1.Consider what we know intuitively about an integrator. If you apply a DC signal at the input (i.e. , zero frequency), the output will describe a linear ramp that grows in amplitude until limited by the power supplies. Ignoring that limitation, the response of an integrator at zero frequency is infinite, which means that it has a pole at zero frequency. (A pole exists at any frequency for which the transfer function’s value becomes infinite.)

2.While the complex frequency’s imaginary part helps describe a response to AC signals, the real part helps describe a circuit’s transient response.

3.The low-pass filter’s transient response is more stable, because its pole is in the negative-real half of the complex plane.

4.Clock Driver Skew (Intrinsic Skew) is the amount of skew caused by the clock driver itself. There are two kinds of clock driver devices; buffer devices and PLL-based devices. Skew occurs on the output of the buffer devices because of the differences in propagation delay of the input signal through the device.

5.The capacitance is directly proportional to the dielectric constant of the material and to the area of the plates and inversely to the distance of the plates.