You can negotiate virtually anything. Projects,resources, expectations and deadlines are all outcomes ofnegotiation. Some people negotiate deals for a living. Dr HerbCohen is one of these professional talkers, called in bycompanies to negotiate on their??behalf . He approaches the artof negotiation as a game because, as he is usually negotiatingfor somebody else, he says this helps him drain the emotionalcontent from his conversation. He is working in a competitive field and needs to avoid being tooadversarial. Whether he succeeds or not, it is important to him to make a good impression so thatpeople will recommend him.
The starting point for any deal, he believes, is to identify exactly what you want from eachother. More often than not, one party will be trying to persuade the other round to their point ofview. Negotiation requires two people at the end saying ‘yes”. This can be a problem because oneof them usually begins by saying “no”. However, although this can make talks more difficult, this isoften just a starting point in the negotiation game. Top management may well reject the ideainitially because it is the safer option but they would not be there if they were not interested.
It is a misconception that skilled negotiators are smooth operators in smart suits. Dr Cohensays that one of his strategies is to dress down so that the other side can relate to you. Pitch yourlook to suit your customer. You do not need to make them feel better than you but, For example,dressing in a style that is not overtly expensive or successful will make you more approachable.People will generally feel more comfortable with somebody who appears to be like them rather thansuperior to them. They may not like you but they will feel they can trust you.
Dr Cohen suggests that the best way to sell your proposal is by getting into the world of theother side. Ask questions rather than give answers and take an interest in what the other person issaying, even if you think what they are saying is silly. You do not need to become their best friendsbut being too clever will alienate them. A lot of deals are made on impressions. Do not rush whatyou are saying---put a few hesitations in , do not try to blind them with your verbal dexterity. Also,you should repeat back to them what they have said to show you take them seriously.
Inevitably some deals will not succeed. Generally the longer the negotiations go on, the betterchance they have because people do not want to think their investment and energies have goneto waste. However , joint venture can mean joint risk and sometimes , if this becomes too great ,neither party may be prepared to see the deal through . More common is a corporate culture clashbetween companies, which can put paid to any deal. Even having agreed a deal, things may notbe tied up quickly because when the lawyers get involved, everything gets slowed down as theyargue about small details.
De Cohen thinks that children are the masters of negotiation. Their goals are totally selfish.They understand the decision-making process within families perfectly. If Mum refuses their request, they will troop along to Dad and pressure him. If al else fails, they will try the grandparents, usingsome emotional blackmail. They can also be very single-minded and have an inexhaustible supplyof energy for the cause they are pursuing. So there are lesson to be learned from watching andlistening to children.
15 Dr Cohen treats negotiation as a game in order to
A put people at ease
B remain detached
C be competitive
D impress rivals
16 Many people say “no” to a suggestion in the beginning to
A convince the other party of their point of view
B show they are not really interested
C indicate they wish to take the easy option
D protect their company’s situation
17 Dr Cohen says that when you are trying to negotiate you should
A adapt your style to the people you are talking to
B make the other side feel superior to you
C dress in a way to make you feel comfortable.
D try to make the other side like you
18 According to Dr Cohen, understanding the other person will help you to
A gain their friendship
B speed up the negotiations
C plan your next move.
Dconvince them of your point of view
19 Deals sometimes fail because
A negotiations have gone on too long
B the companies operate in different ways
C one party risks more than the other.
D the lawyers work too slowly
20 Dr Cohen mentions children’s negotiation techniques to show that you should
A be prepared to try every routewww.Examw.com
B try not to make people feel guilty
C be careful not to exhaust yourself
D control the decision-making process.
