1、In the early in industrialized countries of Europe the process of industria lization-with all the far?reaching changes in social patterns that followed-was spread over nearly a centur y,whereas nowadays a developing nation may unde rgo the same process in a decade or so
2、The American economic system is organized around a basically private?enter p rise,market?oriented economy in which consumers largely determine what shall be produced by spending their money in the marketplace for those goods and services that they want most
3、Pollution is caused either by man′s release of completely new and often ar ti ficial substances into the environment,or by releasing greatly increased amounts of a natural substance,such as oil from oil tankers into the sea.
4、The kinds of evidence for the roundness of the world that led finally to it s general acceptance included such data as the shape of the shadow of the earth on the moon during an eclipse of the moon,the fact that as one sails from port on a ship the building of the port gradually seem to sink below the surface of the water,and,most convincing,the fact that it is possible to sail all around the wo rld and return to the starting point of the voyage .
5、Apart from the enormous outflow of funds from the oil?consuming countries, a more basic concern is the capability of the major exporters of crude oil to ac hieve a continuing production target roughly doubling output every ten years to meet the required oil demand if present trend continues.?
6、Pollution and waste combine to be a problem everyone can help to solve by c ut ting out unnessary buying,excess consumption and careless disposal of the produc ts we use in our daily lives.?
7、It is now possible to add or subtract two large numbers in one to two micr o seconds,and to multiply or divide them in ten to twenty microseconds,so that a c omputer can perform as much arithmetic in a quarter of an hour as an efficient c lerk with pencil and paper might reasonably hope to achieve in a lifetime.
8、The implications of this line of reasoning are inescapable:the movement of traffic through the streets of a town cannot be understood without taking into account the activities which take place in the buildings which line them;to get at the roots of the traffic problem we must approach it through the social and e conomic factors which determine the ways in which activities and buildings are a rranged in our towns.
9、As the century developed,the increasing magnitude and complexity of the pr oblems to be solved and the growing interconnection of different disciplines ma de it impossible,in many cases,for the individual scientist to deal with the hug e mass of new data,techniques and equipment that were required for carrying out r esearch accurately and efficiently.?
10、But even today,in spite of the high standard of living which has become ge neral in the more fortunate West, the majority of people in the world still spe nd nearly all their time and energy in a near?ending struggle with nature to se cure the food and shelter they need.
11、The progress of science depends upon many concerned with the application o f the working laws of pure science to the practical affairs of life,and to increa sing man's control over his environment,thus leading to the develo pment of new technique,processes and machines.
12、Thus we may be faced with a society having two basic groups in industrial o rganization:one consisting of those who understand,through their education and t raining,the complicated techniques necessary to control the complex industrial a nd organization environment that has developed;the other consisting of those who carry out the desision of this organizing group.
13、If,on the other hand,producing more of a commodity results in reducing its cost,this will tend to increase the supply offered by seller?producers,which i n turn will lower the price and permit more consumers to buy the product?
14、Electricity produced by water falling over a dam is energy from the sun be c ause the sun's heat had to raise up the water by evaporation befor e it could fall back to the earth as rain and run down the rivers?
15、Only a small percentage of them will have the educational background ade qu ate to cope with the effective use of these new techniques,and we have too,the g eneral problem of a low average level of education which prevents effective comm unication on this subject?
16、For very many years London has been a business centre with hotel accommo dation mainly for visiting businessmen together with other well?to?do travelle rs and complentely inadequate for the swarms of short?stay tourists landing at Heathrow or disembarking at Dover?
17、But many questions remain unanswered regarding the effect of irrigation a nd drainage on the quality of ground?water,and the possibility of maintaining t he ground?water level below the zone of the plant roots while bringing to the s urface the water necessary for irrigation?
