第一百零一条 诉讼参与人和其他人应当遵守法庭规则。


Article 101 Participants and other persons in the court proceedings shall abide by the court rules.




"If a person violates the court rules, the people's court may reprimand him, or order him to leave the courtroom, or impose a fine on or detain him."




"A person who seriously disrupts court order by making an uproar in the court or rushing at it, or insulting, slandering, threatening, or assaulting the judicial officers, shall be investigated for criminal responsibility by the people's court according to the law; if the offence is a minor one, the offender may be detained or a fine imposed on him."


第一百零二条 诉讼参与人或者其他人有下列行为之一的,人民法院可以根据情节轻重予以罚款、拘留;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任:


"Article 102 If a participant or any other person in the proceedings commits any one of the following acts, the people's court shall, according to the seriousness of the act, impose a fine on him or detain him; if the act constitutes a crime, the offender shall be investigated for criminal responsibility according to law."




"(1) forging or destroying important evidence, which would obstruct the trial of a case by the people's court; "




"(2) using violence, threats or subordination to prevent a witness from giving testimony, or instigating, suborning, or coercing others to commit perjury; "




"(3) concealing, transferring, selling or destroying property that has been sealed up or distrained, or property of which an inventory has been made and which has been put under his care according to court instruction, or transferring the property that has been frozen; "




"(4) insulting, slandering, incriminating with false charges, assaulting or maliciously retaliating against judicial officers or personnel, participants in the proceedings, witnesses, interpreters, evaluation experts, inspectors, or personnel assisting in execution; "




"(5) using violence, threats or other means to hinder judicial officers or personnel from performing their duties; "




or (6) refusing to carry out legally effective judgments or orders of the people's court.




"With respect to a unit that commits any one of the acts specified above, the people's court may impose a fine on or detain its principal heads or the persons who are held actually responsible for the act; if the act constitutes a crime, investigations for criminal responsibility shall be made according to the law."


第一百零三条 有义务协助调查、执行的单位有下列行为之一的,人民法院除责令其履行协助义务外,并可以予以罚款:


"Article 103 Where a unit which is under an obligation to assist in investigation and execution commits any one of the following acts, the people's court may, apart from enjoining it to perform its obligation, also impose a fine:"




 (1) refusing or obstructing the investigation and collection of evidence by the people's court;




" (2) refusing by banks, credit cooperatives or other units dealing with savings deposit, after receiving a notice for assistance in execution from the people's court, to assist in inquiring into, freezing or transferring the relevant deposit."




"(3) refusing by the unit concerned, after receiving a notice for assistance in execution from the people's court, to assist in withholding the income of the party subject to execution, in going through the formalities of transferring the relevant certificates of property rights or in transferring the relevant negotiable instruments, certificates, or other property; "




or (4) refusing to provide other obligatory assistance in the execution.




"With respect to a unit that commits any one of the acts specified above, the people's court may impose a fine on its principal heads or the persons who are held actually responsible for the act. "




The people's court may also put forward a judicial proposal to the supervisory organ or any relevant organ for the imposition of disciplinary sanctions.


第一百零四条 对个人的罚款金额,为人民币一千元以下。


"Article 104 A fine on an individual shall not exceed Renminbi 1,000 yuan. "




"A fine on a unit shall not be less than Renminbi 1,000 yuan and shall not exceed Renminbi 30,000 yuan."




The period of detention shall not be longer than 15 days.




"The people's court shall deliver detained persons to a public security organ for custody. The people's court may decide to advance the time of release, if the detainee admits and mends his wrongdoings."


第一百零五条 拘传、罚款、拘留必须经院长批准。


"Article 105 Constrained appearance in court, imposition of a fine or detention shall be subject to the approval of the president of the people's court."




A peremptory writ shall be issued for constraining appearance in court.




 A decision in writing shall be made for the imposition of a fine or detention.




"The offender, if dissatisfied with the decision, may apply to a people's court at a higher level for reconsideration which could be granted only once. "




The execution of the decision shall not be suspended during the time of reconsideration.


第一百零六条 采取对妨害民事诉讼的强制措施必须由人民法院决定。


Article 106 Decision on the adoption of compulsory measures against obstruction of proceedings shall be made only by the people's court.




"Any unit or individual that extorts repayment of a debt by illegal detention of a person or illegal distrainment of property shall be investigated for criminal responsibility according to the law, or shall be punished with detention or a fine."


第十一章 诉讼费用


Chapter XI Litigation Costs


第一百零七条 当事人进行民事诉讼,应当按照规定交纳案件受理费。


Article 107 Any party filing a civil lawsuit shall pay court costs according to the rules. 




"For property cases, the party shall pay other fees in addition to the court costs."




"Any party that has genuine difficulty in paying litigation costs may, according to the relevant rules, apply to the people's court for deferment or reduction of the payment or for its exemption."




Particulars for payment of litigation costs shall be laid down separately.


第二编 审判程序 第十二章 第一审普通程序 第一节 起诉和受理


PART TWO TRIAL PROCEDURE Chapter XII Ordinary Procedure of First Instance Section 1 Bringing a Lawsuit and Entertaining a Case


第一百零八条 起诉必须符合下列条件:


Article 108 The following conditions must be met when a lawsuit is brought:




"(1) the plaintiff must be a citizen, legal person or any other organization that has a direct interest in the case; "




(2) there must be a definite defendant;




"(3) there must be specific claim or claims, facts, and cause or causes for the suit;"




 and (4) the suit must be within the scope of acceptance for civil actions by the people's court and under the jurisdiction of the people's court where the suit is entertained.


