Large companies need a way to reach the savings of the public at large.The same problem,on a smaller scale,faces practically every company trying to develop new products and create new jobs.There can be little prospect of raising the sort of sums needed from friends and people we know, and while banks may agree to provide short-term finance, they are generally unwilling to provide money on a permanent basis for long-term projects. So companies turn to public, inviting people to lend them money, or take a share in the business in exchange for a share in future profits. This they do by issuing stocks and shares in the business through The Stock Exchange. By doing so they can put into circulation the savings of individuals and institution, both at home and overseas.When the saver needs his money back,he does not have to go to the company wiht whom he originally placed it.Instead, he sells his shares through a stockbroker(证券经纪人)to some other saver who is seeking to invest his money.
Many of the services needed both by industry and by each of us are provided by the Government or by local authorities. Without hospitals, roads, electricity, telephones, railways, this country could not function.All these require continuous spending on new equipment and new development if they are to serve us properly, requiring more money than is raised through taxes alone. The government,local authorities, and nationalized industries therefore frequently needed to borrow money to finance major capital spending,and they,too,come to The Stock Exchange.
There is hardly a man or woman in this country whose job or whose standard of living does not depend on the ability of his or her emplorers to raise money to finance new development. In one way or another this new money must come from the savings of the country. The Stock Exchange exists to provide a channel through which these savings can reach those who need finance.
Almost all companies involved in new production and development must _____.[ANSWER]
A)rely in their own financial resourses.
B)persuade the banks to provide long-term finance.
C)borrow large sums of money from friends and people we know.
D)depend on the population as a whole for finance.
The money which enables these companies to go ahead with their projects is _____.[ANSWER]
A)repaid to its original owners as soon as possible.
B)raised by the selling of shares in the companies.
C)exchanged for part ownership in The Stock Exchange.
D)invested in different companies on The Stock Exchange.
when the savers want their money back they _____.[ANSWER]
A)ask another company to obtain their money for them.
B)look for other people to borrow money from.
C)put their shares in the company back on the market.
D)transfer their money to a more successful company.
All the essential services on which we depend are _____.[ANSWER]
A)run by the Government or our local authorities.
B)in constant need of financial support.
C)financed wholly by rates and taxes.
D)unable to provide for the needs of the population.
The Stock exchange makes it possible for the Government,local authorities and nationlized industries _____.[ANSWER]
A)to borrow as much money as they wish.
B)to make certain everybody saves money.
C)to raise money to finance new developments.
D)to make certain everybody lends money to them.
The year 1400 opened with more peacefulness thanusual in England. Only a few months before,Richard II weak,wicked,and treacherous--had been deposed(废黜),and Herry IV declared king in his stead.But it was only a seeming peacefulness,lasting for but a little while;for though King Herry proved himself a just and a merciful man--as hustice and mercy went with the men of iron of those days--and though he did not care to shed blood needlessly,there were many noble families who had been benifited by King Richard during his reign,and who had lost some what of their power and prestige from the coming in of the new king.
Among these were a number of great lords who had been degraded from their former titles and eatates,from which degradation King Richard had lifted them.They planned to fall upon King herry and his followers and to massacre(屠杀)them during a great tournament(中世纪之马上比武大会) which was being held at Oxford.And they might have succeeded had not one of their own members betrayed them.
But Herry did not appear at the lists;whereupon,knowing that he had been lodging at Windsor with only a few attendants,the conspirators marched there against him.In the meantime,the king had been warned of the plot,so that instead of finding him in the royal castle,they discovered through their scouts that he had hurried to London,and that he was marching against them at the head of a considerable army.So nothing was left but flight.One and another,they were all caught and some killed.Those few who found friends faithful and bold enough to afford them shelter dragged those friends down in their own ruin.
What does the author seem to think of King Herry?[ANSWER]
A)He was the best king England had ever had.
B)He was unfair and cowardly.
C)He was just as evil as King Richard.
D)He was a better ruler than King Richard.
How did King Herry find out about the plot?[ANSWER]
A)His scouts discovered it.
B)He saw the conspirators coming.
C)One of the conspirators told him.
D)He found a copy of the conspirators'plan.
How did the conspirators find out that Herry was in London?[ANSWER]
A)They saw him leave windsor.
B)Herry's attendants told them.
C)They saw him at the tournament.
D)Their scouts told them.
Why did the nobles wish to kill Herry?[ANSWER]
A)Herry had taken away power given to them by Richard.
B)Herry was weak,wicked,and treacherous.
C)Herry had needlessly killed members of their families.
D)Herry had killed King Richard.