18、The introduction of the brain element into manufacturing is likely to in cr ease the productivity per man to such an extent that we can look forward to an e ra where there should be a plentiful supply of goods and a reduction in the hour s necessary to produce them
19、He tried to discover how it was that an industrial system which created g reat wealth nevertheless forced nearly one?third of the population of the riche st city in the world to live in a state of chronic want
20? Some families would be delighted,no doubt,to have a robot slave doing al l the downstairs housework after they were in bed at night,while others would pref er to have it done in the morning,but this would be entirely a matter of choice ?
21? In some cases,it has been found more economical to have the powerhouses located near the center of consumption and supply them with oil and gas fuel by pipe lines, than to have the powerhouses at the oil field or gas field and send the electric energy over long transmission lines
22、Moreover,demographers see the continuing shift south and west as joined by a related but newer phenomenon:More and more,Americans apparently are looking n ot just for places with more jobs but with fewer people,too
23、A feature of modern industrial society is the amount of time which must be spent in education in order to enable person to equip him or herself with th e skills necessary for employment within the complex technological and social sy stems that characterise this society
24、The explosion of technology is already freeing vast numbers of people fr om their traditional bondage to nature,and now at last we have it in our power to free mankind once and for all from the fear which is based on want
25、Money spent on advertising is money spent as well as any I Know of?It ser ves directly to assist a rapid distribution of goods at reasonable prices,thereb y establishing a firm home market and so making it possible to provide for expor t at competitive prices
26、If we were to return to the age of Newton,we should find ourselves faced w ith the greatest obstacles in trying to make people understand our recent scient ific advances,and we should probably find ourselves accused of witchcraft if we persisted in our ideas.?
27、Even though the same computer might have performed the same operation mi ll ions of times in succession，it must still be told exactly how to do that operat ion every time it repeats it?
28、Charles Booth tried to discover how it was that an industrial system whi ch created great wealth nevertheless forced nearly one?third of the population of the richest city in the world to live in‘a state of chronic want'
29、Yet，in the West，science and technology have made it possible for us to h ave a plentiful supply of food，produced by only a fraction of the labour that w as necessary even a few decades ago?
30、The whole industrial process which makes many of the goods and machines we need and use in our daily lives，is bound to create a number of waste products which upset the environmental balance，or the ecological balance as it is also k nown?
31、Everything a human knows he was socially taught；everything he obtains w as got through social mediation-it took the socialised contributor y labo ur of countless thousands merely to supply the simply daily needs of any reader of these words-even to enable him to read?
32、The great interest in exceptional children shown in public education over the past three decades indicates the strong feeling in our society that all citi zens,whatever their special conditions,deserve the opportunity to fully develop their capabilities
33、There are some good arguments for a technical education given the right ki nd of student?Many European schools introduce the concept of professional train ing early on in order to make sure children are properly equipped for the profes sions they want to join
34、Only now have a substantial number of people become concerned about tren d s in the growth of the human population and the consumption of natural resources ,and with this concern fears for the future are increasingly expressed
35、The universe is a large place.The Greeks were well aware of this,but not u ntil the seventeenth century did it become possible to find out the scale upon w hich the Solar System is built.?
36、Nature had indeed been bountiful in providing such an allpurpose raw mat er ial,but we should never have found it so useful were it not for the ingenuity an d success of the technologist in the exploitation of its latent possibilities.
37、Without government support,for example,Darwin would have not sailed around the world,or had available the collections of specimens he needed in forming hi s theory of evolution by natural selection。
38、Whatever its underlying reasons,there is no doubt that much of the polluti o n caused could be controlled if only companies,individuals and governments woul d make more efforts
39、When you stand on the ground you are pushing down on it with a force equal to your weight,and at the same time the ground must be pushing up on you with ex actly the same force.Or you would fall all the way down to the center of the ear th.?
40、In fact,the distance of the earth from the sun varies so little that it ma kes hardly any difference,and the seasons-four seasons sp ring,summer,autumn and winter-depend on the manner in w hich the earth rotates on its axis.
