if the information is not given in the passage.
For question 5-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
The Next Disaster: Are We Ready?
Are We Really Prepared?
After the attacks on September 11 and the hurricanes that slammed the Gulf Coast last year, you'd expect our major cities to be ready with disaster plans that will save lives and property. There's no doubt we'll be hit againmaybe even harderbecause the list of possible calamities(灾难)is long: from a bird flu pandemic to a massive California earthquake, to more monster storms, to another terrorist attack.
But are we really prepared to protect people, as well as their homes and businesses? Every major urban area has received federal funding, much of it from the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), in order to make their cities more secure. But there are no set criteria for measuring preparedness (the feds are working on that), and the quality of disaster plans varies widely throughout the country.
So we decided to do an independent assessment of 10 high-risk urban areas, focusing on key security indicators. We analyzed public data, consulted with federal and local emergency workers, and contacted the mayors' offices to gauge(测量)the readiness of these cities to meet both natural and man-made disasters.
Our criteria fell under three main categories: Emergency Readiness, Crisis Communications, and Medical Response.
Are there at least 1,000 first responders (such as police, fire and EMTs) per 100,000 residents? They're our first line of protection in almost any disaster situationprofessionals who are trained to handle everything from rescuing victims to providing first aid, to enforcing quarantines(封锁), to directing traffic for evacuations(疏散).
Are there federal search-and-rescue teams based within 50 miles? Large cities often have specialized teams to deal with such things as high-rise-building rescues or hazardous chemical spills. But these squads are sometimes small, ill-equipped, or run on a shoestring. This is not true of federal urban search-and-rescue task forces that the DHS supports across the country. Each task force is made of 62 members and 4 canines, as well as a "comprehensive cache" of equipment. DHS task forces are not automatically assigned; a city needs to apply and present its case.
Has the city or state earned "green status" from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention? Suppose that in the midst of a flu pandemic or bio terror attack, your city ran low on critical medicines. The CDC stands ready to help by distributing drugs and medical equipment from its Strategic National Stockpile. But the agency wants to know that a city or state is able to quickly mobilize hundreds of health workers and volunteers trained to handle the logistics, and has space set aside for storage and refrigeration. You're best off if your city has earned the CDC's "green status"even if the state itself has notbecause it means local health teams can handle the supplies on their own.
Does the city website explain clearly what to do in case of evacuation? Who can forget the images of stranded New Orleans residents, or the 5-mph crawl out of Houston? It turned out that New Orleans's evacuation plans were both inadequate and poorly communicated. One way cities can avoid a similar nightmare is to put clear and easy-to-find evacuation information on their websites. Some cities, such as Boston and Washington, post the preferred street routes. Others, like Las Vegas, won't disclose details due to security fears, but their websites may provide ways to quickly get evacuation details when you need them (such as numbers to call or alert services you can sign up for). Among the more important things to address are people without vehicles of their own (a huge failing in New Orleans) and instructions for pet owners.
Does the website include details for residents with special needs? In July 1995, a vicious heat wave killed nearly 500 people in Chicago; a disproportionate number of them were older residents who lived alone. In any crisis, the elderly and disabled can be uniquely vulnerable. That's why cities such as Houston are creating registries of residents who would need special help. Such lists would indicate, for instance, that a certain person in a certain apartment building is wheel-chair-bound. Other cities are instructing people with disabilities to call 911 for assistancethough this relies on phone systems that could be overloaded or go dead. If a city's disaster planning shows no awareness of special-needs people, it isn't complete.
Can first responderspolice, fire and medicaltalk to one another? On September 11, firefighters died inside the World Trade Center because they could not make contact with police helicopters trying to radio warnings. Incompatible communications is a country-wide problem, and converting or replacing decades-old radio systems can be a long, expensive process. Cities have gotten a big boost if they've taken part in RapidCom, a DHS program providing technical assistance and training that speeds up the transition.
Has the city adopted E911? Many cities have upgraded their 911 call centers in recent years, but they're even better prepared if they've incorporated "E911" (or "enhanced 911"). This technology enables emergency operators to identify the precise location of cell-phone callers through GPS systems. If you wind up stranded in floodwaters, E911 could save your life.