关于negotiating techniques的文章。 传统的阅读题型，相对比较容易。
15题，答案很明显：he says this helps him drain the emotional content from his conversation。帮助他抽离他的谈话中的感情成分。要想选对，只需要知道选项B中detached的含义：not reacting to or becoming involved in something in an emotional way
16题，这题貌似只能采取排除法。因为几个选项和原文的对应都不是太明显。问为什么很多人在一开始要对一个建议说“不”。答案是第二段的最后一句：Top management may well reject the idea initially because it is the safer option but they would not be there if they were not interested.。最高管理层在一开始可能会拒绝这个建议，因为这样是一个更安全的选择。但是如果他们真的不感兴趣的话，他们就不会在那里(谈判)了。A在这段文字中没有提到，B不对，他们肯定是感兴趣的，C也不对没有提到，原文说的是safer option。选D，之所以会拒绝，因为从维护公司利益的角度，这样是一个safer option。
17题，答案也很明显：Dr Cohen says that one of his strategies is to dress down so that the other side can relate to you.这里的两个词组可以解释下：
dress down: to wear clothes that are more informal than the ones you would usually wear relate to :to feel that you understand someone's problem, situation etc
所以这个句子意思是穿的不那么正式，这样可以让另一方接近你。也就是A说的是你的风格适应你的谈判对象。C不对，不是make you feel comfortable，而是make others feel comfortable。D也不对，可能会误选，不是让别人喜欢你，like太夸张了，只是容易接近。
18题，答案在第四段的第一句话：Dr Cohen suggests that the best way to sell your proposal is by getting into the world of the other side.。走进另一方的世界，就是原文说的understanding the other person，目的是为了sell your proposal，也就是让对方接受你的建议，选D。
19题，谈判失败的原因，答案是第五段的这么一句：More common is a corporate culture clash between companies, which can put paid to any deal。公司文化冲突导致的。文化冲突，就是两个公司在运作、理念等等上的不一致，选C：两个公司以不同的方式运作。
20题，为什么要借鉴小孩子的办法，原文最后一段提到小孩子的办法就是，爸爸不行找妈妈，妈妈不行就在感情上敲诈爷爷奶奶。此路不通就换另一条，就是A说的尝试每一条路线。B 没有提到，C不对，原文说小孩子有inexhaustible supply of energy。D也没有提到。
The Scientific Approach to Recruitment
When it (0) to selecting candidates through interview, moreoften than not the decision is made within the first five minutesof a meeting.Yet employers like to (21) themselves that they arebeing exceptionally thorough in their selection processes. Intoday’s competitive market place, the (22) of staff in manyorganizations is fundamental to the company’s success and, asa result , recruiters use all means at their disposal to (23) the best in the field.
One method in particular that has (24) in popularity is testing , either psychometric testing,which attempts to define psychological characteristics , or ability￡aptitude testing (25) anorganization with an extra way of establishing a candidate’s suitability for a role. It (26) companiesto add value by identifying key elements of a position and then testing candidates to ascertain theirability against those identified elements.
The employment of psychometric or ability testing as one (27) of the recruitment processmay have some merit, but in reality there is no real (28), scientific or otherwise, of the potentialfuture performance of any individual. The answer to this problem is experience in interviewtechniques and strong definition of the elements of each position to be (29) as the wholerecruitment process is based on few real certainties, the instinctive decisions that many employersmake, based on a CT and the first five minutes of a meeting, are probably no less valid than anyother tool employed in the (30) of recruitment.
21.A suggest B convince C advise D believe
22.A worth B credit C quality D distinction
23.A secure B relies C attain D achieve
24.A lifted B enlarged C expanded D risen
25.A provides B offers C contributes D gives
26.A lets B enables C agrees D admits
27. A portion B member C share D component
28. A extent B size C amount D measure
29.A occupied B met C filled D appointed
30 A business B topic C point D affair
《The scientific approach to recruitment》，招人的科学方法。这篇完型比较简单。完型填空也有两种题型，两种解题思路。一种是从意思上理解然后做出选择，一种是根据单词的用法。前者比较容易，后者很考验语言功底。
23题，招人者试图利用一切方法来抓住这个领域最好的(人才)，secure the best，抓住最好的。realise是实现，attain是获得，后面不能接人，achieve是实现一个目标。
24题，rise in popularity，固定搭配，popularity是知名度的意思，这个词组应该可以翻译成声名鹊起。
25题，provides with,提供。给组织提供另外一种方法。offer的用法是offer sb sth，contribute在这里意思不对。
Component：one of several parts that together make up a whole machine, system etc
Portion：a part of something larger, especially a part that is different from the other parts
29题，fill a position，填补空位，fill在这里的意思是to perform a particular job, activity, or purpose in an organization, or to find someone or something to do this。不能选occupy，因为occupy更强调人的一种主动，而这里只是客观说某个需要填补的职位。
30题，in the business of，也是一种固定的说法，在什么的过程中。很多场合都可以使用。可以多看几个例句：
We’re in the business of stimulating the economy(By Obama)
Energetics is a specialist management consultancy in the business of climate change
1 Genuine feedback would release resources to be usedelsewhere.
2 Managers are expected to enable their staff to workeffectively.
3 Experts are unlikely to facilitate a move to genuinefeedback.
4 There are benefits when methods of evaluatingperformance have been negotiated.
5 Appraisals tend to focus on the nature of the face-to-face relationship between employeesand their line managers.
6 The idea that employees are responsible for what they do seems reasonable.
7 Despite experts’ assertion, management structures prevent genuine feedback
8 An increasing amount of effort is being dedicated to the appraisal process.
Performance appraisal is on the up and up. It used to represent the one time of year whengetting on with the work was put on hold while enormous quantities of management hours werespent in the earnest ritual of rating and ranking performance. Now the practice is even morefrequent. This of course makes it all the more important how appraisal is conducted. Humanresources professionals claim that managers should strive for objectivity and thus for feedbackrather than judgement. But the simple fact of the matter is that the nature of hierarchy distortsthe concept of feedback because performance measure are conceived hierarchically.Unfortunately, all too many workers suffer from the injustices that this generates.