41、The“shareholders”as such had no knowledge of the lives,thoughts or needs of the workmen employed by the company in which he held shares,and his influenc e on the relations of capital and labour was not good。
42、When a new movement in art attains a certain fashion,it is advisable to f ind out what its advocates are aiming at, for,however farfetched and unreasonabl e their principles may seem today,it is possible that in years to come they may be regarded as normal.
43、Not only are the movements of the earth of great importance to you,but wha t the earth is made of,that is,its composition,also governs what you do and provi des everything which you have.
44、Industrial pollution comes from waste products of the manufacturing and se r vice industries,and these products are difficult,or at least expensive,to dispos e of,while agricultural pollution results from the accumulation of toxic chemica ls derived from pesticides and fertilizers.
45、A particularly important application of the computer in simplified form is as a component in the control equipment of manufacturing processes－ as the ner ve centre which accumulates and analyses data recording the operating conditions and performances of the plant,and sends out instructions,when appropriate,for t heir modification。
46、The use of electrical energy has developed rapidly because,in addition to b ecoming prevailing means of transmitting power initially generated by steam,wate r,or internal combustion engine,and replacing domestic factors such as candles, lamps and handlabor,it has given rise to many new ways all its own of rendering services.
47、As a result the chemical industry has become the central industry of mode rn civilization,tending,because of its control over materials,to spread into,and u ltimately incorporate,older industries,such as mining,smelting and building,and even through its concern with fertilizers and food processing,agriculture itself .
48、At the present time,physics has progressed farther in this direction than a ny other science,and,in seeking to give a brief account of the present state of the science of physics,it must be our aim,not only to state the most important o bserved facts but also to show the relations and interdependence of these facts.
49、Most of the drugs in current use were discovered by accident or by trial a nd error,and the cases in which a clear connection has been found between a drug 's action in the body and its chemical and physical properties are few
50、Fortunately,however,the increasing power and organization of the trade uni ons,at least in all skilled trades,enabled the workmen to meet on equal terms t he managers of the companies who employed them.
51、A very important world problem－in fact,I am inc lined to say it is the most important of all the great world problems which face us at the present time －is the rapidly increasing pressure of population on land and on land resources?
52、Yet wide reading is becoming increasingly important,for it is very frequen t ly in the fields where several branches of science overlap that the most excitin g results are obtained?
53、This development－and its strong implications for us politics and econo my in years ahead?has enthroned the South as America's most densel y pop ulated region for the first time in the history of the nation's head co unting.
54、The idea of writing this book was a result of frequent enquiries about the possibility of publishing in the English language a book on optics written in th e German language by one of us more than twenty?five years ago
55、To understand the width and depth to which science can be applied to the m a terial and spiritual problems that confront individuals and nations requires an understanding of what science really is
56、Our need for water is constantly increasing? There is an automatic increa se due to population growth,while the overall improvement of living standards,the f ight against hunger through the irrigation of more land for food growing,and the creation and expansion of new industries,all foretell the need for even greater water supplies through out the world
57、This property that air has of taking up a large amount of water when coole d is the cause of our cloud and rain
58、We are utilizing both solar and geothermal energy in limited amounts in a v ariety of installations but the possibility for large scale implementation of th ese sources to alleviate our power and attendant pollution problems seems very r emote indeed
59、But the subject is only a few years old and with the improvements in elect r onic techniques which may confidently be expected,and the rapidly increasing kno wledge and understanding of the brain possessed by the medical profession,it wou ld perhaps be unwise to forecast undue restrictions on the nature of the ultimat e achievement
60、Evaporation from the soil and transpiration from vegetation are responsibl e for the direct return to the atmosphere of more than half the water which falls on the land
61、It was during the Second World War and the following years that a widespre a d understanding finally emerged of the fundamental role of science for industria l development of both civil and military applications
62、According to the official definition,the term plastics applies to a large an d varied group of materials which consist of,or contain as an essential ingredie n t,a substance of high molecular weight which,while solid in the finished state,a t some stage of its manufacture is soft enough to be formed into various shapes －most usually through the application either singly o r together of heat and pressure