Does the city provide 24-hour emergency alerts? What if an evacuation order goes out, but it's 3 a.m. and you're sound asleep? Not a problem if your city has a way of alerting you at any time of day. Some rely on street sirens(警报器)to do the trick. Others have used their websites to invite residents to sign up for e-mail notifications or automated phone calls in an emergency.
Are there at least 500 hospital beds for every 100,000 residents? Getting to victims quickly is a critical first step. But you'd better have a place to take them for treatment. A reasonable standard, according to preparedness experts, is 500 hospital beds for every 100,000 peoplea ratio that would likely mean a city could find enough spare beds in an emergency. Of course, beds alone won't s help a massive number of burn victims or people suffering from chemical exposure unless the hospital is prepared to treat them. But all the cities in our survey have specialty units in their hospitals that can handle such cases.
Are local teams trained to respond quickly and work together? If and urban area was targeted by weapons of mass destruction, city health officials couldn't just wait for federal help to arrive. First responders and hospital would need to react right away. They could also need medical volunteerssay, to help vaccinate people or distribute medicines and supplies. How to ensure that all these professionals and volunteers work together as seamlessly as possible? If a city is part of DHS's Metropolitan Medical Response System, it has obtained federal assistance in developing plans, and has received critical training and equipment.
Are there labs nearby that specialize in biological and chemical threats? The CDC is on the cutting edge with its Laboratory Response Networkintegrated labs nationwide that have the equipment and expertise to quickly identify pathogens and toxic chemicals. An LRN lab in Florida was the first to detect anthrax(炭疽热)in terrorist mailings in 2001. Laboratories can be members only if they have highly trained staff and exceptional facilities, as well as track record of testing accuracy. A handful of LRN labs qualify as "Level 1", meaning they can test for chemical poisons such as mustard and nerve agents.
1. A bird flu, a massive earthquake, a monster storm and a terrorist attack are all threats to major cities in the U.S.
2. The author does an assessment of all high-risk urban areas in the U.S.
3. Policemen, firemen and emergency doctors all can be called first responders.
4. Each federal urban search-and-rescue task force is made up of at least 60 members.
5. If a city has earned the CDC's green status "green status", it means that its local health teams can ________ on their own.
6. You can get evacuation details through the ways provided by the website of Las Vegas though it doesn't disclose the details due to ________.
7. Incompatible communications is a country-wide problem in the U.S. because of the ________ which should be converted or replaced.
8. Emergency operators can identify the precise location of cell-phone callers through GPS systems with the use of ________.
9. According to preparedness experts, if a city has at least 500 hospital beds for every 100,000 residents, it could find ________ in an emergency.
10. As a part of DHS's Metropolitan Medical Response System, a city can obtain ________ in developing plans
Part IV Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth) (25 minutes)
Directions: In this section, there is a short passage with 5 questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete statements in the fewest possible words. Please write your answers on Answer Sheet 2.
By the mind-nineteenth century, the term "icebox" had entered the American language, but ice was still only beginning to affect the diet of ordinary citizens in the United States. The ice trade grew with the growth of cities. Ice was used in hotels, taverns(酒馆), and hospitals, and by some forward-looking city dealers in fresh meat, fresh fish, and butter. After the Civil War (1861-1865), as ice was used to refrigerate freight cars, it also came into household use. Even before 1880, half of the ice sold in New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, and one-third of that sold in Boston and Chicago, went to families for their own use. This had become possible because a new household convenience, the icebox, a precursor of the modern fridge, had been invented.
Making an efficient icebox as not as easy as we might now suppose. In the early nineteenth century, the knowledge of the physics of heat, which was essential to a science of refrigeration, was rudimentary(未发展的). The commonsense notion that the best icebox was one that prevented the ice from melting was of course mistaken, for it was the melting of the ice that performed the cooling. Nevertheless, early efforts to economize ice included wrapping up the ice in blankets, which kept the ice from doing its job. Not until near the end of the nineteenth century did inventors achieve the delicate balance of insulation and circulation needed for an efficient icebox.
But as early as 1803, and ingenious Maryland farmer, Thomas Moore, had been on the right track. He owned a farm about twenty miles outside the city of Washington, for which the village of Georgetown was the market center. When he used an icebox of his own design to transport his butter to market, he found that customers would pass up the rapidly melting stuff in the tubs of his competitors to pay a premium price for his butter, still fresh and hard in neat, one-pound bricks. One advantage of his icebox, Moore explained, was that farmers would no longer have to travel to market at night in order to keep their produce cool.
