第二十一条 国家发展医疗卫生事业,发展现代医药和我国传统医药,鼓励和支持农村集体经济组织、国家企业事业组织和街道组织举办各种医疗卫生设施,开展群众性的卫生活动,保护人民健康。


Article 21 The state develops medical and health services, promotes modern medicine and traditional Chinese medicine, encourages and supports the setting up of various medical and health facilities by the rural economic collectives, state enterprises and institutions and neighbourhood organizations, and promotes health and sanitation activities of a mass character, all for the protection of the people's health.




The state develops physical culture and promotes mass sports activities to improve the people's physical fitness.


第二十二条 国家发展为人民服务、为社会主义服务的文学艺术事业、新闻广播电视事业、出版发行事业、图书馆博物馆文化馆和其他文化事业,开展群众性的文化活动。


Article 22 The state promotes the development of art and literature, the press, radio and television broadcasting, publishing and distribution services, libraries, museums, cultural centres and other cultural undertakings that serve the people and socialism, and it sponsors mass cultural activities.




The state protects sites of scenic and historical interest, valuable cultural monuments and relics and other significant items of China's historical and cultural heritage.


第二十三条 国家培养为社会主义服务的各种专业人才,扩大知识分子的队伍,创造条件,充分发挥他们在社会主义现代化建设中的作用。


Article 23 The state trains specialized personnel in all fields who serve socialism, expands the ranks of intellectuals and creates conditions to give full scope to their role in socialist modernization.


第二十四条 国家通过普及理想教育、道德教育、文化教育、纪律和法制教育,通过在城乡不同范围的群众中制定和执行各种守则、公约,加强社会主义精神文明的建设。


Article 24 The state strengthens the building of a socialist society with an advanced culture and ideology by promoting education in high ideals, ethics, general knowledge, discipline and legality, and by promoting the formulation and observance of rules of conduct and common pledges by various sections of the people in urban and rural areas. 




The state advocates the civic virtues of love of the motherland, of the people, of labour, of science and of socialism. It conducts education among the people in patriotism and collectivism, in internationalism and communism and in dialectical and historical materialism, to combat capitalist, feudal and other decadent ideas.


第二十五条 国家推行计划生育,使人口的增长同经济和社会发展计划相适应。


Article 25 The state promotes family planning so that population growth may fit the plans for economic and social development.


第二十六条 国家保护和改善生活环境和生态环境,防治污染和其他公害。


Article 26 The state protects and improves the environment in which people live and the ecological environment. It prevents and controls pollution and other public hazards. 




The state organizes and encourages afforestation and the protection of forests.


第二十七条 一切国家机关实行精简的原则,实行工作责任制,实行工作人员的培训和考核制度,不断提高工作质量和工作效率,反对官僚主义。


Article 27 All state organs carry out the principle of simple and efficient administration, the system of responsibility for work and the system of training functionaries and appraising their performance in order constantly to improve the quality of work and efficiency and combat bureaucratism.




All state organs and functionaries must rely on the support of the people, keep in close touch with them, heed their opinions and suggestions, accept their supervision and do their best to serve them.


第二十八条 国家维护社会秩序,镇压叛国和其他反革命的活动,制裁危害社会治安、破坏社会主义经济和其他犯罪的活动,惩办和改造犯罪分子。


Article 28 The state maintains public order and suppresses treasonable and other counter-revolutionary activities; it penalizes criminal activities that endanger public security and disrupt the socialist economy as well as other criminal activities; and it punishes and reforms criminals.


第二十九条 中华人民共和国的武装力量属于人民。


Article 29 The armed forces of the People's Republic of China belong to the people.




Their tasks are to strengthen national defence, resist aggression, defend the motherland, safeguard the people's peaceful labour, participate in national reconstruction and do their best to serve the people.




The state strengthens the revolutionization, modernization and regularization of the armed forces in order to increase national defence capability.


第三十条 中华人民共和国的行政区域划分如下:


Article 30 The administrative division of the People's Republic of China is as follows: 




(1) The country is divided into provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government;




 (2) Provinces and autonomous regions are divided into autonomous prefectures, counties, autonomous counties, and cities; 




(3) Counties and autonomous counties are divided into townships, nationality townships, and towns.