63、The entry not only of chemistry but to an increasing degree also of physic s into chemical industry has here led to a radical break with the dirty,backward chemical industry of the early nineteenth century
64、Two of the great civilizations of ancient times emerged in the Middle East almost simultaneously in Mesopotamia,the land region lying between the Tigris an d Euphrates rivers,and in ?Egypt?,along the Nile River valley,where records sh ow a united kingdom existing as early as 3100 B? C
65、A third distinction(between pure science and technology)is the restriction in technology of the field of interest;many phenomena of great scientific intere st are useless to technology and are ignored by it－ec lipses,for example,and earthquakes
66、The scope of the book is such that it should provide a solid foundation fo r those who intend to select optics as a career and at the same time it should fur nish an adequate knowledge of the subject in a comprehensible form for those who intend to specialize in other branches of physics or engineering
67、Taking man's civilized past at about to seven or eight hours,w e may estimate his future,that is to say,the whole period between how and when the sun grows t oo cold to maintain life any longer on the earth,at about one hundred thousand y ears
68、In very early times man must have had much valuable information regarding th e physical results of various actions and processes but it was only when attempt s were made to systematize and arrange this knowledge and to seek the relations between the different facts that the science of physics began
69、Whether it is cheaper to ship coal from the mine into a city and generate el ectric energy in the city,or to generate electric energy at a coal mine or a rem ote water power site and“step it up”to high voltage and transmit the energy to the city in the form of electric energy is usually a question of economy
70、A sound made by tapping on the hull of a ship will be reflected from the sea bottom,and by measuring the time interval between the taps and the receipt of t he echoes the depth of the sea at that point can be calculated? So was born the echo?sounding apparatus,now in general use in ships
71、It is significant that despite the rapid advance of science since the seve nt eenth century,it made no impact on the problems of prediction until the advent o f the computer,and it is only thinks to the powerful new computers that worthw hile prediction in human affairs has been possible at all
72、Thus,in the American economic system it is the demand of individual consum ers,coupled with the desire of businessmen to maximize profits and the desire of individuals fo maximize their incomes,that together determine what shall be pro duced and how resources are used to produce it.
73、The progress of science depends upon many factors,and not least among thes e is the existence of satisfactory arrangements for the rapid exchange of new idea s and experimental results between research workers having similar interests
74、Declaring that he was opposed to using this unusual animal husbandry techn ique to clone humans,he ordered that federal Funds not be used for such an exper iment although no one had proposed to do so?and asked on independent panel o f experts chaired by Princeton President Harold Shapiro to report back fo the Wh i te House in go days with recommendations for a national policy on human cloning.
75、Not until we have detailed studies of the present movement of traffic and ha ve a clearer idea of how many people wish to travel,where they want to go,at wha t time of day and how quickly－not until then can we b egin to plan a proper transport system for the future
76、And while today it is true that people do not fight and each other in the street—while,that is to say,we have got to the stage of keeping the rules a nd bhaving properly to each other in daily life—nations and countries have not learnt to do this yet,and still behave like savages
77、The story of the discovery of what is now generally called the principle o f A rchimedes,namely that a solid body when immersed in a liquid loses a portion of its weight of the liquid it displaces,has many different versions,of which the f ollowing is one
78、The development of rockets has made possible the achievement of speeds of se veral thousand miles per hour;and what is more important it has brought within r each of these rockets heights far beyond those which can be reached by aeroplane s,and where there is little or no air resistance,and so it is much easier both t o obtain and to maintain such speed?
79、As the century developed,the increasing magnitude and complexity of the pr ob lems to be solved and the growing interconnection of different disciplines made it impossible,in many cases,for the individual scientist to deal with the huge m ass of new data,technique and equipment that were required for carrying out rese arch accurately and efficiently?
80、Ecology is not even primarily about man;indeed it covers all living organi sm s,and although most people will undoubtedly be interested in the implications of ecology for human life and welfare,to understand the subject it is necessary to abandon an entirely man?oriented approach and to consider instead the inter?relationships of all life and the environment