The phrase "civil disobedience" is usually attributed to the nineteenth-century American philosopher Henry David Thoreau. Although the concept is unquestionably much older (its roots
lie in ancient Greek philosophy), the designation is nonetheless telling: people tend to credit Thoreau, an American, with the idea because civil disobedience, is a hallmark of American eth- ics and politics. The clash between the dictates of individual conscience on one hand, and the imperatives of civil law on the other, forms much of this country's history. Examples range from the incidents leading up to the Revolution through the many social protests of the 1960'S.
What constitutes an act of civil disobedience? First, an act of civil disobedience requires a formal legal structure that is enforced by the government. Second, it requires as its target a specific law or policy, rather than the entire legal system. This is true even if the protester's ul- timate goal is to alter radically the legal system; an act of civil disobedience must be directed against one concrete example of that system's inequities. The American civil rights movement, for example, first targeted discrimination on public transportation, then used its victories as a springboard to address other injustices. Third, the act must be done publicly, because the ef- fectiveness of such a protest depends on its ability to mobilize public sentiment against the protest's target. Finally, those protesting must understand the penalties their acts entail--us-ually jailing--and be willing to accept those penalties. This last requirement strengthens the act's effect on public opinion, since it serves to underscore the injustice of the protest's target.
21. The word "telling" in the 2nd sentence in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to _____.
22. In the passage, the author mentions that the civil rights movement _______.
A) focused its early efforts on public transportation
B) did not always practice civil disobedience
C) started in nineteenth century
D) used the Revolution of 1776 as its model
23. According to the passage, for which of the following reasons should civil protests be done publicly?
A) To alter the legal system in radical way.
B) To uphold the imperatives of civil law.
C) To stimulate public support for a cause.
D) To announce the success of a previous act of civil disobedience.
24. The author suggests that when protesters go to jail _______.
A) it helps convince the public to support their cause
B) they usually do so unwillingly
C) it is because their protest has not gone according to plan
D) they are always released almost immediately
25. In the 2nd paragraph, the author ________.
A) argues that civil disobedience is unnecessary
B) provides an extensive history of civil disobedience
C) presents several differing viewpoints on civil disobedience
D) defines the concept of civil disobedience