Municipalities directly under the Central Government and other large cities are divided into districts and counties. Autonomous prefectures are divided into counties, autonomous counties, and cities.




All autonomous regions, autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties are national autonomous areas.


第三十一条 国家在必要时得设立特别行政区。在特别行政区内实行的制度按照具体情况由全国人民代表大会以法律规定。


Article 31 The state may establish special administrative regions when necessary. The systems to be instituted in special administrative regions shall be prescribed by law enacted by the National People's Congress in the light of specific conditions.


第三十二条 中华人民共和国保护在中国境内的外国人的合法权利和利益,在中国境内的外国人必须遵守中华人民共和国的法律。


Article 32 The People's Republic of China protects the lawful rights and interests of foreigners within Chinese territory; foreigners on Chinese territory must abide by the laws of the People's Republic of China.




The People's Republic of China may grant asylum to foreigners who request it for political reasons.


第二章 公民的基本权利和义务


Chapter II The Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizens


第三十三条 凡具有中华人民共和国国籍的人都是中华人民共和国公民。


Article 33 All persons holding the nationality of the People's Republic of China are citizens of the People's Republic of China.




All citizens of the People's Republic of China are equal before the law.




Every citizen is entitled to the rights and at the same time must perform the duties prescribed by the Constitution and the law.


第三十四条 中华人民共和国年满十八周岁的公民,不分民族、种族、性别、职业、家庭出身、宗教信仰、教育程度、财产状况、居住期限,都有选举权和被选举权;但是依照法律被剥夺政治权利的人除外。


Article 34 All citizens of the People's Republic of China who have reached the age of 18 have the right to vote and stand for election, regardless of ethnic status, race, sex, occupation, family background, religious belief, education, property status or length of residence, except persons deprived of political rights according to law.


第三十五条 中华人民共和国公民有言论、出版、集会、结社、游行、示威的自由。


Article 35 Citizens of the People's Republic of China enjoy freedom of speech, of the press, of assembly, of association, of procession and of demonstration.


第三十六条 中华人民共和国公民有宗教信仰自由。


Article 36 Citizens of the People's Republic of China enjoy freedom of religious belief.




 No state organ, public organization or individual may compel citizens to believe in, or not to believe in, any religion; nor may they discriminate against citizens who believe in, or do not believe in, any religion.




The state protects normal religious activities. No one may make use of religion to engage in activities that disrupt public order, impair the health of citizens or interfere with the educational system of the state.




Religious bodies and religious affairs are not subject to any foreign domination.


第三十七条 中华人民共和国公民的人身自由不受侵犯。


Article 37 Freedom of the person of citizens of the People's Republic of China is inviolable.




 No citizen may be arrested except with the approval or by decision of a people's procuratorate or by decision of a people's court, and arrests must be made by a public security organ.




Unlawful detention or deprivation or restriction of citizens freedom of the person by other means is prohibited, and unlawful search of the person of citizens is prohibited.


第三十八条 中华人民共和国公民的人格尊严不受侵犯。禁止用任何方法对公民进行侮辱、诽谤和诬告陷害。


Article 38 The personal dignity of citizens of the People's Republic of China is inviolable. Insult, libel, false accusation or false incrimination directed against citizens by any means is prohibited.


第三十九条 中华人民共和国公民的住宅不受侵犯。禁止非法搜查或者非法侵入公民的住宅。


Article 39 The residences of citizens of the People's Republic of China are inviolable. Unlawful search of, or intrusion into, a citizen's residence is prohibited.


第四十条 中华人民共和国公民的通信自由和通信秘密受法律的保护。除因国家安全或者追查刑事犯罪的需要,由公安机关或者检察机关依照法律规定的程序对通信进行检查外,任何组织或者个人不得以任何理由侵犯公民的通信自由和通信秘密。


Article 40 Freedom and privacy of correspondence of citizens of the People's Republic of China are protected by law. No organization or individual may, on any ground, infringe upon citizens freedom and privacy of correspondence, except in cases where, to meet the needs of state security or of criminal investigation, public security or procuratorial organs are permitted to censor correspondence in accordance with procedures prescribed by law.