It can be inferred that Richard II's reign was _____.[ANSWER]
The ballad and the fork song have long been recognized as important keys to the thoughts and feelings of a people, but the dime novel though sought by the collector and referred to in a general way by the social historian, is dismissed with a smile of amusement by almost everyone else.Neither fork songs nor dime novels were actually created by the plain people of America.But in their devotion to these modes of expression, the peoplemade them their own. The dime novel, intersted as it was for the great masses and designed to fill the pockets of both author and publisher, quite naturally sought the lowest common denominator (共同点，标准): themes that were found to be popular and attitudes that met with the most general approval became stereotyped(定型的). Moreover, the dime novel, reflecting a much wider range of attitudes and ideas than the ballad and the fork song, is the nearest thing we have had in this country to a true "proletarian" literature, that is, a literature written for the great masses of people and actually read by them.
Although a study of our dime novels alone cannot enable anyone to determine what are the essential characteristics of the Amerian tradition, it can contribute materially to that end. Sooner or later, the industrious researchers who have minded so many obscure lodes of Amerian literary expression will almost certainly turn their attention to these novels and all their kind.Let no one think, however, that the salmon-covered paperbacks once so eagerly decoured (贪婪地阅读) by soldiers, lumberjacks (伐木工人), trainmen, hired girl, and adolescent boys now make exciting or agreeable even for the historian, much as the socialand historical implications may interest him. As for the crowds today who get their sensational thrills from the movies and the tabloids (小刊，小报), I fear that they would find these hair-raisers of an earlier age deadly dull.
The principal intention of the author of a dime novel was to _____.[ANSWER]
A)explore a segment of Amerian society.
B)Promote the Amerian political philosophy.
C)raise the level of intelligence of the great masses of people.
The "lowest common denominator" refers to _____.[ANSWER]
A)the poorer classes.
B)themes ans attitudes that would be accepted by the greatest number of people.
C)attitudes accepted by the Amerian intellectuals.
D)the character of the authors of the dime novel.
"Proletarian" literature is _____.[ANSWER]
A)written for and read by the great masses of people.
B)distinguished by its devotion to pornography.
C)distinguished by its elegant style.
D)written for,but not actually read by,most people.
The author believes that a study of our dime novels _____.[ANSWER]
A)is a waste of time.
B)would be sufficient in itself to determine the essential characteristics of the American tradition.
C)would be a valuable contribution in determining the essential characteristics of the American tradition.
D)would be amusing but unimportant.
Which of the followingis implied in the passage?[ANSWER]
A)The attitudes of the masses of people are best expressed by sociology texts.
B)The nearest thing we have had to a proletarian literature is the dime novel.
C)The study of the formal literature alone will not enable the historian to understand the attitudes and interests of the common people.
D)Because the themes in the dime novels were not good,they could no longer be legally distributed.
There are two methods of fighting, the one by law,the other by force; the first method is that of men,the second of beasts; but as the first method is often insufficient,one must have recourse to the second.It is, therefore, necessary for a prince to know how to use both the beast and the man. This was covertly taught to the rulers by ancient writers, who relate how Achilles and many others of those ancient princes were given Chiron the centaur to be brought up and educated under his discipline. The parable(寓言) of this semi-animal, semi-human teacher is meant to indicate that a prince must know how to use both natures. and that the without the other is not durable.
A prince,being thus obliged to know well how to act as a beast, must imitate the fox, and the lion, for the lion cannot protect himself from traps. and the fox cannot defend himself from wolves. Those that wish to be only lions do not underdtand this. Therefore, a prudent ruler ought not to keep faith when by doing so it would be agaist his interest, and the reasons which made him bind himself no longer exist. If men were all good, this precept would not be a good one; but as they are bad, and would not observe their faith with you, so you are not bound to keep faith with them. Nor have legitimate grounds ever failed a prince who wish to show colorable excuse for the nonfulfilment of his promise. Of this one could furnish an infinite number of examples, and sho how many times peace has been broken, and how many promises rendered worthless, by the faithlessness of princes, and those that have best been able to imitate the fox have secceeded best. But it is necessary to be able to disguise this character well,and to be a great feigner and dissembler, and men are so simple and so ready to obey present necessities, that the one who deceives will always find those who allow themselves to be deceiced.
The writer does not believe that _____.[ANSWER]
A)the truth makes men free.
B)people can protect themselves.
C)princes are human.
D)leaders have to be consistent.
"Prince" in the passage designates _____.[ANSWER]
A)anyone in power.
D)sons of kings.
The lion represents those who are _____.[ANSWER]
B)reliant on force.
C)strong and powerful.
D)lacking in intelligence.
The fox,in the passage,is _____.[ANSWER]
A)admired for his trickery.
B)no match for the lion.
C)pitied for his wiles.
The writer suggests that a successful leader must _____.[ANSWER]
A)be prudent and faithful.
B)cheat and lie.
C)have principle to guide his actions.
D)follow the truth.
