41.Upuntilthe1960stheinstrumentsusedtoperformsurgicaloperations were___.
A.fashionable
B.extraordinary
C.special
D.basic
42.Afterthedevelopmentofthelaserinthe1960s,wefindthat___.
A.medicalhelpbecameavailableforindustrialworkers.
B.thestudyofartwentthroughacompleterevolution.
C.moreandmoresurgeonsbeganusingsurgicalinstruments.
D.man'swholeapproachtosurgerychangedcompletely
43.Thelaserbeamissostrongbecause___.
A.itiscomposedofaconcentratedbeamoflight
B.itsheatisincreasedbytheheatofthesun
C.itcanbepluggedintoanordinarylightfitting
D.itsendsoutheatinmanydifferentdirections
44.Surgeonscannowcarryoutoperationswhich___.
A.canbeperformedsuccessfullyonlyonthehumaneye
B.resultinlongperiodsofrecoverytimeforpatients
C.aremademuchmorecomplicatedbyusingthelaserbeam
D.resultinverylittledamagetothepatientsthemselves
45.Therapiddevelopmentoflasertechniqueshasmeantthat___.
A.inanothertenyearsweshallbeabletocurecancer
B.surgeryislikelytoimproveconsiderably
C.weshallbeabletotreatallthediseaseswesufferfrom
D.wearenowabletotreatmostformsofcancer
2
In1885OwenWister(1850-1938)recordedthat"itwon'tbeacenturybeforetheWestissimplythetrueAmerica,withthought,type,andlifeofitsown"andhewanted"tobethehandthatonce,forall,chronicledandlaidbarethevirtuesandthevicesofthisextraordinaryphaseofAmericansocialprogress."Heneverbecamethatself-envisionedTolstoioftheoldWest,butin1902TheVirginianwaspublishe
D.Itwoninstantsuccessandskyrocketeditsauthortofame.Itisstillthemostpopular"Western"noveleverpublishedandthemasterdesignforthefictionoftheWildWest.
TheVirginianestablishedaliteraryform,aformulapopularlyknownas"horseopera",whoseconventions,cliches,andvalueshavereappearedinnovelsandshortstories,inmoviesandtelevisionserials,eversince.Theromanticcowboyistheheroandgentleman,oneofthose"goodmeninthehumblerwalksoflife",whoseemsthroughshams,defendsjusticeandalady'shonor,shootsitoutwiththevillainandconquersevil.BecauseoftheVirginian,WistercreatedacharacterwhoistheoriginaltypefortheWesternfolkhero.HerepresentstheembodimentofcertainAmericanideals---amanwhoisequaltoalloccasions,whoshowsindependenceofaction,amanwhokeepshiswordwhois"abroad-guagefellowlivingamongnarrow-guagefolk".ButtheliterarydeviceandcowboycodewhichWisterestablisheddictatedthattheheromustkillthebadman.Thisnecessityforsanctioningmurderandromanticizingofthecowboyasagentlemanprohibite
D.TheVirginianandthegenreitcreatedfrombecomingseriousfiction,orevenanauthenticproductofthewesternexperience.Insteadofachievinghisambition,therefore,WistergaveusasortofAmericanfolkepic,thecowboystory.
46.OwenWisterbelieved___.
A.thewayoflifeintheWestin1885wasapassingphase
B.thecowboyin1885symbolizedthetypicalAmericanmale.
C.theWestwouldbealwaysisolatedfromtherestofthecountryby itsmoralcode.
D.noneofthese.
47.ThereferencetoWisterasaself-envisionedTolstoiimpliesthat___.
A.TheVirginianisasgreatanovelasWarandPeace
B.Wisterunderestimatedhimselfasanauthor
C.Wisterwantedtobeawriteroflightnovels
D.asTolstoihadlaidbarethevirtuesandvicesofRussiansociety,so WisterwoulddoforthesocietyoftheAmericanWest.
48.Stylistically,TheVirginianisnotedforthefactthatit___.
A.waswrittenaccordingtoapre-establishedformula.
B.establishedtheformulaknownas"horseopera".
C.followedtheliteraryconventionsoftheday.
D.abandonedAmericanconventionsinfavorofforeignones.
49.ThepopularitywhichwasaccordedTheVirginianindicatesthat Wister___.
