此独立形式只是一个小短语,而不是主谓完整的简单句,又称之为独立分词构句。当分词意义上的主语不是主句的主语时,必须在分词前保留意义上的主语,否则语意不通。示例:
Being ill in bed, I can't go to school.
Mother being ill in bed, I can't go to school.

1. 独立主结构形式可用以表时间,理由,条件,伴随状态等。

He lay on the grass, the sun shining upon him.
= He lay on the grass, and the sun was shining upon him.

Weather permitting, I'll start tomorrow.
= If weather permits, I'll start tomorrow.

School being over, the boys went home.
= When school was over, the boys went home.

The sun having set, we arrived at the station.
= After the sun had set, we arrived at the station.

王牌重点:当独立主格结构的主语表示“一般人”,如:we, one, you时,主语可省略,此用法常用于下列表达方式中:
generally speaking 一般来说
strictly speaking 严格地说
talking of ... 谈到
speaking of ... 说到
judging from ... 由……来判断
taking all things into consideration 把一切都考虑在内
considering ... 考虑到……

[示例]
If we judge from his face, he must be ill.
= Judging from his face, he must be ill.

He has lots of books if we consider that he is young.
= He has lots of books, considering that he is young.

2.with 复合结构也是独立主格结构形式之一。这种结构在句中作状语(表示原因,方式,伴随等)和定语,作定语时紧随被修饰名词后。

(1) with+ 名词 + 介词短语
The woman with a baby on her back is my sister.
The boy rushed into the room, with his schoolbag in his hand.

(2) with + 名词 + adj.
with the door open, he left the classroom.

(3) with + 名词 + adv.
With the gloves off, she felt cold.
With the lights on, the building looks beautiful.

(4) with + 名词 + 现在分词(主动)
     with + 名词 + 过去分词(被动)
With the guide leading us, we got to the village.
The boy was crying with the vase broken.

(5) with + 名词 + 不定式
With the hard work to be done, we have to prepare for it.