47. What is the topic of the passage?
48. Where was ice used after the Civil War?
49. What was essential to a science of refrigeration according to the passage?
50. It can be inferred from the passage that the theoretical foundation of ice box should be that ________.
51. Without an ice box, farmers had to go to the market at night because ________.
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the center.
Questions 52 to 66 are based on the following passage.
Racket, din clamor, noise. Whatever you want to call it, unwanted sound is America's most widespread nuisance. But noise is more than just a nuisance. It constitutes a real and present danger to people's health. Day and night, at home, at work, and at play, noise can produce serious physical and psychological stress. No one is immune to this stress. Though we seem to adjust to noise by ignoring it, the ear, in fact, never closes and the body still respondssometimes with extreme tension, as to a strange sound in the night.
The annoyance we feel when faced with noise is the most common outward symptom of the stress building up inside us. Indeed, because irritability is so apparent, legislators have made public annoyance the basis of many noise abatement(消除) programs. The more subtle and more serious health hazards associated with stress caused by noise traditionally have been given much less attention. Nevertheless, when we are annoyed or made irritable by noise, we should consider these symptoms fair warning that other things may be happening to us, some of which may be damaging to our health.
Of the many health hazards related to noise, hearing loss is the most clearly observable and measurable by health professionals. The other hazards are harder to pin down. For many of us, there may be a risk that exposure to the stress of noise increases susceptibility to disease and infection. The more susceptible among us may experience noise as a complicating factor in heart problems and other diseases. Noise that causes annoyance and irritability in healthy persons may have serious consequences for those already ill in mind or body.
Noise affects us throughout our lives. For example, there are indications of effects on the unborn child when mothers are exposed to industrial and environmental noise. During infancy and childhood, youngsters exposed to high noise levels may have trouble falling asleep and obtaining necessary amounts of rest.
why, then, is there not greater alarm about these dangers? Perhaps it is because the link between noise and many disabilities or diseases has not vet been conclusively demonstrated. Perhaps it is because we tend to dismiss annoyance as a price to pay for living in the modern world. It may also be because we still think of hearing loss as only an occupational hazard.
52. The phrase "immune to" (Line 3, Para. 1) are used to mean ________.
[A] unaffected by [B] hurt by
[C] unlikely to be seen by [D] unknown by
53. The author's attitude toward noise would best be described as ________.
[A] unrealistic [B] traditional [C] concerned [D] hysterical
54. Which of the following best states the main idea of the passage?
[A] Noise is a major problem; most people recognize its importance.
[B] Although noise can be annoying, it is not a major problem.
[C] Noise is a major problem and has not yet been recognized as such.
[D] Noise is a major problem about which nothing can be done.
55. The author condemns noise essentially because it ________.
[A] is against the law [B] can make some people irritable
[C] is a nuisance [D] is a danger to people's health
56. The author would probably consider research about the effects noise has on people to be ________.
[A] unimportant [B] impossible
[C] a waste of money [D] essential
Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
Freshwater life itself has never come easy in the Middle East. Ever since The Old Testament(旧约全书), God punished man with 40 days and 40 nights of rain. Water supplies here have been dwindling. The rainfall only comes in winter and drains quickly through the semiarid land, leaving the soil to bake and to thirst for next November.
The region's accelerating population, expanding agriculture, industrialization, and higher living standards demand more freshwater. Drought and pollution limit its a availability. War and mismanagement waste it. Said Joyce Starr of the Global Water Summit Initiative, based in Washington, D.C. "Nations like Israel and Jordan are swiftly sliding into that zone where they are suing all the water resources available to them. They have only 15 to 20 years left before their agriculture, and ultimately their food security, is threatened."
I came here to examine this crisis in the making, to investigate fears that "water wars" are imminent, that water has replaced oil as the region's most contentious commodity. For more than two months I traveled through three river valleys and seven nationsfrom southern Turkey down the Euphrates River to Syria, Iraq, and on to Kuwait; to Israel and Jordan, neighbors across the valley of the Jordan; to the timeless Egyptian Nile.