A.realizedhisstatedambition
B.gaveusanauthenticaccountofthewesternexperience
C.becametheAmericanTolstoi
D.hadwrittenanaccountofthecowboywhichappealedtoAmerican
50.Theauthorofthearticlebelievesthat___.
A.TheVirginiandidnotdeservethesuccessitwon
B.WistermadeadefinitecontributiontoAmericanliterature
C.Wisterwasahack
D.cowboystoriesshouldbeconsideredseriousfiction
3
Deathcomesquicklyinthemountains.Eachwinterholidaymakersarecaughtunawaresastheyhappilyskiawayfromthefixedruns,littlerealizingthatasmallavalanchecansendthemcrashinginabone breakingfalldowntheslopeandleavethemburiedundertonsofcrispwhitesnow.Therearelotsoftheoriesabouthowtoavoiddisasterwhenhitbyanavalanche.Practiceisnormallylesscheerful.
ThesnowintheSalzburgofAustriawherearecentdisastertookplacewastypicalavalanchematerial.ForseveraldaysbeforetheincidentIhadskiedlocally.Earlywintersnowwaswearingthinandcoveredwithice.Ontopofthatnew,warmerflakesweregentlyfallingtoproduceadangerouscarpet.Totheskierwhoenjoysunmarkedslopesitistemptingstuff,deepnewpowersnowonahardbase---theskiingthatdreamsaremadeof.Andsometimesnightmares.
Snowfallsinsectionslikeacake.Differentsectionshavedifferentdensitiesbecauseofthetemperaturesatthetimeofthefallandintheweeksafterwards.Problemscomewhenanyparticularsectionistoothickandnotstickingtothesectionbeneath.ThesnowofthepastfewweekshadbeenfallinginratherhighertemperaturesthanthoseofDecemberandearlyJanuary.Theresultoftheseconditionsisthatevenaslightincreaseinthetemperaturessendsathinstreamofwaterbetweenthenewsnowandtheol D.Thenthenewsnowsimplyslidesoffthemountain.
Suchslidesarenotunexpecte D.Localcitizensknowtheslopeswhichtendtoavalancheandtheweatherinwhichsuchslidesarelikely.Trapsaresettocatchthesnoworpreventitslipping;bombsareplacedandexplodedfromtimetotimetosetoffsmallavalanchesbeforeabigonehastimetobuildup;andaboveall,skiersarewarnednottoskiindangerareas.
Inspiteofthis,avalancheshappeninunexpectedareasand,ofcourse,skierignorethewarnings.Theonecomforttorecreationalskiers,however,isthatavalancheincidentsonthemarkedskislopesarequiterare.Noskiresortwantstheimageofbeingadeathtrap.
51.Eachwinterholidaymakersinthemountainscomefacetofacewith
deathbecause___.
A.theyfailtorealizehowdangerousavalanchescanbe
B.theyarenotexpertenoughatskiingonthefixedruns
C.theyaretryingtoavoidareaswhereavalancheshappen
D.theyskigreatdistancesdownthemountainsides
52.Accordingtothewriter,skiingconditionsintheSalzburgareaofAustriabeforetheaccidenthappenedwere___.
A.perfectfortheinexperiencedskier
B.unsafebecausethenewsnowwascoveredwithice
C.typicalofconditionsresultinginavalanches
D.suitableonlyforskiinglocally
53.ItwouldappearfromthetextthatavalanchesarebroughtaboutVbecause___.
A.aparticularsectionofsnowisnotthickenough
B.thereisaslightfallinthetemperature
C.heavysnowfallsturnintorain
D.theicebetweendifferentsectionsofsnowmelts
54.Inareaswhereavalanchesareknowntohappen___.
A.localresidentsstayindoorswhentheweatherisbad
B.measuresaretakentopreventseriousavalanches
C.smallavalanchescaneasilybeprevented
D.skiersformthemselvesintoawalltokeepthesnowinposition
55.Althoughaccidentsdohappen,skierswillbereasonablysafeif___.
A.theystayontheofficiallyapprovedslopes
B.theyskionlyforpleasure
C.theyskionlyatresorts
D.theychooselesscrowdedskislopes
4
TheEnglish,asarace,areverydifferentfromallothernationalities,includingtheirclosestneighbors,theFrench,BelgiansandDutch.ItisclaimedthatlivingonanislandseparatedfromtherestofEuropehasmuchtodowithit.Whateverthereasons,itmaybefairlystatedthattheEnglishmanhasdevelopedmanyattitudesandhabitswhichdistinguishhimfromothernationalities.
