1.The buck converter is capable of kilowatts of output power, but suffers from one serious shortcoming which would occur if the power switch were to fail short-circuited, the input power source is connected directly to the load circuitry with usually produces catastrophic results. To avoid this situation, a crowbar is placed across the output. A crowbar is a latching SCR which is fired when the output is sensed as entering an over voltage condition. The buck converter should only be used for board-level regulation.

2.Interconnect effects can play a significant part in the timing and noise characteristics of a circuit.

of the major interconnect challenges is to ensure signal integrity as the high-speed pulses move along the total interconnect path, from device to PCB, through the PCB to the back plane, and on out to any network connections which may be present.

4.This is Ohm’s law and can be expressed as the formula:I=U/R . The resistor is generally a linear device and its characteristic forms a straight line when plotted on a graph.

5.One Ohm is defined as that amount of resistance that will limit the current in a conductor to one ampere when the voltage applied to the conductor is one volt.