Even amid the scarcity there are haves and have-nots. compared with the United States, which in 1990 had freshwater potential of 10,000 cubic meters (2.6 million gallons) a year for each citizen, Iraq had 5,500, Turkey had 4,000, and Syria had more than 2,800. Egypt's potential was only 1,100. Israel had 460. Jordan had a meager 260. But these are not firm figures, because upstream use of river water can dramatically alter the potential downstream.
Scarcity is only one element of the crisis. Inefficiency is another, as is the reluctance of some water-poor nations to change priorities from agriculture to less water-intensive enterprises. Some experts suggest that if nations would share both water technology and resources, they could satisfy the region's population, currently 159 million. But in this patchwork of ethnic and religious rivalries, water seldom stands alone as an issue. It is entangled in the politics that keep people from trusting and seeking help from one another. Here, where water, like truth, is precious, each nation tends to find its own water and supply its own truth.
As Israeli hydrology professor Uri Shamir told me:" If there is political will for peace, water will not be a hindrance. If you want reasons to fight, water will not be a hindrance. If you want reasons to fight, water will give you ample opportunities."
57. Why does the author use the phrase "for next November" (Line 3, Para. 1)?
[A] According to the Old Testament freshwater is available only in November.
[B] Rainfall comes only in winter starting from November.
[C] Running water systems will not be ready until next November.
[D] It is a custom in that region that irrigation to crops is done only in November.
58. What is NOT the cause for the imminent water war?
[A] Lack of water resources. [B] Lack of rainfall.
[C] Inefficient use of water. [D] Water has replaced oil.
59. One way for the region to use water efficiently is to ________.
[A] develop other enterprises that cost less water
[B] draw a plan of irrigation for the various nations
[C] import water from water-rich nations
[D] stop wars of any sort for good and all
60. Uri Shamir's viewpoint is that ________.
[A] nations in that region are just fighting for water
[B] people there are thirsty for peace instead of water
[C] water is no problem as long as there is peace
[D] those nations have every reason to fight for water
61. The author's tone in the article can be described as ________.
[A] depressing [B] urgent [C] joking [D] mocking
Part V Error Correction (15 minutes)
Directions: This part consists of a short passage. In this passage, there are altogether 10 mistakes, one in each numbered line. You may have to change a word, add a word or delete a word. Mark out the mistakes and put the corrections in the blanks provided. If you change a word, cross it out and write the correct word in the corresponding blank. If you add a word, put an insertion mark (∧) in the right place and write the missing word in the blank. If you delete a word, cross it out and put a slash (/) in the blank.
Television is rapidly becoming the literature of our periods. 1. time/times/period
Many of the arguments having used for the study of literature 2. /study of television. 3. theQ as a school subject are valid for
The European Union had approved a number ofgenetically modified crops until late 1998. But growing public concern over its supposed environmental and health 62. ________ risks led several EU countries to demand a moratorium(暂时禁止)on imports of any new GM produce. By late 1999there were enough such country to block any new approvals 63. ________of GM produce. Last year, America filed a complaint at the WTO about the moratorium, arguing that it was an illegal trade barrier because there is no scientific base for it. 64. ________As more studies have been completed on the effects of GM crops, the greens' case for them has weakened. 65. ________
Much evidence has emerged of health risks from eating them. 66. ________And, overall, the studies have shown that the environmental effects on modified crops are not always as serious as the 67. ________greens claim. Nevertheless, environmentalists continue to find fault of such studies and argue that they are inconclusive. 68. ________
While Americans seem be happy enough to consume 69. ________food made from GM crops, opinion polls continue to show tht European consumers dislike the idea. Europeans seem be taking the attitude which, since there remains the slightest 70. ________possibility of adverse consequences and since it is clear how 71. ________they, as consumers, benefit from GM crops, they would rather not run the risk.
Part VI Translation (5 minutes)
Directions: Complete the following sentences on Answer Sheet 2 by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets.
72. The Grand Canyon is ________________(最宽处达两万四千米).
73. If you had followed my advice, ________________(你现在就能完成工作了).
74. In view of the practical need of society, ________________(有越来越多的人对学习英语感兴趣).
75. A good book is a best friend ________________(从不拒绝我们).
76. It was not until last Friday ________________(他读完了他妈妈送给他的那本书).