(1)To begin with首先
  例:To begin with, smoking should be banned in public areas."首先,公共场所禁止吸烟。"
  (2)Generally speaking一般地说,总体上说
  例:Generally speaking, it is the best policy to spend more money on libraries."总的说来,加大图书馆的投资是良策。"
  (3)First of all第一,首先
  例:First of all, many people in remote areas still live in poverty."第一,居住在边远地区的许多人仍生活在贫困之中。"
  (4)With (the development/progress/growth)
  例:With the development of society, women’s role has become more important than ever before in daily life."随着社会的发展,妇女在社会生活中比以往发挥着更加重要的作用。"
  例:Recently,the problem (conflict, production) of grain shortage has become the world focus."近来粮食短缺问题已成为全球关注的焦点。"
  (1)In conclusion最后,在结束时
  例:In conclusion, the international agreement should be made to prevent the world from war."最后,应达成国际协定使世界避免战争。"
  (2)In brief简言之
  例:In brief, family planning is of vital importance in China."简言之,计划生育对中国具有重要意义。"
  (3)In a word总之
  例:In a word, without mutual understanding, true friendship does not exist."总之,没有相互理解,真正的友谊是不存在的。"
  (4)It is high time that...到...时候了
  例:It is high time that the issue were to be solved so as to promote the economic development."为了促进经济发展到该解决问题的时候了。"
  (5)It is only when...that...只有当...才...
  例:It is only when people become the masters of the country that science can serve the people."只有当人民成为国家的主人,科学才能为人民服务。"
  (1)first, second, third...第一,第二,第三
  例:First, she had studied chemistry during her sophomore and junior years. Second, she never missed a class. Third, she performed every required experiment in all her chemistry courses. Fourth, she always worked hard. Her classmates were sure that she would win top award in Chemistry during her senior year at the university."首先,她在一二年级时就选修了化学课程。其次,她从不误课。再有,她认真完成每一次化学试验。还有,她学习非常刻苦。因而同学们确信她在高年级时会获得学校化学大奖。"
  (2)To begin with...,moreover...,finally...,首先...,此外...,最后...
  例:There are a few reasons for his decision of studying law. To begin with, he is very interested in social affairs and it seems the best way to enable him to engage in these activities. Moreover, his father is a lawyer. He has always encouraged him to do something similar. Finally, he is sure he can get a job after graduation."他决定学法律有几方面的原因:首先,他对社会事物感兴趣,学习法律有助于他参与这些活动。此外,他父亲是个律师,一直鼓励他从事同样的职业。最后,他确信毕业后能找到工作。"

  例:Meanwhile, the better skills and knowledge children possess, the more opportunities they will be ensured."
  (4)since then自此之后
  例:Since then, the Olympics turned out to be an instrument of peace and freedom for small nations."自此之后,奥林匹克运动成为小国争取和平和自由的工具。"
  例:Therefore, if this is included in good education that parents are seeking now, their children will be definitely ensured a bright future."因而,如果父母们在其为孩子们寻求的良好教育中加入这一点,他们的子女肯定会有一个光辉灿烂的未来。"
  (1)As a result由于...结果
  例:Her performance in college was excellent. As a result, she has got a satisfactory job."由于她在大学成绩优异,她找到一份令人满意的工作。"
  (2)Due to由于
  例:My trip to Guang Zhou and Shen Zhen has to be cancelled due to the financial problem."由于财务问题,我去广州和深圳的旅行取消了。"
  例:The government was unwilling to risk a conflict with that neighboring country, and consequently, promised to sign the treaty."该国政府不愿冒险与邻国发生冲突,因此答应签署条约。"
  (4)One may criticize......for......,but the real cause of...lies deeper人们可以因为...批评...,但是...的真正原因在更深层次
  例:One may criticize the school authorities for the fire accident, but the real reason of the accident lies deeper."人们可以就火灾事故批评校领导,但事故还有更深的原因。"
  (5)Among...reasons, one should be emphasized that...在众多的原因中,其中一点给予强调...
  例:Among the most important reasons, one reason should be emphasized that large pieces of cultivated land have been occupied, which results in the grain shortage."在许多重要的原因中,其中一点应强调的是造成粮食减产是因为大量的可耕地被占用。"
  例:Unlike oral English, written English is comparatively formal."与口头英语不同,笔头英语比较正规。"
  (2)In contrast...与之相比
  例:In contrast with Tom, Mario seldom studies harder."与汤姆比,玛里奥很少努力学习。"
  (3)On the other hand...另一方面
  例:The life expectancy in developing countries has increased during the past thirty years. On the other hand, the infant mortality has decreased from twenty percent to ten percent in the same period."发展中国家的期望寿命在过去的30年间都增长了。另一方面婴儿死亡率同期由20%下降到10%。"
  例:Plenty of food must be packed for the journey;likewise, warm clothes will also be needed."要带上旅行中吃的食品,同样也需要带上御寒保暖的衣服。"
  例:If only one can make his audience understood, it seems insignificant if one makes some mistakes in his oral English; similarly, as to the audience, they are only interested in grasping the meaning, not actually mind or even hardly notice the speakers mistakes."只要能使听众听明白,在口头英语中出一些错误是无关紧要的,同样作为听众也只对讲话者的意思感兴趣,根本不介意或几乎注意不到讲话者所犯的口语错误。"