Broadlyspeaking,theEnglishmanisaquiet,shy,reservedpersonwhoisfullyrelaxedonlyamongpeopleheknowswell.Inthepresenceofstrangersorforeignersheoftenseemsinhibited,evenembarrasse
D.Youhaveonlytowitnessacitytrainanymorningoreveningtoseethetruthofthis.Serious-lookingbusinessmenandwomensitreadingtheirnewspapersorhavingalightsleepinacorner;noonespeaks.Infact,todosowouldseemmostunusual.AnEnglishman,pretendingtobegivingadvicetooverseasvisitors,oncesuggested,"Onenteringarailwaycarriageshakehandswithallthepassengers."Needlesstosay,hewasnotbeingserious.Thereisanunwrittenbutclearlyunderstoodcodeofbehaviorwhich,ifbroken,makesthepersonimmediatelysuspect.
Inmanypartsoftheworlditisquitenormaltoshowopenlyextremesofenthusiasm,emotion,excitement,et C.,oftenaccompaniedbyappropriategestures.TheEnglishmanissomewhatdifferent.Ofcourse,anEnglishmanfeelsnolessdeeplythananyothernationality,buthetendstodisplayhisfeelingsfarless.Thisisreflectedinhisuseoflanguage.ImagineamancommentingonthegreatbeautyofayoungGirl.Whereasamoreemotionalmanmightdescribeheras"anexcellentjewel","extremelybeautiful","precious",theEnglishmanwillflatlystate"Um,she'sallright".AnEnglishmanwhohasseenahighlysuccessfulandenjoyablefilmrecommendsittoafriendbycommenting,"It'snotbad,youknow,"oronseeingveryunusualsceneryhemightconveyhispleasurebysaying,"Nice,yes,verynice."Theoverseasvisitormustnotbedisappointedbythisapparentlackofinterestandinvolvement;hemustrealizethat"allright","notbad",and"nice",veryoftenhavethesenseof"first-class","excellent","beautiful".Thisspecialuseoflanguage,particularlycommoninEngland,isknownasrestrainedstatement.
56.FromthepassagepeoplecaninferthattheEnglisharedifferentfrom
othernationalitiesmainlyin___.
A.taste
B.character
C.theprincipleofbehavior
D.allaspects
57.Ifonedoesn'twanttobesuspectedinpublic,hehadbetter
A.behaverelaxed___.
B.shakehandswithallpeoplehemeets
C.talkwithothers
D.keepquiet
58.Theword"inhibited"mostnearlymeans___.
A.friendly
B.polite
C.afraid
D.restrained
59.Accordingtothepassage,theEnglishman___.
A.haslessfeelingsthanothernationalities
B.hasemotionsasdeepasanyothernationalities
C.expressesemotionbyuseofhislanguage
D.likestohaveajokewithforeignvisitors
60.AnEnglishman'ssaying"allright"usuallyhasthesenseof___.
A."notbad"
B."quiteright"
C."fairlygood"
D."verygood"
IV.Translation10%
Directions:TranslatethefollowingpartintoChinese.
Historically,Jeep'sreputationasago-anywherevehicledatesbacktotheSecondWorldWarwhentheoriginalJeeps,suppliedbytheWillyscompany,carriedAlliedforcesthroughthePacificandEurope.
TheMacquarieDictionaryofMotoringsaysthemaneJeepstemmedfromtheUnitedStatesArmy'sdecisiontocallthevehicleGP,forGeneralPurposevehicle.Thenamewaseventuallycorruptedto"jeep,"fromthepronunciationofthelettersGP,andbecameatrademarkownedbytheWillycompany.
JeepbecamepartofChryslerin1988andthecompanyhassincespentalotofmoneytorevitalizetheJeepproductionfacilities,andtoincreasethenumberandstyleofmodelsavailable.ChryslersaystheJeep'swartimereputationandruggedimageundoubtedlyhelpedittocarveoutanewroleinpeacetimeasarecreationalvehicle.ItsaystheJeepcreatedtheoriginalmarketforrecreational,off-roadvehiclesusingthepowerfulfour-wheeldrivetraction(knowncommerciallyas4WD)forwhichthearmyjeepwasfamous.