第一百零九条 起诉应当向人民法院递交起诉状,并按照被告人数提出副本。


"Article 109 When a lawsuit is brought, a statement of complaint shall be submitted to the people's court, and copies of the statement shall be provided according to the number of defendants."




"If the plaintiff has genuine difficulty in presenting the statement of complaint in writing, he may state his complaint orally; the people's court shall transcribe the complaint and inform the other party of it accordingly."


第一百一十条 起诉状应当记明下列事项:


Article 110 A statement of complaint shall clearly set forth the following:




"(1) the name, sex, age, ethnic status, occupation, work unit and home address of the parties to the case; if the parties are legal persons or any other organizations, their names, addresses and the names and posts of the legal representatives or the principal heads."




"(2) the claim or claims of the suit, the facts and grounds on which the suit is based; "




"and (3) the evidence and its source, as well as the names and home addresses of the witnesses."


第一百一十一条 人民法院对符合本法第一百零八条的起诉,必须受理;对下列起诉,分别情形,予以处理:


"Article 111 The people's court must entertain the lawsuits filed in conformity with the provisions of Article 108 of this Law. With respect to lawsuits described below, the people's court shall deal with them in the light of their specific circumstances: "




"(1) for a lawsuit within the scope of administrative actions in accordance with the provisions of the Administrative Procedure Law, the people's court shall advise the plaintiff to institute administrative proceedings; "




"(2) if, according to the law, both parties have on a voluntary basis reached a written agreement to submit their contract dispute to an arbitral organ for arbitration, they may not institute legal proceedings in a people's court. The people's court shall advise the plaintiff to apply to the arbitral organ for arbitration; "




"(3) in case of disputes which, according to the law, shall be dealt with by other organs, the people's court shall advise the plaintiff to apply to the relevant organ for settlement;"




" (4) with respect to cases that are not under its jurisdiction, the people's court shall advise the plaintiff to bring a lawsuit in the competent people's court; "




"(5) with respect to cases in which a judgment or order has already taken legal effect, but either party brings a suit again, the people's court shall advise that party to file an appeal instead, except when the order of the people's court is one that permits the withdrawal of a suit; "




"(6) with respect to an action that may not be filed within a specified period according to the law, it shall not be entertained, if it is filed during that period."




"(7) in a divorce case in which a judgment has been made disallowing the divorce, or in which both parties have become reconciled after conciliation, or in a case concerning adoptive relationship in which a judgment has been made or conciliation has been successfully conducted to maintain the adoptive relation-ship, if the plaintiff files a suit again within six months in the absence of any new developments or new reasons, it shall not be entertained."


第一百一十二条 人民法院收到起诉状或者口头起诉,经审查,认为符合起诉条件的,应当在七日内立案,并通知当事人;


"Article 112 When a people's court receives a statement of complaint or an oral complaint and finds after examination that it meets the requirements for acceptance, the court shall place the case on the docket within seven days and notify the parties concerned; "




if it does not meet the requirements for acceptance the court shall make an order within seven days to reject it.




"The plaintiff, if not satisfied with the order, may file an appeal."


第二节 审理前的准备


Section 2 Preparations for Trial


第一百一十三条 人民法院应当在立案之日起五日内将起诉状副本发送被告,被告在收到之日起十五日内提出答辩状。


"Article 113 The people's court shall send a copy of the statement of complaint to the defendant within five days after docketing the case, and the defendant shall file a defence within 15 days from receipt of the copy of the statement of complaint. "




"When the defendant files a defence, the people's court shall send a copy of it to the plaintiff within five days from its receipt. "




Failure by the defendant to file a defence shall not prevent the case from being tried by the people's court.


第一百一十四条 人民法院对决定受理的案件,应当在受理案件通知书和应诉通知书中向当事人告知有关的诉讼权利义务,或者口头告知。


"Article 114 The people's court shall, with respect to cases whose acceptance has been decided, inform the parties in the notification of acceptance and in the notification calling for responses to the action of their relevant litigation rights and obligations of which the parties may likewise be informed orally."


第一百一十五条 合议庭组成人员确定后,应当在三内日告知当事人。


Article 115 The parties shall be notified within three days after the members of the collegial panel are determined.


第一百一十六条 审判人员必须认真审核诉讼材料,调查收集必要的证据。


Article 116 The judicial officers must carefully examine and verify the case materials and carry out investigations and collection of necessary evidence.


第一百一十七条 人民法院派出人员进行调查时,应当向被调查人出示证件。


Article 117 The personnel sent by a people's court to conduct investigations shall produce their credentials before the person to be investigated.




The written record of an investigation shall be checked by the person investigated and then signed or sealed by both the investigator and the investigated.


第一百一十八条 人民法院在必要时可以委托外地人民法院调查。


"Article 118 A people's court may, when necessary, entrust a people's court in another locality with the investigations."




The entrusting people's court shall clearly set out the matters for and requirements of the entrusted investigations.




The entrusted people's court may on its own initiative conduct supplementary investigations.




The entrusted people's court shall complete the investigations within 30 days after receiving the commission in writing.




"If for some reason it cannot complete the investigations, the said people's court shall notify the entrusting people's court in writing within the above-mentioned time limit."


第一百一十九条 必须共同进行诉讼的当事人没有参加诉讼的,人民法院应当通知其参加诉讼。


"Article 119 If a party who must participate in a joint action fails to participate in the proceedings, the people's court shall notify him to participate."


第三节 开庭审理


Section 3 Trial in Court


第一百二十条 人民法院审理民事案件,除涉及国家秘密、个人隐私或者法律另有规定的以外,应当公开进行。


"Article 120 Civil cases shall be tried in public, except for those that involve State secrets or personal privacy or are to be tried otherwise as provided by the law."




A divorce case or a case involving trade secrets may not be heard in public if a party so requests.