作者：沪江网校 来源：沪江网校 2011-09-18 15:50
1. Globally, alcohol consumption has increased in recent decades, with all or most of that increase in developing countries. This increase is often occurring in countries with few methods of prevention, control or treatment. The rise in alcohol consumption in developing countries provides ample cause for concern over the possible rise in alcohol related problems in those regions of the world. There is increasing evidence that besides volume of alcohol, the pattern of the drinking is relevant for the health outcomes. Overall, there is a causal relationship between alcohol consumption and more than 60 types of disease and injury. Worldwide alcohol costs 2.5 million death, 3.8% of total. The burden is not equally distributed among all the countries.
在全球范围内，酒精消费在近几十年内都在 增长，几乎大部分消费都发生在发展中国家。这些增长通常发生在缺乏预防、控制和治疗措施的国家中。因为发展中国家酒精消费的增长，人们开始关心酒精可能带 来的相关问题的增多。有越来越多的证据表明，除了酒精含量，饮酒方式也与健康息息相关。总的来说，超过60种的疾病和伤亡都与酒精消费有关。在世界各地， 酒精造成了250万人死亡，占全球死亡人数的3.8%。对此，世界各国要负的责任不是均等的。
2. Traditional medicine is the sum total of knowledge, skills and practices based on the theories, beliefs and experiences indigenous to different cultures that are used to maintain health, as well as to prevent, diagnose or treat physical and mental illnesses. Traditional medicine that has been adopted by other populations (outside its indigenous culture) is often termed alternative or complementary medicine. Herbal medicines include herbs, herbal preparations, and finished herbal products that contain parts of plants as active ingredients. In some Asian and African countries, 80% of the population depend on traditional medicine for primary health care. In many developed countries, 70% to 80% of the population has used some form of alternative or complementary medicine, such as acupuncture.
传 统医学是保持健康以及预防、诊断或治疗身心疾病方面所使用的以不同文化固有的理论、信仰和经验为基础的知识、技能和实践总和。其他人群所采用的传统医学 （不属于其本土文化范畴）通常被称作替代或补充医学。草药医学包括药草、草药制剂和草药成品，其中包含作为有效成分的植物部分。在亚洲和非洲一些国 家，80%的人口依赖传统医学提供初级卫生保健。在许多发达国家，70%-80%的人口使用某种形式的替代或补充医学,例如针灸。