These is a new type of advitisement becoming increasingly common in newspaper classified columns.It is sometimes placed among"situations vacant",although it doesn't offer anyone job,and sometimes it appears "situations wanted",although it is not placed by someone looking for a job either.What is does is to offer help in applying for a job.
"Contact us before writing your application", or "Make use of our long experience in preparing your curriculum vitae (工作简历) or job history", is how it is usually expressed.The growth and apparent success of such a specialized service is,of course,a reflection on the current high levels of unemployment. It is also an indication of the growing importance of the curriculum vitae(or job histor),with the suggestion that it may now qualify as an art form in its own right.
There was a time when job seekersimply wrote letters of application." Just put down your name,address,age and whether you have passed any exams", was about the average lavel of advice offered to young people applying for their first jobs when I left school.The letter was really just foropeners, it was explained,everything else could and should be saved for the interview.And in thosedays of full employment the technique worked.The letter proved that you could write and were available for work.Your eager face and intelligent replies did the rest.
Later, as you moved up the ladder,something slightly more sophisticated was called for.The advice then was to put something in the letter which would distinguish you from the rest.It might be the aggressive approach. "Your search is over.I am the person you are looking for," was a widely used trick that occasionally succeeded.Or it might be some apecial feature specially designed for the job in view.
There is no doubt,however,that it is the increasing number of applicants with university education at all points in the process of engaging staff that has led to the greater importance of the curriculum vitae.
The new type of advertisement which is appearing in newspaper columns _____.[ANSWER]
A)informs job hunters of the opportunities available.
B)promises useful advice to those looking for employment.
C)divides available jobs into various types.
D)informs employers that people are available for work.
Nowadays a demand for this spacialized type of service has been created because _____.[ANSWER]
A)there is a lack of jobs available for artistic people.
B)there are so many top-level job available.
C)there are so many people out of work.
D)the job history si considered to be a work of art.
In the past it was expected that first-job hunters would _____.[ANSWER]
A)write a initial letter giving their life history.
B)pass some exams before applying for a job.
C)have no qualifications other than being able to read and write.
D)keep any detailed information until they obtained an interview.
Later, as one went on to apply for more important jobs,one was advised to include in the letter _____.[ANSWER]
A)something that would attract attention to one's application.
B)a personal opinion about the organization one was trying to join.
C)something that would offend the person reading it.
D)a lie that one could easily get away with telling.
The job history has become such an important document because _____.[ANSWER]
A)there has been an increase in the number of jobs advertised.
B)there has been an increase in the number of applicants with degrees.
C)jobs are becoming much more complicated nowadays.
D)the other processes of applying for jobs are more complicated.
The accuracy fo scientific observations and calculations is always at the mercy of the scientist's timekeeping methods.For this reason,scientists are interested in devices that given promise of more precise timekeeping.
In their search for precision,scientists have turned to atomic clocks that depend on various vibrating atoms or molecules to supply their "ticking"(滴答滴答地响).This is possible because each kind of atom or molecule has its own characteristic rate of vibration.The nitrogen atom in ammonia,for example,vitrates or "ticks" 24 billion time a second.
One such atomic clock is so accurate that it will probably lose no more than a second in 3000 years.It will be of great importance in fields such as astrological observation and long-range navigation.The heart of this Atomichron is a cesium(铯) atom that vibrates 9.2 billion times a second when heated to the temperature of bioling water.
An atomic colck that operates with an ammonia molecule may be used to check the accuray of the predictions based on Einstein's relativety theories,according to which a clock in motion and a clock at rest should keep time differently.Placed in an orbiting satellite moving at the speed of 18000 miles an hour,the clock could broadcast its time readings to ground station,where they could be compared with a readings on a similar model.Whatever differences develop would be checked against the differe nces predicted.
The selection say that the accuray of scientific observation depends on _____.[ANSWER]
A)methods of measurement.
Atomic clocks differ according to _____.[ANSWER]
B)type of molecule or atom used.
C)rate of vibration.
D)both B and C.
From the selection,we may assume that temperature changes _____.[ANSWER]
A)affect only ammonia molecules.
B)may affect the vibration rate of atoms.
C)affect the speed at which the atoms travel.
D)do not affect atoms in any way.
Identical atomic clocks may be used to check _____.[ANSWER]
A)the effect of outer space on an atomic clock.
B)the actual speed of an orbting satellite.
C)the accuracy of predicitons based on theories of relativity.
D)all of Einstein's theories.
Implied but not stated: _____.[ANSWER]
A)Precise timekeeping is essential in science.
B)Scientists expect to disprove einstein's relativity theories.
C)Atomic clocks will be important in space flight.
D)The rate of vibration of an atom never varies.
An appropriate title for this selectiom would be _____.[ANSWER]
A)A Peacetime Use of the Atom.
B)Atoms and Molecules.
C)The Satellite Timekeepers.
D)The Role of the Clock.