The notion behind performance appraisal- that workers should be held accountable for theirperformance-is plausible. However, the evidence suggests that the premise is wrong. Contrary toassumptions appraisal is not an effective means of performance improvement- it is judgementimposed rather than feedback, a judgement imposed by the hierarchy. Useful feedback , on theother hand, would be information that told both the manager and worker how well the worksystem functioned, and suggested ways to make it better.
Within the production system at the car manufacturer Toyota, there is nothing that isrecognizable as performance appraisal. Every operation in the system has an associated measure.The measure has been worked out between the operators and their manager. In every case, themeasure is related to the purpose of the work. That measure is the basis of feedback to themanager and worker alike. Toyota’s basic idea is expressed in the axiom “bad news first” . Bothmanagers and workers are psychologically safe in the knowledge that it is the system- not theworker –that is the primary influence on performance. It is management’s responsibility to ensurethat the workers operate in a system that facilitates their performance.
In many companies , performance appraisal springs from misguided as assumptions. To judgeachievement, managers use date about each worker’s activity, not an evaluation of the process orsystem’s achievement of purpose. The result is that performance appraisal involves managers’judgement overruling their staff’s, ignoring the true influences on performance. Thus the appraisalexperience becomes a question of pleasing the boss, particularly in meetings, which ispsychologically unsafe and socially driven, determining who is “in” and who is “ out”.
When judgement is replaced by feedback in the true sense, organizations will have a lot moretime to devote to their customers and their business. No time will be wasted in appraisal . Thisrequires a fundamental shift in the way we think about the organization of performance appraisals,which almost certainly will not be forthcoming from the human resources profession
第一题，说真正的反馈可以释放用在别处的资源。意思上真正的反馈可以让人腾出精力。答案是E段的第一句：When judgement is replaced by feedback in the true sense, organizations will have a lot more time to devote to their customers and their business。这题的意思还算比较明显，feedback in the true sense，就是genuine feedback，devote to their customers and the business,就是把资源释放在别的地方。
第二题，说经理们是被期望着使员工工作得更有效率。答案是C段的最后一句：It is management’s responsibility to ensure that the workers operate in a system that facilitates their performance.经理们的责任，也就是managers are expected to，有利于他们的表现，就是enable their staff to work effectively。
第三题,说专家不大可能有利于真正反馈的进程。答案是E段的最后一句：which almost certainly will not be forthcoming from the human resources profession。人力资源专家，就是experts。需要理解下这里的forthcoming的含义：willing to divulge information. (人)愿意透露消息的。专家们不愿意透露消息，也就是不能指望专家来facilitate。
第四题，说商讨评估表现的方法是有利的。答案是在C段，有点分散。前面说The measure has been worked out between the operators and their manager。这个措施是在操作者和经理们之间拟定的。between the operators and managers，也就是评估表现的方法是被商讨了的。后面介绍的情况都是这个measure有多么的好：is the basis of feedback。综合起来，就是选项说的，商讨是有好处的。
第五题，说评估倾向聚焦于员工和他们直属经理们之间面对面关系的性质。这个选项可能会弄的人一头雾水，首先得弄明白这里的面对面关系指的是什么。员工和直属经理的关系，就是上下级的关系，过分看重这个关系，那么在评估过程中就会有顾虑，谁还敢揭自己上司的短?所以这个句子的意思是说评估过程中有顾忌，无人敢说真话。答案是D段的这么一句：Thus the appraisal experience becomes a question of pleasing the boss。评估过程成了讨好自己的老板，说的就是这个意思。
第六题，说员工对他们所作负责的想法听起来很合理。答案是B段的第一句：The notion behind performance appraisal- that workers should be held accountable for their performance-is plausible。这里的accountable就是负有责任。Plausible是貌似真实的，也就是seems reasonable。
第七题，说虽然有专家们的主张，管理层的结构阻止了真正的反馈。答案是A段的这么一句：the simple fact of the matter is that the nature of hierarchy distorts the concept of feedback。管理层的机构，就是这句里提到的the nature of hierarchy，等级制的性质。这个单词在BEC阅读里常出现。distort，扭曲，就是选项里的prevent。
第八题，说在评估过程中投入了更多的努力。答案是A段的这么一句，有点隐晦：Now the practice is even more frequent. This of course makes it all the more important how appraisal is conducted.这个句子是紧跟上文的，the practice指的就是appraisal。评估的更频繁，评估是怎么进行的显得更加重要。认为更加重要了(makes it all the more important)，就会投入更多努力了。综合起来，这些的意思就是评估过程投入了更多的努力。不太容易看出来。