独立主格、虚拟语气、非谓语动词、主谓一致、倒装


独立主格特征
1. 充当句子的状语。
2. 有自己的主语,同句子的主语不一致。
3. 名词(代词,形容词,副词,介词)+ 分词
4.  With + 名词 (代词) + 分词 (形容词)
例:a) It being raining, I decided to stay at home.
b) Speech having been delivered, discussion started.
c) he entered the room, with his hands open(holding a rifle).
真题剖析
(1995) 45 cliffs no longer crumbling, the beaches are   46   of the material which would  47  feed them.
  45. A. For    B. As     C. With     D. Because
练习:Do what you need to do to keep the wolf __7__ from the door, the world __8__ your thesis adviser, team leader, or laboratory director. Then use the rest of your time, perhaps at night or on the weekends, to do __9__ you really want to do.
8. A. is       B. having        C. being        D. be
虚拟语气
虚拟语气(2)
1. (should)+动词原形
It +be动词+形容词(-able)(essential, odd, vital, absurd, regrettable, desirable…)+that从句
It +be动词+名词(pity,shame…)+that从句
It +be动词+过去分词(ordered, begged, voted, moved…)+that从句
部分名词/动词(表示建议,劝告,决定等) +that从句
2. It’s (high, about) time that +动词过去式
       would rather +动词过去式
真题剖析
(1997) … I wouldn’t be truthful if I  47  say that teaching is hard work . …
   47. A. do   B. did   C. don’t   D. didn’t
(1993)…The Cairo newspapers the next day carried banner headlines about the student demonstration  52 , and they    53  that the professor be sent home.
 53. A. ordered   B. pleaded   C. decided  D. demanded
练习:Years ago the experts warned us that the car-ownership explosion would demand a lot more give-and-take from all road users. It is high time that we__15__ this message to heart.
15. A. took       B. would take     C. will take      D. should take
(2003.3) It is edifying, and it is a source of inner satisfaction even __54__ other facets of life prove disappointing.
(even if other facets of life should prove disappointing.)
54.A. shall   B.will    C.would    D.should
非谓语动词
动名词、分词、不定式。
主动或被动。(doing/done, to do /to be done)
发生在谓语动词之前还是之后。(doing/ having done /having been done, to do/to have done /to have been)
To在什么情况下作介词,什么情况下作不定式引导词。
真题剖析
(2000) … In the inner cities of America, newspapers regularly report on newborn babies  60  into garbage bins by drug-addicted mothers.
60. A. dropped  B. to drop  C. dropping  D.drops
(2001.3) A heroin addict, for instance, leads a  59  life: his increasing need for heroin in increasing doses prevents him from working, from maintaining relationships, from developing in human ways.
59. A. destructive   B. dissatisfied    C. damaged     D. derivative
主谓一致
1. 整体及抽象概念作主语,谓语通常用单数形式。
   How you got there doesn’t concern me.
   Growing vegetables needs constant watering.
2.  表示时间、距离、重量、容量、价值等概念作主语,谓语多用单数。
   Eight hundred dollars is enough to live on.  
3. 以-s结尾的专有名词(linguistics, economics, measles, diabetes等),谓语通常用单数形式。
4. “分数或百分数+主语”,谓语跟主语保持一致。
   Two thirds of the villages are flooded (the area is under water).
5. 不定代词(one, each, everyone, everybody, everything, no one, nobody, nothing, anyone, anybody, anything, someone, somebody, something等)作主语,谓语用单数。
   Everyone knows that you’ve come here.
   If anybody wants to see me, let them wait till I come back.    (--thing 的情况例外)