1.Consider what we know intuitively about an integrator. If you apply a DC signal at the input (i.e. , zero frequency), the output will describe a linear ramp that grows in amplitude until limited by the power supplies. Ignoring that limitation, the response of an integrator at zero frequency is infinite, which means that it has a pole at zero frequency. (A pole exists at any frequency for which the transfer function’s value becomes infinite.)
1.我们怎么从直观上理解积分器呢？假设在输入端加上一个直流信号（频率为0），那么在输出端将会出现一个线性斜坡信号,其幅度一直增至电源电压。如果不考虑电源电压对输出信号的限制，积分器在零频率上的响应将是无穷大，这意味着它在零频率点上存在一个极点（在任何使传递函数为无穷大值的频率点上都存在一个极点）。

2.While the complex frequency’s imaginary part helps describe a response to AC signals, the real part helps describe a circuit’s transient response.
2.复频率的虚部有助于描述电路对交流信号的响应，而其实部有助于描述电路的瞬态响应。

3.The low-pass filter’s transient response is more stable, because its pole is in the negative-real half of the complex plane.
3.低通滤波器的瞬态响应更加稳定，因为其极点位于复平面的左半部。

4.Clock Driver Skew (Intrinsic Skew) is the amount of skew caused by the clock driver itself. There are two kinds of clock driver devices; buffer devices and PLL-based devices. Skew occurs on the output of the buffer devices because of the differences in propagation delay of the input signal through the device.
4.时钟驱动器偏移（固有偏移）是由时钟驱动器自己引起的偏移。有两种类型的时钟驱动设备，缓存器件和基于锁相环的器件。偏移发生在缓冲器件的输出端，因为输入信号通过器件时，其传播延迟有差异。

5.The capacitance is directly proportional to the dielectric constant of the material and to the area of the plates and inversely to the distance of the plates.
5.电容器的电容量与介质的介电常数及平板的面积成正比，与平板间的距离成反比。